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Workcsof GOD. 

"I* Firft, in General], out of the words of the f||t 
£ PfalmiSl, Pfal.iiy6* jj 

Secondly, in Particularofthe Creation, out of ^f^" 

the words of Moses, Genesis, Chap, i .4l*df 2 . 2r >>* 

Thirdly, of Gods a&uall Providence. 

C3 ?>y (jcorae Walktr B. of Divinity, and Paftour of S*.Jobn 
Evangdifis Church in London. 

Rom. 1.20. 
Fortheinvifible things of him from the Creation ofthes "^f eff 
world are clearly feen^\ being under flood by the things *"jjj 
"^o£ that are made y even his et email Tower and God- heady "^"ST 
^ScT (0 that they are without excufc. *4!T 

j$-3& London,Printed by q.M.tovJohn B-rtlet at the fignc of the gilt ^j*£ 
wri Cup,neareS. //*/?*»*« gate in Tau/s Church-yard, 1641. I&^L, 

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in 2013 

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friends Sir Thomas 'Barrington, Sir 
Gilbert Gerard % Sir William Ma ffam 7 and 

Sir Martin Lurnky, Knights and Baronets, 

now honourable Knights of the houfe of Com- 
mons in the high Qourt of P arlUwent^Cjr^ce 

and peace wuu jiicreaie oi nil blciiui^s 
tcmporall and eternal. 

Right \Vorfn;pfn!l, 

Hat mdefcrved fay our and re* 
fee ft which lhave found at your 

bands 3 andtbeduerefbeft which 
1 owe to your religious fa milies* 
do oblige me to fliew form tefii- 
^<^£i mny cfmytbankfulnes , And be* 
caufe I baye no better jtejm at thistim> but this 
Treat ife of Gods external! Workes^compojed out of Ser- 
mons heretofore preached to mine own lit tie flock, and 
in the trouble feme time of my late bonds brcugix into 
this forme J mufi crave pardon for wybeddncfjeinprt- 
fimifig to offer ti to your bands feeing per fw$ of higher 

The Epiftle Dedicatory, 

place have defamid \ and branded thefe and the reft of 
my Sermons preached for divers yeareslaflpaft^ with 
the reproachful! name offattioits and [editions do3- 
rines^andby their grievous accufations have caufed 
me tobeflmt up as the great ttoubkr of the City whertn 
Hive, and kept in fure hold leafl this my manner of 
preaching might proove danger om^anda caufe of much 
hurt) and many trouble sin the fe changeable and doubt- 
fuH times 9 From thefe andfuch crimes and unjuSl ac- 
cufations as I have in part purged and cleared my J elf e 
already m a legaU way-fo by your help and favour I hope 
ere long to be openly acquitted and juftified before the 
world. Ifyou/baB bepleafed to caft a favour able eye up- 
on tbeje my poore labour es^iff to take a view of them. I 
doubt not but theprecioits matter beingGodspureword y 
Will abundantly recompence the failing of the com- 
pofer> and the defeSls of his shO and workman/hip^ 
Wherfore humbly cravingyour kind acceptance oft his 
fmaUtoken of love/mdflender acknowledgement of du- 
ty andfervicey and def ring to become more indebted to 
you, by your favourable refteft /hewed thereunto 5 / 
commend your worthy per fons and religious families to 
the grace and blefiing of the Almighty who fein<vifibk 
iMjeftyfven his di<vine power and God-head is clear- 
ly feenefrom the Creation of the world(wbich is in this 
Treatife plainly defcribed) and under flood by the things 

treated Youts in A\ Cli ritthn duty and fervicc 


Tiie externall Works 

of GOD in general!. 

Psalm. 135. 6. 

IVbatfoeyer the Lordpleafed that did he in He ay en 
and in Earth>intbefea and aUdecpe places* 

%s ^&±D <&£< T^gH E externall outward workes of God 
which follow in the next place after 
his internall workes, are indeed nothing 
but his aduall execution of his eternall 
counfell, purpofe and decree. For the 
unfolding of which workes in generall, 
and laying open of the nature, ufeand 
ieverall kindes of them, I have made 
choife of this Text. From the wordes and circumftances 
whereof, we may eafily gather all points of inftru&ion necei- 
fary to be knowne concerning the generall nature, ufe and 
kindes of them. 


Of the External! iVorkes of God* 

Firft, here the words of the Pfalmift fhew that he fpeakes of 
Gods outward workes, becaufe he limits them to places and 
times,to Heaven, Earth,Sea and all deep places. 

Secondly, he fpeakes, of them all in generall none excepted, 
fo.the Hebrew word ( 73 ) which (ignines ail in generall what- 
foever,doth plainly fhew,and alfothe perfect enumeration of all 
places which are in the world, and wherin any outward fenfible 
and vilible work can be done, to wit: the Heaven, the Earth, the 
Seas and all deepe places. 

Thirdly, he (heweth that God is the author of thefe works,a$ 
he is Jehovah, that one eternall God in whom there are. three 
perfons,Tather,Son and HolyGho[t,for he faith TX&$ HWfeho- 
vak the Lord doth or hath done. 

Fourthly, he {heweth that the Lord doth all thefe workes 
of himfelfe according to his owne will and pleafure, and 
none of them all by compulfion, unwittingly and unwil- 
lingly, but even as hee pleafed , and after the counfeil of his 
will and pleafure fSn "HPtf 7D whatfoever the Lord plea- 
fed. " T """ 

Fifthly, he intimates that all thefe workes of God come 
neceffarily, infallibly, inevitably and irrefiftably to pafle, and 
that none of them all can fails which God hath beene pleafed 
to doe, but fo come to paffe as he pleafeth in every refpeft, 
even in the fame time and place. This hee intimates in 
that he faith every thing whatfoever the Lord pleafed, he 
hath done. 

Sixtly, heflieweth that thefe outward workes tend to make 
God knowne, and are of ufe to bring us to the knowledge of 
the true God, and in and by them God is knowne aright and his 
greatneffe alfo. This is manifeft by the dependance of this ver. 
on the former. For having faid, I know that the Lord is great 
and that our Lord is above ail %ods, he brings in this text as an 
argument and proofe faying, Whatfoever the Lord pleafed 'that he 
hath done, which is in effeft ail one as if he had faid, I know this 
by his doing of all his outward works, for whatfoever the Lord 
pleafed that he Iwh don?. 

Seventhly and laftly, lie fhewes the feverall kin is of Gods out- 
ward workes that they are not only creation but alfo acfcuall 


Of the Ext email IV or kes of God. 

providence which concludes in it the government of the world, 
the fall ofman,and the reftauration of man-kind by the redemp- 
tion of the world. 

Workes of creation he exprefleth, verfrj. and workes of his 
actuall providence, as ordering, governing and faving of his 
people by Cbnft, which was figfl fied in the deliverance from 
<5fv/?f, he reckons up in the reifc of- the Pfalme both before and 
after illy text, So then it is manifeft that this text confideied 
with the circumllances thereof, ierves abundantly for the ope- 
ning of the nature, ufe and kind of Cods outward works. 

Jn the unfolding whereof, I it ft let us note the order, co- 
herence and fcope of it. Secondly, let us take a view of the 
wordes andfift out the true fence of them. Thirdly let us ob- 
serve out of them by way of doctrine, a perfect defcription of 
Gods outward workes in generall, and laftly apply fbrfomeufe 
the doctrine to our Lives. 

The order and coherence is this, Firft the Prophet in the 
g.fiift verfes, exhorts all to praife the Lord and to laud his 
name, more fpecially the Lords fervants who are continual! 
jrofefTors in his Church. Secondly in the 3, 4, 5. verfes he 
gives lome reafons drawne from the Attributes of Cod and the 
consideration of his nature, to wit, becaufe the Lord is good 
and his nameple.fant, and becaufe of his owne free grace he 
hath chofen Ifrael, that is y his elect and ftith full Church to be 
his owne peculiar people, and becaufe the Lord is great and 
is a god above all gods. In teftifying and affirming the Lords 
goodncfle and being above all gods, he brings for proofe his 
owne knowledge and experience. I know (faith he) that 
the Lord is great, verfa. Thirdly he doth proove God to be 
fuchaone, even fo good, gracious and great by his outward 
workes, and fhewcth that by them he knowesCodto befb, 
for he faith here in this text, What fo ever the Lord plcafed that he 
hath done, in Heaven and in earth , in the Sea and all deepe 
places. So that it is plaine by the order, dependance and fcope 
of the text, That here "David extolls Gods outward workes in 
generally things proceeding from his ow r nc good pleafure, and 
ferving to proove him to be good and gracious, and to make us 
know him fo great and glorious a God as he is. 

A In 

Of the External Workes of God. 

In the fecond place, for the wordes themf elves, they are 
plaine and eafie to be underftood at the firft hearing without 
any laborious interpretation. They run thus in the Hebrew, 
*s4!l which the Lordpleafethhe hath done, in Heaven, Earth, Sea 
and all deepe places. This word (all) fhevves that hefpeakes 
not of fbine particular workes, but of all in that kind. The 
word Jehovah is the proper name of God confidered in the 
unity of his efTence with all his effrntiall Attributes, and every 
one of the $.Perfbns is called by this name, as they are of the 
fame eifence and all one God. The enumeration of all the 
notable places in the world wherein theie workes are done 
difcovers the workes which he here fpeakes oft* to be out- 
ward workes which doe not abide in Gods cffence and there 
onely fubfift zs his eternall counfell, decrees and inward 
operations do, but are done in time and place and have their 
fubliftance in and among the creatures, fuch as are creating, 
ruling, ordering, upholding of all things, and alfo redeeming 
and reftoring of all man-kinde. The word [jleafcth~] limits 
the generall note or particle (all) unto all workes which in 
themfelves are good, or elic ferve for good ufe, and fo are 
pleafing to the Lord for the ufe fake. Hee doth not fay that 
the Lord doth all things which are done, but all things which 
he pleafeth, that is, he doth not make men finnefull and 
wicked, neither doth he worke rebellion in men, which is 
difpleafing unto him, but he doth whatfoever is pleafing, that 
is, all things which are agreeable to his nature. And what- 
foever is according to his will and good pleafure, that he doth, 
none can hinder it. This is the true fenfe and meaning of 
the wordes. Now from the text thus opened and the 
circumftances obferved, wee irny gather a perfect de- 
fcription of them in generall (hewing the nature and ufe of 

The defeription of Gods outward Workes. 

The outward workes of God in generall, are all things what- 
foever the Lord God Jehovah, that one infinite and eternall 
God, 3.Peifons, Father, Son and HolyGhoft doth according 
to his eternall purpofe, and after the counfell and good pleafure 


Of the External! Workes of God. 

of his will, work, and bring to pa (Te, not within, but with- 
out bimfclfe in all the world and upon all creatures there- 
in, and that cettainely and irrefiftably in due time and 
place to the communicating and making of himfelf known 
to men and Angels in his infinite and eternall nature and 
in his goodnefle, grace, glory, power and all other elTen- 
tiall propertic. c , f or thefalvation and eternall bleflednes of his e- 
lccl in Chrift. 

This defcription truely gathered from this Text , and 
the fcope and order cf it and discovering plainely the na- 
ture and ufe cf Cods outwaid workes in generalj, I will 
proove in every part and branch orderly and will conclude with 
fome application. 

The rirft thing in it is the generall matter of Gods ex- 
ternall workes, they are things done - that is y not onely act- 
ions working and operations, fieri as Creation, Redempti- 
on and the like; bu: alfo things or wcrks made, cff.fted 
and done by thofe actions, as Heaven, Earth, Angels and 
other things created. For all thefe are things done and 
wrought by Cod. This Branch is plainly exprefTed in this 
word of my Text, HgfJ (hath done) or doth or hath made, 
for the Hebrew word fignifies all thefe. And that Gods 
outward works confift in doing and are things not fpoken 
or promifed but done and wrought, Divers teftimonies of 
Scripture doe lhcw, V(al. 44. 1. David cals them workes 
which he hah done: And Ifa. 28. 21. The Trophet faith, 
tl at the Lord do ti j his work?, his fir ange vcorkc. And not to 
Hand in repeating many Scriptures in a point fo plaine ; 
This in one word is furricient that the two Hebrew words, 
!W5;? & <%i which are ufed in the Scriptures to fig- 
nifie Gods outward works are bo:h derived of verbs which fig- 
nifie doing. 

Thefecond branch in this defcription comprehends in it 
the Authour of thefe works, to wit, the Lord C cd fehovah, 
that one infinite, eternall God and three Perfons, Father, 
Sonne and Holy Ghoft : This Branch doth diftingujfti 
thefe workes. Firft, from the workes of creatures which 
are proper to them. Secondly, from the perfonall operati- 

A 2 ens 

Of the External! Workes of God. 

oris of God as the eternall begetting of the Sonne which 
is proper to the Father and is his worke onely. That God 
conlidered in the unity of his eflencc as he comprehends all 
the three Perfons, is the Authour of thefe workes, and 
that they are common to the Father, Son and Holy Ghoft 
and every one of them hath an hand in every work of this 
kind ; though one more immediately than another : The 
word Jehovah here ufed in the Text doth plainly mew, where 
it is fiid, Whatfoever Jehovah pleafed or was willing to do 
that he hath done; which word is fo proper to God, and 
(ignirles One God, that it alfo agrees to every perfon in that 
one God. And this is alfo confirmed by divers other tefti- 
monies of Gods word, which fhew that in divers of thefe 
outward actions or workes, the Father workes by the 
Sonne and the Sonne by the Father with and by the Spirit. 
7 he hYft great work of this kind, even the work of Crea- 
tion, which fometimes is attributed to the Father as more 
peculiar to him, becaufe terminatur in c ?atrc > as the Schoole- 
men fpeak, that is, it is bounded and termined in the Fa- 
ther, and he is principium & fummus terminus creationis, the 
firfl: beginning and utmofr. bound of creation, from whom 
it'firft proceeded, even this is attributed to the Sonne and 
Spirit alfo, as being common to all the Perfons, as TVS/. 
33.6. "By the Word of the Lord (that is the Sonne) Were the 
Heavens made and all the hofl of them by the Spirit of his 
mouth. To which adde, Job 35.4. The Spirit of god made 
me, & John 1.3,10. & filof.1.16. where it is faid, that by 
the eternall word the Sonne all things were made both in 
Heaven and Earth, vifible ani invifible, and Without him vom 
made nothing of all that Was made. So likewife in that out- 
ward worke of Judgement executed on Sodome and Cjomor* 
rah, Cfen.19.24-. Jehovah is faid to raine downe from Jeho- 
vah out of Heaven fire avd brimftme, that is Jehovah the Son 
from Jehovah the Father, who are both one and the fame 
God Jehovah-, yea that thefe externall workes of God are 
not divided fome to one Perfon and fome to another in 
the Trinity, but are com. non to all the Perfons and proceed 
from that one common e.Tence, according to that faying of 


Of the External! Workes of God, 

the School-men, ope r a Trimtatis • <id extr.i pant indivifa. Our 
Saviour fheweth mod plainly, loh.5. 1^,22. where he (airh, 
that as the Sonne cannot worke of himielfe alone Without 
the Father, but he muft have and fee the Father working with 
him, lb the Father doth not judge any, that is by his owns 
proper acl of judgement* but hath committed all judgement 
totneSonnejthathcinay have a hand in all judgements toge- 
ther with himielfe, and John 16.13,14. fpcaking of that fpe- 
ciall illumination of mens hearts and inward teaching which 
fcemes mod proper to the Spirit, he faith it is not of him- 
ielfe alone, but it is what he hath heard and received from 
the Father and the Sonne. And therefore the fecond 
Branch is mamfeit that the doer of the outward workes 
of God is Jehovah our God , and ail the three Perfons in 

The third Branch comprehends in it the outward moving 
caufe of all thefe outward workes : namely, Gods owne 
will and pleafure, for he is faid to do them according to 
his eternall purpofe, and after thexounfell of his owne will. 
This is exprefTed in the defcription and in the words of the 
Text r*? 1 } "N??5. '? Whatfoevtr the Lord p/eaped 3 that is, 
whatfoever is according to the Lords will and pleafure that 
he hath done, and this is teftiflcd in other Scriptures, as 
Pfit.115.3. where it is faid, that the Lord doth whatfoevcr 
fleafeth him 3 and J fa'. 46. 10. where the Lord faith I will 
do all my pleafure, and Jonah {.14. All which places fhew 
that firft the Lord hath a mind and pleafure to doe fuch 
things, and therupon he doth them. Alfo, Ephefi.u. It 
is faid he doth ' worl^e all things after the counfell of his 
will. And Alls 2.23. & 4^8. the worke of our Redemp- 
tion by Chrift, and all that he did and fufered is faid to be 
done by the determinate counfell of 'Cjod. Therfore this Branch is 
manifeft, namely, 1 hat Gods will and pleafare is the only in- 
ward mooving caufe of all his outward works, and that they 
are nothing but the execution of his eternall will and de- 

The fourth Branch by which thefe outward works are foe- 
cially diftinguillicd from his inward operation, comprehends 

A 3 in 

g Oft be External! Workes of God. 

in it the fiib jedfc wherein thefc workes do fubfift and ■ the 
circumftance of time and place wherein they are done. 
For thefe workes are not done within God himfeife, nei- 
ther doe they fubfift in his Effence, as his inward operati- 
ons do, but they are, Extra l^ei ejfentiam, without Gods ef- 
fence, they are done in all the world, and upon the crea- 
tures, f:>me in Heaven and fome in Earth 3 others in the 
Sea and all deepe places ("as my Text faith) and they have 
their circumftance* of time and place, as God hath appoin- 
ted from all eternity. The Creation was in the firft be- 
ginning of tune in the firft fix dayes of the world, Gen, i. 
1 he Redemption wrought by Chrift in the midft of yeares 
betweene the Law and the Gofpell, H^.3.2. and upon the 
mountaine where Werttfikm ftood, Jfi, 25.6,7. The great 
execution fhall be at the end of the world in the laft day 
of Judgement, and the works of Gods governement and a- 
duall providence as they are divers, fo they are done at di- 
vers times, and in divers places of the world , as experi- 
ence teacheth, on the very day which the Lord appointed 
did the flood come upon the old world, C/en.j.n, In the 
fame day which God had fore-told was Ifrael delivered out 
of z^£gyft^ -E.xW.21.41. And howfoever the words of the 
Apoftle, ^#.17.18. intimate that in God (and not with- 
out him ) We live, moove and have our being , yet we arc 
not thus to underftand that thefe things are, and that we 
fubfift in Gods Effence, and that we are fo in God as his 
inward operations and eternall decrees are: But that we all 
are compaffed about with Gods prefence and effentiall pow- 
er, which are every where, and by him as by the chiefe ef- 
ficient caufe and authour of life, moti6n and being are fu- 
ftained and upheld in life, being and motion continually. 
For to be in God, that is 5 to fubfift in his effence, doth 
neceffarily imply coeternity and confubftantiality with God. 
JQuicquia eft in Deo 'Deus eft, nothing can be within his 
EfTence, but it muft be coeternall with God and of the 
fame Subftance with him. Hee who denies this mud: 
needes deny God to be immutable and moft fimple, free 
from all compofition. Therfore this Branch alfo is mod 


Of the External! Workes of God, 

mamfeft and doth contamc in it nothing but iblid 

The fifth Branch containes 'in it the manner of Gods 
outward works, to wit ; that in refpccl of God himfelfe, 
they are done with fuch power as cannot be refitted , and 
in re/peel of the event, they are certaine, infallible and 
cannot faile. This is truely collected from the Text : For 
it is fa id that all Whatfoever the Lord ples.feth hee doth, or 
hath done, which fhewes that not one jot of his will and 
pleafure failes but comes to paflfe. If his will or pleafurc 
could be refilled or any thing prevented which he willeth 
to workc, furely the Divell who is £o cunning, watchful! 
and malitious would in ibme things have defeated God, 
or this either by himfelfe or fome of" his inllruments : .But 
this Text arflrmes the contrary, that whatlbever the Lord 
pleafed he hath done in all the world. Therfore in refpect 
of God they arc all unrentable, and in refped of the event 
infallible. And this David teftifieth, Pfal. nj. 3. faying, 
The Lord doth whatfoever pleafeth him. And Ifa.<\6.\o. my 
counfellpiill ft and, and I will performe all my pleafure, yea 
becaufe thefe are voluntary workes of God and are willed 
and decreed in his fecret counfell from all eternity (as I 
have noted before) therefore they mud needs be unre(itlable,for 
Who can refift his rvill,R om.g. 1 9 . 

The fixth' Branch containes the principall ufe and effects 
of Gods outward workes ; namely, the making of himfelfe 
knowne in his nature and eflfentiall attributes and fo com- 
municating himfelfe to his elect. That Gods externall 
workes doe all ferve for this ufe and doe worke this effect 
we may gather from the dependance and inference of this 
Text. For the rfalmift having profefled that he knows the 
Lord to be great and that he is the onely true God above 
all gods , that is, who hath all the effentiall properties of 
the true God , he proves it by and from his workes, and 
fheweth that by meanes of them he knowcth it. And o- 
ther Scriptures and experience confirme the fame, Pfal. 19. 
I. It is faid, that the heavens declare the glory of God , and 
the firmament Jheweth his handy worke , day unto day uttereth 

A 4 " fpeech, 

x o Of the External Worhes of God. 

speech, and night unto night Jheypeth knowledge, and/?0W.i.2O. 
The viflble" things of Cjod are feene from the creation of the 
world, clearly heing under flood by the things which were made : 
Even his divine "Power and god-head, So the works of Gods 
actual providence in governing and upholding the world, 
and in mooving the Heavens and the llarres m order, doe 
fhew his infinite wifdome and iuperceleftia 1 glory, Pfa/.S. 
i. His overthrowing of his enemies and the periccutors of 
his C hurch,as in the flood of Noah, and in the drowning of 
Pharaoh and his hod do fhew his power. His giving of 
Chrift his Son for aRedcemer aboundantly teftifieth his infinite 
goodneffe and bounty ;his punifhing our (ins inChrift to the hill, 
{hews his infinite J uft ice, and his pardoning of beleevers by 
Cbrilts fatisfeclion, freely given and communicated to them, 
(hcwcs his infinite mercy and free grace, as the Scriptures 
often tcftifie, and our own confcienccs within us do wit- 
neffe and our daily fenfe and experience do prcove. And 
in our Redemption and application of it we fee difcovered 
the Trinity of Ferfons in one Cod. And while wee in 
thefe things, ?.s in a glaffe behold the glory of God with 
open face ( the vaile of ignorance being remcoved) we are 
changed into the fame Image from glory to glory , and fo 
come to have communion with God, and the fruition of him, 
2 £V.3.i8. 

The feventh and lad Branch fets before us tie r.tmofr end 
of all Gods outward works, to wit the eternall blellednefle 
oftheelecl, by the communion, vifion and fruition of 
God in all his glorious attributes, as wifedome, power, 
gebdneffc, mercy, juftice, and the reft. The Text it felfe 
intimates this Truth to us; faying, all thefe workcs of 
God proceed from His good will and pier fare. For the 
good pleafure and will cf •- -od confiils chiefly and princi- 
pally in willing that his elect fruil be brought to perfect, 
communion of himfelfe and of his glory for their eternall 
happinefle. And what God willeth according to his owne 
good pi: ibre, andcochbccaulehe is pkafedfq to do, it muft 
needs aime at the bldfccUeffc of his el;ct by the fight and frui- 
tion of him and his glory. Now therfore all Gods outward 


Of the ExtertiaU Works of God. n 

workes proceeding from Gcds pleafLre mnft needs tend to 
this end, and this is confirmed, Rcm.%.2%. & i Cer.^. 2 1,2 2, 
23. where wc read that all things workc together for good 
to them that love Cjod and are the called according to hisfurpofe, 
and that all things are the elecls, the vvoild, life and death, 
things frefent) and things to ccmc, and they are £hrifh and Qhrifi 
is Cjods, alfo Col, 1. 16. all things vifible and imifible were 
created as by Chrift fo for him, that they might ierve him 
for the falvation of his clecT, rind for this end and pnrpofe 
Angells, principalities and powers are faid to be madefub- 
jed to Chrift, 1 Pet.^. 22 . And their office and minillery 
and the great wonders which doth by them are faid to 
be for them, txho ft:all h e he ires oj 'falvation , Jdcb. 1.14. To thefe 
teftimonics many reafbns might be added, I will onely call 
to mind that which I have elie where abundantly declared and 
prooved, to wir, that for this end the world is uj held by 
Chrift, and for his fake andthiough his mediation everfmce 
mans fail, and for this end the wicked live, even the barbarous 
andfavage nations, cither that they may ferve forfomeufeto 
Cods people, or for the elecls fake* v horn God will raifeup 
out of tbem, or that Cod may fhew his jufi ice and power on 
them being fitted for dcltru&ion, to the greater glory of his 
elect, even the judgements of God on the wicked, and their 
damnation ferve foi this end, toincreafe tbebleflsdneffe of the 

The doctrir.eof this defcription fores for to ftirre us up in Vfe 1 
imitation of Cod our Creator, not to content our felveswith 
faying, purpofing and proinifm.?, or with making a fhew of 
doing good, workes, but to be real], true, conftant and faith- 
full ii/perfoi rnance of them; Tor [o doth God, whatfoever 
he promifeth or putpqfeth or is picafcd to doe, that he doth 
jn Heaven and Earth. Sluggards who delight in idlctu 
doing nothing, and Hypocrites- who lay and promtfe and 
n ake great Gnew of doing, but are barren of thermites of good 
worl zs, as they are moft unlike to God and contrary to him, 
fo they are hateful] and abhonunable in the light cfGcd, and 
they onely are accepted of < od wlo are active Chrittians, 

■ doin.y gt I Winding in thc\:v;kc- oj the Lord, their - 

LI cur 


Of the External! Works of God. 

labour {"hill not be in vame, but every one flnll receive re- 
ward according to his workes which are evidences of his 
communion with Chrift, and of his faith, judication and 
fandification; wherefore feeing God is alwayes reaching forth 
his mighty hand to worke in Heaven, in Earth, in the Sea and 
all deep places for our profit : let us be alwayes doing and ftudy- 
ing to do good for his glory. 
~jf 1 Secondly it fervesto move and direct us in and through the 

" outward workes of God to fee and behold the infinite, eter- 
nall and omnipotent God, and his divine power and God- 
head, .and in the unity of Gods eflence, the facred Trinity 
of perfons, becaufeall the perfons have a hand in every worke, 
and that one God who is three perfons is the author and wor- 
ker of every divine outward workers this doctrine teacheth. 
It is a common cuftome among men when they fee and be- 
hold the handy worke of any perfon, to remember the per- 
fon, to bee put in minde of him by the worke, efpecially 
if he have knowne the perfon before, and beare the love 
and affection to him of a friend and a beloved one. So let 
it be with us, fo often as we fee and behold the viable out- 
ward workes of God, let us in them behold the face of God, 
and remember his glorious attributes. Let us in the great 
workes of Creation behold the wifedome and power of God 
the Creator, in the worke of Redemption the mercy, bounty 
and love of God, in our Sanctitication, the love and the ho. 
lineflfe of God, and in them all let us behold the three glo- 
rious Perfons in that one God who worketh all things after 
the counfell of his owne will. The Father by his eternall 
Word and Spirit creating all things. The Sonne fent forth 
by the Father in our nature, and fanctiried by the Spirit, re- 
deeming us and paying our ranfome. The Holy Ghofl: (lied 
on us by God the Father through the Sonne Chrift in our 
regeneration. And all three confpiring together to purge, 
fanctifie and juftitfe us, and to make us eternally blelTed in 
our communion with them, and in our fruition of God in 
grace and glory. And let us take heed and beware of idle and 
vaine (peculation of GoJs great workes which (hew his 
glory and proclaims his glorious Attributes, Wifiome, 


Of the External! Works of God. 13 

Power and Goodncfle, left by fuch idle negligence wee 
become guilty of taking the name of the Lord our God in 

Thirdly from this defer iption we may cafily gather and con- vfe 3. 
elude, that (innefull actions as they are cvill and (innefull are 
not Gods workes ; for God is pleaied with thofe things which 
lie doth, and his workes arc according to his pleaiiirc, but 
God is not pleafed with {innefull actions and cvill workes, he 
hath no pleafine in iniquity, 77*/. 5.4. If any aske, How then 
can it be done if he will not 'and be not pleafed ? I anfwer, 
That in them there is to be confidered, 1. A mturall motion 
or action proceeding from fome created power, and lb from 
God the Creator, and this is good and of God and according 
to his will as it willeth things properly. 2. There is a cor- 
ruption, perverfeneife and crookedneff: of the action, this is 
of the Diveil and mans corruption : this God hatcth ; but be- 
caufe actions thus corrupted and ftayned make way for God 
and give him occafion to fhew his w 7 ifedome and power in 
ouer-ruling them and difpofing them by his hand to a good 
end and his juftice in punjfoing them ; therefore God is plea- 
fed to continue that naturall power to the wicked which 
they pervert and abufe, and to over- rule fuch wicked workes 
and to raife light out ofthatdarkenelTe. And therefore let us 
not impute any evill and finfull workes to God, as they arc 
evill and finfull, nor wickedly imagine that he is the author of 
fin.His hand is never in any finfull work,other wife then to over- 
rule, order and difpofe .the finfulnefle and evill thereof to fome 
good end and purpofe. 

Fourthly w r e are hereby admonifhed not to impute any worke <yr e * 
done in the world to fortune or chance, as worldly Epicures 
do, but to afcribe all workes and every thing which comes 
to pafle to the certaine will, purpofe and determinate counfell- 
of God. It is true that in refpect of lecond caufes and pur- 
pofesofmen, many things come to pafle accidentally and 
by chance, no man purpofing or intending any fuch thing, 
but in relpect of God they are certaine and infallible, they 
all happen according to his will, and without it not an 
liaire can fall from our heads nor a Sparrow fall to the 


14 °f tke Extern al! Works of God. ~ 

earth, all power and motion is of hiZ, 1~- 

of the power and motio, which is fW*f , Ule ab "k 
mans corruption he willingly permits if , Dlvdl a: 'J 
an difpofe by his wificfome nTSovS ^ 0Ver ^ 
end. And therefore h all cal' $l£ ?£ Z w * S °° d 
us comfort, our iilves and reft amte" .*? rf ? M " fe < 
t.ent knowing that they come no -but bv "• ^ P a " 
plcafure. - DL,t b y his will and 

Vfe^, Lallly let usrejovcc in all the i r ^* , . 

done in the worldJand ££ them Sir*** «&' 
our falvation,if we be Gods tttffl,£.^/*r% to 
andconfcience walke before him according 1 v* *'* Car e 
let the fight of them put us in 35 £ 3 £,£? W ? rd ' a »d 
God in whom we truft dothnotlie SfcTorT ?"' t,,ato " r 
but by a mi ghty hand and firetched ^T ±™ b f / flee P> 
all thefe great things, and is conSaSv T?* hat 5 do » e 
kmg for us,to bring us at i cn „ h " ]t "f 'L d ° In f and Wor- 

gers, and to fit usandeftablififu fo™ ° UbIeS and da "- 
and blellednefl>. US for ever ln "email reft )g l 0Iy 

diftindrhandlmgofthefevera S35S!^!? ,,& *£ 
became the right dividing of them into h ti ^ And 
tag of all the particulars unto the r ^ ' and . the re- 
heads, is amaine ground ofhght ?/° pCr a " d "^turall 
flaa handling an! Undcri^dfng^i^ "% tothedi. 
( before I proceed any further) Iabonr *T£ ?j ," ther eforc 
into their naturail heads accordi n to Z ^ f em ^'^t 
truth and/o will proceed to t I whthfZll^^ 
and by the courfi and order of nature m™> u ft in time > 
the world and all things in it 1 vT' T^ y the creat '°n of 
knowledge every khiT&dJ^d^^y^' 
differ in the kindes and numbers Si keS ', a " ddoe ™* 

andX e S^Littron G ttt,° ft *"** C ™°» 
^-omembersofit C^^ScS^^S 


Of the External IVorkes of God. 1 5 

of God, for over and befides them there are works ofprcferva- 
tion and of judgement and revenge. 

Others divide all Gods outward workes into the works of 
nature and the workes of grace. The workes of nature they 
divide into two fortes, i. The w r orkes which concerne the 
firft beginning of nature, that is, the workes of creation, 
a. The workes, which concerne the prefervation, which 
they call the works of Gods providence. The works of 
grace they hold to be the works of Redemption and reftau- 
ration of man-kind , by which God brings fupematurali 
bleflings to men: But this divifion failesin divers refpecls. 
Krft, It makes a difference betweene works of nature and 
works of grace, wherns indeed creation and prefervation, 
which they account works of nature, are in fome fenfe, 
works of grace. For God of his owne free grace created 
man in his own Image : And now and ever fince the firft 
fin of Adam, which brought death and deftru&icn into the 
w T orld, all works of prefervation by which God prefervtth 
men in being and life, are works of free grace , and the 
preferving of his Elect unto his heavenly Kingdome is a 
worke of fupernaturall grace in Chrift. Secondly, they 
erre in diftinguifhing between the woiks of Gods provi- 
dence, and the works of Redemption and reftauration,wher- 
as Redemption and reft aurat ion are principall works of Gods 
providence, by which Cod provides for his elect: m Chrift, 
luch things as neither eye hath feen,nor eare heard,neither have 
entred into the heart of man, i C or ' 2 -9- 

A third fort there are who divide all Gods outward 
works into thefe two heads only; namely, the works of 
Creation, and the works of actuall pros id^nce. This I take to 
be the beft and moft perfect divifion. Firft, becaufe under 
thefe h ads are all Gods outward works contained, and there 
is not any one which may not be reduced under one of lihefe 
two. For whatfoever God doth, or hath done, or c- ; doe 
for the giving of the firft being to all things may be redu- 
ced to Creation. And whatfoever God doth, or can do for 
the ordering, preferving and difpofing of things ere ted, 
and of their being and wel-being, may be brought under 


i $ Of the External IVorkes of God. 

the works of his a&uall providence. Secondly, there is a 
perfect diftin&ion and difference between the works of 
creation and the works of acluall providence : So far as 
mans fubftance differs from mans mifery and mans feli- 
city, fo farre doth every proper worke of Creation diff:r 
from the works of Gods a Jtuall providence in their objects. 
And although God in the creating of things in order did ihew 
his providence for man, in that he firft made a place of habita- 
tion for him, and all things which may ferve for his ufe, a* 
plants,trees, fruits, light and other neceffaries before he created 
him, yet this breeds no confufion between the works of creati- 
on and the works of prefer vation, for two things may go to- 
gether in time andplace,and may be in the fame fubject (as we 
fee, lenfc and underftanding, hearing and {cdng in one man at 
the fame time,and heat and light in fire) and yet they may be 
different in themfelvs. 

This order therfore I do purpofe to follow hereafter by Gods 
affiftance in profecuting the body of Divinity. Firft, I will be- 
gin with the Creation ,and will labour to unfold the nature of 
it in generall. And then I will proceed to the handling of all 
the fpeciall works thcrof,every one diftinclly by it felf in parti- 

Secondly, I will paffe from thence to the works of Gods acl- 
uall providence, under which comes the government and pre- 
iervation of the world,and of al things created,and the ordering 
and difpofing of every thing to the proper end of it. More efpe- 
cially, the fall of man into (in, mifery, and guilt of damnation. 
And the Redemption of man from mifery and his Reftauration 
to grace and glory by the application and fruition of Redemp- 
tion, and by true fpirituall union and communion with Chrift 
the Redeemer,and with God the Father in him by the inhabi- 
tation of the Holy Ghoft. 

Thus much for the generall Do&rin of Gods outward works 
laid down in this Text,and for the divifion of them in their fe- 
yerall heads andkinds, unto which all the particular outward 
works may be reduced. 


THE a 





Moses in the firft and fecond 

Chapters of Genesis, plainly 

opened and expounded in feverall 

Sermons preached in London. 

Whereunto is added a fhort Treacife 

of Gods a&uall Providence, in ruling, 

ordering, and governing the world 
and all things therein. 

By GJY. Batchelour of Divinity and Pa- 
ftour of S c . Iohn Evangelijt, 


L O N T> O N, 
Printed for John 'Bart let at the fignc of the gilt Cup, nearc S e , 
jlnftins-gatc in Ptols Church-yard," 1641, 


n p n t o k t isia 



Gen. i. i. In the beginning God created the 
Heaven and the Earth. 

N this Chapter the hiliorie of the Creation 
is moft plainely and fuccin&ly written by 
CMofes , and the workes pf the fix dayes are 
diftindtly Jaid downe according to the or- 
der wherein God created and made all crea- 
tures in heaven and earth. 

In the fecond Chapter, fome things which 
were but more briefely and generally laid 
doewn in the firft Chapter , to wit the creation of plants,herbes, 
and trees , and of birds and beafts, and efpecially of man and wo- 
man, and the creation of the garden of Eden , with other circum- 
ttances; are more plainely and fully related. And therefore I 
have made choice of thofe two Chapters , the words whereof doe 
give us ground and occafion to handle the doclrine of the crea- 
tion , and to difcufle of all points therein needfull to be knownc 
for the glory of God, and our own profit and comforts. 

B In 

Of the Creation of the World. 

In the whole hiftory, comprehended in thefe two Chapters, the 
Spirit of God offers to our coniideration two things. Firft the 
creation as it is a vvorke of God , together with the feverall parts- 
and degrees of it., Secondly>the creatures produced by that work, 
even the whole world , and all things therein contained ; that is > 
the heavens and the earth,all the holt of them. 
Creation. Creation is here defcribed ': Firit , generally according to the 
common nature of it,asit concernes all creatures, and is the ma- 
king of them all. Secondly, it is diilinguiflied and defcribed par- 
ticularly according to the feverall parts and branches thereof, a; 
it concernes feverall kindes of things created. 

Firit, Creation is defcribed generally by the name,the Author 
or caufe,and by tfae time and forme of it, throughout this whole 

Secondly, it is diftinguilhed into two branches or degrees. The 
firit is fimple or abfoluteand immediate creation, which is a ma- 
king of fbmething out of nothing. The other is fecondary crea- 
tion, that making of perfedt things out of an imperfect mat- 
ter which was beforecreated of nothing, and was of it felfe moft 
unfit for any fuch fubftantiall forme and being as was raifed out 
j. Simple or abfolute creation, which is a making of things out 

ofnothing,is laid downe in the firit verfe: And that is here di (tin-; 
guifhed into two particular branches > according to the numl 
of the things created; the Heaven and the Earth. 

The firft is >■ the creation of the higheft heavens, and all the hoft } 
of them , as the fpirk of God by LMofes expounds himfelfe more! 
plaine!y,C/vz/>. 2. 1 .This was a molt perfect creating and making 
of things perfect in nature, formcand being, out of noting, and 
that in an infant. 

The fecond is 8 the creating of the earth , that is, a rude imper- 
fect maifevand con fufed Chaos ordeep,which was without forme 
and void, and fit for no fubftantiall forme or perfect being as yet ; 
neither could fubfift, but by the fpirit fupernaturally fufteining it. 
For fo the word, Earth, is expounded in the next verfe, even to be 
that rude mane and deep,which he made of nothing that it might 
be the common matter of all the inferiour vifible world , an a of 
the creatujo therein conteined. 


Ofih* Creation of the WorlL j 

The fecond maine branch of creation, which I call fccondary , or 2 
mediate creation * and which is a making of things perfeSt out of 
an imperfect matter created of nothing, is Jaid downe hiftorical- 
\y throughout thefe two Chapters,where the creation of the feve- 
ra'l kindes of creatures in the fix dayes is defcribed particularly. 
And this hath alfo two particular branches. 

The fidt is the creating of things out of the fidt rude confufed 
matter, which was without forme and void,and full of darkneflb; 
iuch was the creating of the foure elements : 1 . Fire,called light. 
:. ' The Aire , called the firmament. 3. The Waters, or the Seas. 
4. The Earth or drye land. 

The fecond is , the creating of things perfect out of the fecond 
matter which was beforehand formed,anddifpofed into the forme 
and fiibltance of elements ; fuch was the creation of the Sunne , 
Moone , and Starres in the heavens; and of the foules in the aire, 
and fifhes in the fea,and hearts on earth.which were all created of 
the fecond matter, that is, of the matter of the elements brought 
into forme. 

There is befides thefe branches ofcreation , another particular 
creation,mixt of fimpleand Secondary crcauon,nameIy, the crea- 
tion of man ; who,in refpeel: of his body,was made of the dult of 
the earth by fecondary or medtatc creation ; and in refpecl of his 
foule was created by God, as the Angels wercimmediatly of no- 
thing,by a fimpIe,ablbIuteand/w«w<«/Wtfcreation.This is alfo de- 
fcribed , Fidt generally in this Chapter verfe 26, 27. and alfo di- 
itinitly , and particularly, Cap. 2.7. 

And as this hirtorydoth defcribe the ail or worke ofcreation, Ci-enuues 
both generally 3 and particularly in all the branches, thereof: fir 
alfo all the Creatures or kindes of things created. 

The Creatures are here diftinguimed according to the time 
and order of their creation. Some of them were created in the 
fidt beginning of time,in the fidt moment wherein time fidt be- 
gan, to wit, the higheft heaven with the inhabitants thereof, the 
Angels ; and the earth, that is, the rude made or fidt common 
matter of the inferiour world , and all the creatures therein. 
Some of them were created in the progretfe of time , or in times 
diffin& , even in f\x feverall dayes, to wit , all me reft of the 
treatutes * and they arcdiftinguifhedby the time and order of 

B 2 their 

■ !■■■ » 

Oftfo Creation wgmrM. 

To create. 

their creation. Some were created the firft day, fome the fecond; 
and the reft feverally in the reft of the fix dayes , and they arede- 
fcribed by their feverall names and natures, as (liall appeare here- 
after, when they come to be handled diftinclly. 


Of the Creation in generall. What the Hebrew wordjtgnifieth. Of the 
^Author , Time , Objett , and Forme of the Creation, tsf defcripti- 
onofit: demonfirated in all the parts. The ^Manner of Creation > 
tnfonre things. Angels had no hand in the Creation. Fonre nfes of 
the "Point. 

►He firft thing now to be ftood upon, is the creation in gene- 
ral! , as it is defcribed in the generall nature of it, by the 
name,the Author or caufes,and the time when it firft began, and 
when it was done, and that chiefel y in this firft verfe. 

Firft , Creation is here fct forth by the name of it in this word 
^3> created. Secondly,by the Author or fole efficient caufe of it 
Qtn!7fe*>Ciod. Thirdly, by the time when God began the creation, 
!TiM7fcV^3> in the beginning;and wherein he perfected that worke, 
in fix dayes, Fourthly , by the forme and manner of it, verf. 3. 

dnrlfail A*ditW4xAf»7fi. 

Godfaid'y and it was done. 
wfaa£ W ° Firft , the word ^3, created, if it bee rightly underftood ac~ 

j , cording to the true and proper fignification of it in this p!ace,may 
give great light to the matter in hand. I will therefore firft di- 
ftineuifh it according to the feverall fignifications in which it is 
ufeain the Scriptures^ and will fliewin what fenfe h is here to be 
taken, and then will come neere to the matter; Firft , it flgnifies 
properly , that extraordinary miraculous worke of God by which 
he gives a fubftance, and fubftantiall being to things which before 
werenot,and doth make them either of nothing,or of fome mat- 
ter which hath in it Celk no natural! fitnefle or difpofition to re- 
ceive fuch a forme , or to be turned into tech a fubfhncerrhus it is 
ufed, < Deut. 4. 3 2 . in thefe words from the day that (jod created man. 
And Tfal. 148.5. He commanded, and they were created; 

a. Secondly, by a metaphore,this word fignifies the extraordina- 
ry works of God , which are very like unto the creation , becaufe 


i ■ ii ■ - i . ii ■ ■ ■- *' m " - — ™ ■ 

Of the Creation ingeneraB. 

they are done by a fupernaturall power , and Suddenly brought 
forth as it were out of nothing, when there was no* meanes ,or 
naturall difpofition going before. Thus the a<ft of regeneration 
(in which the wickedcorrupt heart of man,which by nature is un- 
fit for any holinefle, and mod prone to wickednefle>is changed in 
a moment by the Spirit of God , and becomes a cleane creature 
and a new mantis caled creamgyP (al. 5 1 .1 2. Thus are all great and 
miraculous works of God called creating : When hee raijeth up 
wonderful! itrength out of weakeneffe , and by them who are as 
nothing,doth overthrow mighty gyantsand ftrong armiessthis is 
called creating^ Exod 34. 1 o. When God of a ft ubborne , Miff-nec- 
ked nation, and of a people fcartered;defpifed,and counted wprfe 
than nothing, raifeth up and maketh amort holy people and glo- 
rious Church,as he will doe in the laft converfion of the Jewes,this 
is called commonly in the Prophets by the name of Creation , as 
Pfa/.ioi. 1 8. and ffa. 43. 7. and 6$. 18. And when the Lord in 
his juft wrath doth raife up evill , and deltrucUon to ttiQ wicked 
out of good things-, which naturally turne to good ; this is catted 
creating, ffa.^.y. and fo every fayfing up of things without 

meanes, as PfaL 104. 30. When God {uddenly beyond meanes or 

expectation , by the fupernaturall'fower of his Spirit reneweth 
the face of the ear ttr, it is called creating. 

But in this place the word is to be taken in the proper fenfe,for 
making things either of nothing ,or of matter made of nothing, 
andoflt felfe unfit and wirhour naturalldtfpofition for receiving 
any fuch forme as that, which God dorh give unto it. The word 
thus expounded fheweth what creation is,even a making of things 
out of nothing , or of rude matter undifpoied for iiicfia forme 
and being,as God in an inftant frarrieth out of it. And 10 u differs 
from all other kindes'of making and producing things ; as from 
naturall generation of living creatures , and of clowds , raine , 
thunder, and the reft, which are made by an ordinary power out. 
of matter fitted for the forme of things produced ; and from all 
artificial 1 making of things, ashoufe , and other things made by 
art , of matter fitred and prepared. 

The fecond thing by which creation h described, is the author Author of 
and crmfe or it,expre'Ved in the word Difi^fct' ^ oc * : which vvor ^ IS crcac,on% 
tx>c here ufed metaphorically, to figniue Angels, faife Gods , and 

B 3 nun 

Of the Author andTime of Creation. 

men who are minifters and, vicegerents under God , as it is.fbme- 
times ufedin Scripture ; but it is here taken in the fenfe, which is 
moll common and frequent in the originally that is for the true 
GocJ, and is one of his facrcd Names. And it is a word of theplu- 
rail number, and in many places is joy ned with verbes of thepiu- 
rail number ,* and that for this end, to tea:h us. that though God, 
vvhofe name this is, bee but one in narurc andeiTence; yet in that 
unity of effence > and in that one eternal! Jehovah, there is a plu- 
ralitie,that is, a Trinity of Perfons.This word therefore doth here 
plainely intimate unto us , that Creation is an action of the whole 
'Trinity ,and that it is the joint worke of ail the three Perfons s 
even of God the Father, God the Sonne, and God the Holy 
Ghoil • and this fhewes, that neither Angels, nor falfe Gods ,- but 
Jehovah the true GodJnhe Author of the Creation, as appeares. 
T . The third thing by which the Creation is defcribed, is the time 

of it , both the hrit time in which God began to create , and did 
.create the highefl heaven >, and the rude made , the earth; and alio 
the progreflfe of time in which God created all vifible things in 
order , and finished the whole frame of the vi(ib!e world : This is 
cxpreffed in the word rwpjg^a.* in ^ e beginning , and in other 
parts' of the Chapter which mention the particular dayes in which 
every thing was made. For thjs word though fometimes it figni- 
fies Eternity, and intimates unto us the eternali being of the Son 
of God,to"^ether with the Father from all eternity ,and before all 
worlds, as^Prov. 8. 22. where eternali Wifdome faith , The Lord 
tojfejfed me in the beginning of his way before hi works of old: and John 
j.i.Jn the beginning was the Word, i yet mort commonly and fre- 
quently in the Scriptures, being laid downe absolutely, as in this 
place, it fignifies either the firlt moment ,- and beginning of all 
time , as in this verfe; or dfc the firft fix dayes. of thecreation,or 
any one of them , in which dayes God made & finifhed the whole 
frame of heaven and earth, and all the hoftofthem,as Ifi 4< 
where God is faid to declare and foretell theend.ofall things from 
the beginning , that is,from thefix dayes of the creation , in which 
God began to ipeake to man and foretell his end;and y^.8.44. 
where the Divell is called a mnrthcrer from the beginning, that is, 
from the hit day of the Creatio inwhich.Godmade,^ the Divell 



Of the Time of Creation. 


marred man, and brought him under death. The time of the crea- 
tions here I take it in generall, is not onely the firft moment of 
time,as in this verfe it fignifies , but alio the fix dayes mentioned 
diftin&ly in the reft of the Chapter. For the higheft heaven , and 
the rude matter, the earth, were created in the rirft moment of 
time, and all other things in the ipace of fix dayes, as the hiftorie 
moft plainely teacheth. 

Some, befides that which* I have obierved from this word , doe ' 
gather alfo,that the time and moneth of the yeare in which God 
created the World, was the feventh moneth, which wee call Sep- 
tember. The ground of their conjecture is a Cabalifticali conceit 
of fome Jewifh Rabbins : to wit, becaufe the letters of the word 
VWna > which MgnifTeth m September , are the fame with thQ let- 
ters^ of the wordflYWia , which ligniries here in the beginning ; 
and therefore, as the letters of the one word , if they betranfpo- 
fed make up the other word , fo both words agree in one time ; 
and this beginning was in the moneth September. But their 
ground is deceitfull: Firit,becaufe September, which is the feventh 
moneth,is called in the pure Scjipture Hebrew DOrifc*>i^w£-8.2. 
and v\VT\ is a word of the corrupt Rabbinicall Hebrew tongue, 
and therefore Gods Spirit alluded not to k. Secondly , the word 
mWia hath the letter (tt) in it more than the word ^WU , 
and fo they doe not perfectly agree. Thirdly , the Rabbins and 
Cabalilis doe not agree among- rhemielves in this conceit : For. 
fome of them have another conceit, that tfie letters of this word 
are the fame with the two words Wl ma, tic firfi or chiefe 
konfe, that is, the San cluary. Others that it hath the fame letter* 
which makeup the words ^fc* rv^3 , that is, the Covenant of fire, 
to fhew the purity of the burnt offerings made by fire; And many 
other fuch conceits they have concerning this word; which to 
repeat were lofle of time. 

I am not ignorant that fome learned men , and judicious di- 
vines doe hold this opinion of the worlds creation in Autumne 
and September , but for other reafons ; eipecially becaufe Ar.- 
tumne is the time when all fruits come to perfection , and there- 
fore Gods creating of all things perfedt was in that time of the 
yeare. But this is no good reafon J for many creatures have their 
perfection and glorym the Spring-time , as Jiearbs , flowers, and 


8 Oft he Ohjett and Forme of Creation. 

fuch like. And birds and hearts , doe chiefely breed in the Sprint , 
and the Spring revives rhe things of the earth , and makes them 
frefli and greene. And. the cauie why many fruits come not to 
perfection till Autumne , is the- corruption of. the earth , and the 
curie Jaid on it for mans f nne. In the creation things when they 
firri began were perfect , and lb would they be in the Spring and 
all the yeare, if man had not brought a curft upon them. There- 
fore I have fuch curious points,as not need full to be determined; 
otif I incline to any opinion concerning the time of the yeare , 
it is that the world was created in the Spring, when the day and 
night are equall and both of one length in all the world ; that is , 
in the moneth Mist Abib ; which is part of March, and part of 
A prill. For this God feemes to teach, Exod. i ?. 2. where heein- 
joines the Ifraelites to account that for the firlt. moneth of, the 
yeare, contrary to the cuitome and account of the Egyptians, 
which they had before followed. 
Objcft. The fourth thing by which the creation k described , is the Ob- 
ject: or effe&s , that is, the things created, even the Heavens and 
- the Earth andall things in them:For it is faid,$W created the heaven 
and the earth* 
Forme. The fifth thing is the Forme and manner of the creation,to wit, 
by faying, Let it be done, andtt was done ; this appeares,ver/; 3, 6, 9. 
which implies alio the matter and the end. Now here a queftion 
What may bee moved concerning this word of God ; whether it was 
word it \oyot <8&<pb$tK<x , a word fpoken and uttered with a found, like that 
w * s * which God fpske from Mount Sinah in giving the Law >• or Koyo$ 
'ipproh the inbred facultie of reafon and under/landing ; or ^yo< 
\vhaftno<> an inward thought of God : caufed by outward objecls; 
or whether it was ao^c* ^*<™*>and »««c/VK>the fiibftan&iallandeter- 
nall Word, the Sonne of God, Firlt , it cannot be a word fpoken 
and uttered with a found ; for that requires aire as the medium of 
it,and there was none when God faid , Let there be light ; there 
2 wasnoeareto heare 5 nor any ufeof iiich words. Secondly , it 
cannot beany inward thought of God, now beginning to thinke 
of the creation and being ofthingsjfor this purpofe was in God,as 
{ all thoughts are, from all eternity. Neither is this word , the Son 
of God, now ipoken that is begotten, and not till now, as fbme 
heretic'ks dreamed ; and this faying of God the begetting of the 


Defcription of the Creation. 

Son. For, the Son is God, the creatour coequal] and cperer rial o 
the Father \ and that God which iiud , Let there be light ; and , Let 
there be a firmament ,&c. Wherefore the true meaning of that 
ipeech , is this : Thar , as God r he Father, Son and Holy ghoft , had 
decreed and purpofed, from all eternity , to create all things out 
of nothing ; io in the beginning, in the firft moment of time, the 
Fsther, by his eternall Word the Son and by his Sprit , not as i\\- 
itrumencs, but chiefe agents with himieife, did actually put his de- 
cree in execution , and tfeat fo quickly as a word can bee fpoken 
with the tongue, which hath before been conceived in the heart; 
and that all was done at Gods beck and command , mod eafily, 
without any toi'e or labour; and that , as the word fpoken is the 
revealing of mans will , fo the creation was the declaring of Gods 
eternall will and purpofe , by the open execution of it ; and , in a 
word, that God by his Wifedome, Will, GoodnefTe,and Power, 
which are his attributes , by which , as by a fpeaking word, hee is 
madeknowne to men, did create and make all things, and, for an 
end, not in vaine, for his word is never in vaine. Now from thefe 
things laid down plainly in the words of this firft verfe,and in the 
veries following, wee may gather this deicription of creation in 
general!, viz. 

That it is , the firft outward a5t or worke, of God Almighty, A large 
the Father, Sonne and Holy Ghofl, performed in the firft beginning ^jS**" 
of time, by which, hee immediatly brought all things out of no- a[]on. " 
thing, according to his eternall purpofe, and gave the firft being 
to the world , and every creature therein , when as they were not; 
and that by his owne infinite goodnefle, wifedome, power, and 
will , actually working , and like a powerfull Word and com- 
mandement,bringingali things to paffe out ofmeere nothing, or 
that which was as nothing made of nothing , without any inftru- 
ments,toi!c,labour 3 alterat ion or delay, for the revelation of him- 
feife , and for the communion of his goodnefle and glory- 

This defcripticn nuely gathered from this text and thishifto- T^cn In- 
rie, is in whole, and in every part confirmedby other teftimonies to P arrs * 
of Gods holy infallible Word. vcd.^ 

Firft , creation is an out-ward act or workj becaufe it is not with- j 
in God himfelfe-, bur his making of things, and giving to them a opus ad 
being , different from his own eflence. extra. 

C Secondly 

io Of the Author of the Creation. 

Secondly, ft is Godsfirft outward a6i,becau(e it was the giving 
of the firit being to all kindes of creatures ; in which, and upon 
wnich, hee exerciieth all other outward works : thefe two points 
are manife(t and need no further proofe. 

Bur as for the third point , the Author* or firfl caufs , God the 
Father ,- Sonne and Holy Ghoft : wee havemanifett proofe of it in 
Scripture , able to fatisfieany reafonable mind. Firft, that the 
Lord Jehovah the only true God (not Angels) is alone the Crea- 
tourof ail things. HolyJ^ teMifieth,- laying, that hee alone 
fpreadeth out the heavens , and treadeth upon the waves of the Sea, 
Job 9. 8. And/fa.qq. 24. I , faith Jehovah, am the Lord that 
makei h all things , that flretcheth forth the heavens alone , that fpreadeth 
abroad the earth by myfelfe. Secondly , that all the three Pefibhs are 
equall in this worke; and as they all are one God, fo are one 
Creatour of all things; it is manifeft,^^ 35.10. Where the Crea- 
tour of all things, is called in the plurall number WU) my makers^ 
that is, more Perfons than one , ^even three Peribnsin one God : 
and Tfal. 1 49. 2 .Let Ifraelrejoyce V T #IT3,*# them that made him : and 
Ecclela 2.1 . Remember thy Creators 7p$t\2L : and I fa* 54. j. The Lord 
thy makers is thine husbands,the Lord of hoftes is his name. For the 
Father in particular, there is no doubt, all confefle him to be the 
Creatour , and fo the Scriptures teftin"e/7V<rz>.8. 22, 23. and Heb. 
1 .2,3. For the Son alfo we have plaine texts,that by htm all things 
were made, and nothing without htm: John 1 3.1 o-and Joh.%. 1 7, 1 9. 
1 Cor. 8. 6. Col. 1 . i(5. Heb. 1.10. And as the Spirit is one God 
with the Father , and the Sonne , fo his hand wrought with them 
in the Creation, as appeares,^. 1 • 2 - Where it isfaid, thefpirit of 
God moved upon the face $f the waters, that is, cherifhed the rude 
mafife, as the Hen doth her egges by fitting on them , and fo gave 
forming vertue to them; ib the Hebrew word fignifieth : and Job 
26. 13. God is f aid by his fpirtt,to have gamifhed the heavens: and Job 
33.4. Thefpirit of Cjod hath made me , faith Blihu : and Pfal. 3 3 • ^ » 
By the Word of the Lord, (that is, the Sonne) were the heavens made , 
and'allthe hofi of them by the breath of his mouth , that is, his fpirit. 

Fourthly, for the time of the Creation,we need not Rand much 
upon proofe of it. This Text fneweth,that it began in the begin- 
ning or firft moment of time : And in fix dayes, it was perfected 
and folly finimed,as the reft of the Chapter flieweth : Ic was*f 


Of the Objeft and BjfeB of Creation. 1 1 

old that God founded the earth , and made the heavens , as the 
Pfalmift teftifieth , Tfa/. 102. 25. that is, in the firft beginning 
of times. And reafon tells us, that time being a circum'ftance, ana 
infeparable companion of creatures vifible » mult of neceflity be- 
gin together with their being. Yet one thing is worthy to be no- 
ted in the time ; namely, That, whereas God was able in the firft 
moment, to create all things as he did the higheft heavens,and the 
rude maffe, which is called the earth in my Text, and which was 
the common matter of all the vifible world : yet he did diftribute 
and divide the creation into divers adts, which are diftinouifhed 
one from another by the effects, that is, the creatures made ; and 
by the feverall times and dayes alio wherein they were perfor- 
med. Which point wee willinfift upon , as it well deferves, when 
we come to the feverall acls , performed particularly in feverall 
dayes of the Creation. 

The fifth point in the defcription, is the genera 11 objefb , and ef~ 
fell of creation, to wit,all things and the firft being of therrt:For, 
here the objett , and effett , concurre and are altogether the fame. 
The world and all things therein, and the firft matter of which 
they were made , as they are the onely things about which the 
act of creation is exercifed ; Co they are the object of creation: 
And as they are things made by the creation , fb they are effects 
of it. Now this generall objett and effett , as it is truly gathered 
from the enumeration of all the kindes of things created, which 
are numbred in this Chapter and the next, and is plainely expref- 
fedin the defcription : fo it is abundantly teftified in all the Scrip- 
tures; as I fa. 44.24. and C^JT- 1 • 1 #• and Exod. 20. 11. where all 
things in heaven and earth , vifible and invifible , are faid to bee 
made, created and formed by God : Yea , the firft rude matter 
it i'dfQy out of which the inferior world was made , is here in my 
Text faid,to be created by God. And this is confirmed by reafon, 
drawn from rhe nature of God, and his Name Jehovah. For God, 
as this Name fignifieth , is an abfolute effence of himfelfe , and 
the firft bein^ of all , and the Author of all being : Therefore, 
every thing which is, or hath being, muft needs be of him, and be 
his creature. 

The fixt-h point in the defcription,is the matter out of which, God 
created all things; under which, we comprehend two things:Firft, 

C 2 the 

u Of the Matter out of^lnch God created all things. 

the matter improperly fo called, or Terminnm a quo , from 
whence God brought the fir ft being of all things immediately : 
And that was either negative, even nothing , or their not being at 
all; or pofitive, their being in Gods eternail purpofeonely. This 
was the hrft matter which God had to worke upon in the firft 
immedia r e acl of creation* Secondly, the matter properly fo cal- 
led, that is either the rude maffe made of nothing , which was 
without forme, and void; or the foure Elements,which had in them 
no forme or being of the things created , and i'o were as nothing 
in refpecr of that being which God gave to every particular thing 
which he made of them. For proofe of this, we have a plain te- ftimonie, Heb.i 1 .3. where the Apoftle faith. By faith we under -ftavd 
opened. th a t the worlds were framed by the word of Cjod : So that the things 
which are /een^ were not made of things which doe appeare. Here it is 
plaine that hee fpeakes, i.Of creation ingenerall , in that hee 
faith, The worlds were framed. 2. In that he denies the vifible world 
tobofpade of any naturall things, which doe appeare to any fenfej 
hf^efry hee fhewes, that their firft matter was made of nothing; 
and if they had no matter before the creation, much ieflehad in- 
Vlfib'e fpirits any matter. 3. In that heemakesthis a matter of 
faith to bee beleeved,not to bee knowne by reafbn j hereby hee 
fheweth, that there was a creation of their firft being out of no- 
thing : for reafbn, without fsikh , can apprehend a making of 
things of matter fitted and prepared. 4. In that hee doth not fay 
fimply, that they were not made of any thing ; but faith, rather, 
they were not made of things which doe appeare ; hereby hee inti- 
mates, that they had a being in Gods purpofe and fecret counfell 
before, lleafon alfo gathered from the prefent Text doth prove, 
that no creature in the world was made of matter uncreated , or 
of matter co-eternall with God : for here it is faid,that God firft 
made the rude matteiy.vhich was without forme,which he needed 
not to have done, if there had been any eternail matter uncrea- 

Secondly , this matter could not fubfift but by the Spirit of 
God, exerciiing his creating power upon it, as the fecond Verfe 
fheweth : Therefore all things were made of nothing ; fbme im- 
mediately , as the higher! heavens , and the firft matter , ca\\ti 
earth, and the forme of every thing; and fome cfamatter,either 


The manner of the Creation, 

that firft without forme , or dfe unfit for fuch a being , as God 
made out of ir. 

The feventh thing in the defcription is the forme and manner of 7. 
the creation in general!, and that conhffs in foure particulars. Mauncr of 

r . Firft, that God in the creation had no moving caufes to move f rcatl0n 
him thereunto, but his owne will , goodneffe , wifedome , and {JJ in °" s r t c 
power -, and by them, and according to them hee created every 
thing. Firft, that Gocf created all things by the free liberty of 
his owne will, and according to his owne goodplealure 5 and was 
not by any necefiity compelled thereunto , it appeares plainly, 
Pfal.11 5.3. and 1 35.6. where it is laid, that God hath done all 
things whatfoever pie a fed him : and whatfoever fie a fed him he hath done 
in heaven y earth ,fea> and all deep p laces : and Revel.q.n.itk laid, 
that God hath cteated all things , and through his will and pleafure 
they are created. Secondly, that God created all things by his 
goodneffe , and according to his good pleafure , as the places laft 
cited doe mew ; fo alio the goodneffe , which at the firft crea- 
tion did appeare in every thing created, proves it moft fenfibly : 
For as it is faid of Light, that it was good, Verfe 4. and fo Jikewile 
of every other thing, that it was^W,- fo of all in generall, which 
God had made, that they were very good. Now all goodneffe in 
the creature comes from the goodneffe of the Creatour,and is an 
image and Shadow of it : Therefore certainly God by, and accor- 
ding to his goodneffe created all things. Thirdly, that God crea- 
ted all things by his wifedome, and according to it,the Scriptures 
aboundantly tefHhe, Pfil.i 04.24. where T>avid faith, Lordjmv 
manifold are thy worses, m wifedome haft thou made them all ! and Pfal. 
1^6.^. The Lord by his excellent wifedome nuhde the heavens : and 
*Prov. 3.19. The Lord by wifedome founded the earth. A nd this is im- 
plied, Trov.%,ij. where Wiiedome faith , V/hen God prepared the 
heavens , / was there. Fourthly, that God created all things by his 
mighty power and ftrength,the Prophet Jeremy teftifieth, Jerem. 
32.17. laying, O Lord <yod, behold thou hajf made the heavens , and 
.the earth by thy great power andfiretched out arme* And Saint *7W 
affirmes, that Gods etemall power is feenfrom the creation of the world Rom.i.zo. 
m the things which are made. Therefore the firrt particular concern- 
ing the inward moving caufes concurring withGod,i$manifen% 

C 3 to 

H The manner of the Creation. 

to wit , That God by his will, goodneflTe, wifedome, and power 
created all things. 

2. Thefecond particular , by which the forme and manner is 
fet forth, is this, That God created all things himfeife, without any 
inftrttments at all , by his pdwerfull vvora and commandement. 
This is exprefled in the Text, which faith, CT rT7N, that is, God, 
the three perfons did but fay of every trrng, Let it be, and it was 
fo. And in the fecond Chapter UWofes makes this manifelt, Ver. 
4, $ ,6. where he profefleth, that God ufed no fubordinate means, 
no not fo much as raine , or moiftening vapour , or the hand of 
man in the creating of plants in the earth. And Ifa.^0.1 2,1 3. the 
Prophet afcribes to God alone the framing and ftretching out of 
the heavens and the earth, without the counfell, direction, or mi- 
niftery of any other therein. For howfbever the creation was ac- 
cording to Gods eternall counfell , and in the creation of man, 
God is brought in to fay, C ome * ^ €t *** ma ^ man > a * ifheQ did con- 
sult with others befides himfeife ; yet this is not to be underftood 
of Gods confulting with any other, but of the confuting of God 
with himfeife, even the Father with the Son and the Spirit, who 
were perfons of the fame eflence with himfeife , and were the 
fame God, after whofe image man was made - and had the fame 
hand in the creating of him. For fo the words (Let us make man tn 
our owne image) doe neceffarily imply. Yea, as they all are tD^nVNj 
the Son, as well as the Father , and the Spirit as well as the Son, 
and all are included in that name ; fo it was the joynt and equail 
counfell, and the purpofe and faying of them all, C of * € J et w ma k* 
man : fo that the Son and the Spirit are i<rolzyoi> joynt Creators 
and Workers with theFather,not his instruments; and the power- 
None but £jj] word of the creation comes equally from all three. But as for 
wrought Angels, or other inferiour creatures, it is againft all reafon , yea 
in the againft all piety and Gods glory to imagire or dreame, that they 
creation, are inftruments ufed by God in the creation. Firft, all being is 
A fgu- of him, who is Jehovah, the author of all being : Now creation is 
° nts * the giving of being, and God onely is Jehovah ; therefore crea- 
1 tion is onely of him. Secondly,in every thing which was created, 
there was fomething made ofnothing,even the fubftanriall form; 
and the matter was difpofed in an inftant or moment. Now this 



Tlx manner of tin Creation. 1 5 

cannot be but by an infinite power , and is an a&ion of infinite 
vertue ; therefore no created inftrument could ccncurre in any 
aft of creation. Thirdly, if God could create Angels , the firft 3. 
and chiefelt of his creatures,of nothing, when there was none but 
himfelfe, nor any to be his inftrumentjmuch more could he with- 
out initruments create infericur creatures. Laftly, God proves 4. 
himfdft to be the true God, and none befides him, by the a6t of 
creation, Ifa.^. which proofe were defective, if any creature had 
wrought with him in any part of the creation. Thus the fecond 
particular is manifeft. 

3. The third particular, wherein the forme and manner doth 
confift, is this, That Gocf created all things without any toi/e y labour* 
change , or alteration in himfelfe at all. Hee was not changed from 
reft to labour and motion , nor from idlenefle to bufinelfe , nor 
from ftrength to faintnefTe or wearinefle , nor from perfect to 
more perfedt , neither was any good added to him by the creati- 
on. For (as Saint James faith) though every good and perfett gift is 
from above, and comet h downefrom Cjod the Father of lights , yet with 
him there is no *variablenejfe , or jhadow 4f change, Jam.i .17. And 
/p.40.20. Hast thou not knowne (faith the Prophet) ha& thou not 
heard, that the everlafhng'Cjod, the Lord, the Creator of the ends of the 
earth faint eth not, neither u weary I there is no fearching of his wifdome, 
he giveth power to the faint ,'&c. Yea, it were againlt all reafon to 
thinke, that God could be weary or faint in thecreation,in which 
he gave not onely all frrength, but alfo being to all things. And 
feeing in the creation God did nothing but w hat hee willed and 
purpofed fo to doe, and then to doe when he purpofed , and as he 
nad willed to doe ; and feeing hee was infinite , and all fufficienr, 
and moft blefled in himfQlfQ from all eternity , if creation could 
not adde any perfection to him, or any glory ; it onely revealed 
his glory upon others, and communicated his goodnefle to them, 
without change in himfelfe , or addition to his effence. If any 
object and fay,that God by creation became Lord and Pofleffour 
of all creatures , which, being good , were pleafant to him ; and 
therefore fomething was added to him, even Lordfhip, Domini- 
on, and Delight : I anfwer 3 that God in himfelfe , and before hir> 
owneeyes, had all things aelually prefent to him from ail eter- 
nity, and as fole Lord did pofleffe them, before they had any be- 

C 4 ing 

i 6 Tita wmww 0/ t/;e Creation. 

ing in themfelves ; and therefore the addition in thecrea.tion was 
not to him, but to the things created, to which hee gave btin° : 
and when hee created things in time , according to his eternal! 
purpofe, he received nothing to himfelfe, but gave to all things 
their being and their goodneffe. 

4. ^ The fourth particular , wherein the forme and manner of 
creation doth confift, is this , That things were created , and 
brought into perfect being without any delay at all, even in a mo- 
ment of time ; and that creation is not a fucceffive forming of 
things by alteration and change , which requires fome tract of 
time, but a making of them perfect in a moment , and bringing 
of them at once into perfect bein<*. This is intimated in this 
Chapter, where wee reade, that Gods creating was but this , Hee 
/aid. Let things be 3 and they were , that is, hee made them in a mo- 
ment, as it were by a word, and fo quickly and readily as a word 
is fpoken. To which adde the tertimpny of "David, Pfal^ i^.Cjod 
fpake, and the etrth was made : he commanded>and it flood fa ft. And 
^^148.5. wherehee faith of the heavens, and of the Heaven of 
heavens, and the Sun, Moon, and Starres, that Cjodcommanded,and 
they were created. And indeed this is- manifelt by reafon drawne 
from the nature of creation, which is a making of things out of 
nothing, and giving a forme and being which was not , even in 
things which were made of matter before created ; as wee fee in 
the roure Elements,and in things brought out of them, there was 
fomething, even the fubftantiail forme of them, made immedi- 
ately of nothing : now between the being of fomething and no- 
thing, there is no medium , or intermiddle ftate; therefore every 
thing created, was created in an inflant , though many in a day, 
and divers kinds, one after another , and not altogether in the 
fame moment, 
%. The eight andlaft thing in the defcription is the end of the 
creations wit, Gods revealing himfelfe, and communicating his 
glory throughout all ages of the world,and for ever. Thisiscon- 
lirmed divers waies in holy Scripture : Firrt,by teftimonies,which 
affirmc* chat for God and his glory all things were made, that is y 
for the revelation and communion of God and bis glory, Fro a 6.4. 
Cf W hath made all things for himfdfe , even (he wicked for the day of 
wrafii And ffa.q$.j> I have called fam for my <>lery. And Ver^i. 


Of the end of Creation. 17 

This people have I formed for my felfe, they (hall {hew forth my praife. 
And %om. 11.36. For of him , and by him, and to him are all things. 
Secondly, by teftimonies, which fliew, that in the event creation 
doth turne to Gods glory , for the revealing of him to the com- 
fort of his Saints, as T/^/.8.i.and 19.1,2. where it is faid , that 
the beholding of the creation makes Gods Ttyme excellent. And 
the Heavens declare the glory of God , and the Firmament fheweth hn 
handy-worke. For certainly, that which in timeproves to bee the 
end, that God propounded as an end before all times: forhee is 
infinite in wifdome and providence. Thirdly, the holy men of 
God, moved by Gods Spirit, exhort all people to praife God for 
his workes of creation; and pray that they may apply them to 
that end, as Pfal. 145.10. Let all thy workes praife thee y O Lord. And, 
Pfal.i 48. 5. Let them praife the T^ame of the Lord : for hee comman- 
ded, and they were created. 

Thus much for the confirmation of the description, and every 
point of doctrine therein contained : I come to the ufe. 

Firlt,this doclrine ferves for direction and inftruclion divers Ufe I. 
waies ; in that it (hewes God to bee the author of creation , and By crea- 
creation to be his outward worke , and all things to be made by turc ^ a " 
him: Hereby firft it leads us in a ready way to come to the £ cendco 
knowledge of Gods wifdome, power, goodnene , and fuch like God! 
excellent attributes, even by directing us to behold God in them, 
and to dilcerne his eternal! power and Godhead ; that hee is not 
like the Idols, and fal/e gods of the Heathen, but a God of eter- 
nity, before all things, and all times; becaufe hee is the Creatour 
of them all : And that whatfoever excellency is in any creature, ic 
is in God above all meafure. And therefore when wee fee the 
mighty mafle of the world , let us thinke how great is hee which 
made this of nothing. When we fee the glory o£the Sun, Moon, 
and Starres,and of the whole Heavens,let us thinkeiiow glorious 
is hee who made this glory. When wee difcerne the goodnefTe, 
fweetneffe, power, and vertue which is in :things created ; let us 
conceive * that ail thefe are without meafure in God , and in ajl 
excellency. ^ Secondly, by this confederation it teacheth us, that And his 
Godonely is the true Lord and Pofleflbur of heaven and earthy fovc- 
vvorthy to be honoured, ferved, and worfhipped of all, and to be rai gnty 
fought unto by praier ; and that all thankes are tobeegivento ovcralI> 



18 Errdrsdm tht Creation confuted. 

him for all good things ; that hee hath right and power to dif- 
pofe all things at his pleafurc , to whom hee will, and that wee 
ought not to murmure at his diipofing; neither hath any man 
right to any thing but by his gift, and his permiflion. 
life 2. Secondly, this Do&rine ferves for confutation, i.OfPhilofo- 
Confute- phers, who held that the World was not created in time, but was 
tidn of Cm f roni eternity ; or that ft was created of a matter which was un- 
aicn created, and had a being before the creation , even without be- 
ginning. 2. Of thole doting Jewes and cthers,who held that the 
inferiour vifible world was created by the minifterie 6f Angels. 
3. Of Heretikes, who denied God the Father of Chrift , preached 
in the Gofpel, to be the Creatour of the World, and feigned an- 
other God Creatour, inferiour to him. 4,Of thePapifts, who 
teach thdt there be other Greatours befides God, even that every 
MaiTe-Priert can create of Bread and Wine the true bodie and 
bloud of the Lord Chrilt our Creatour and Redeemer : yea, that 
fame body, which isalready, which was made of a woman borne, 
and crucified , and is glorified at Gods right hand in heaven : a 
jftrange contradiction, and horrible blafphemy , which God ab- 
horresasa thing impoffible ! For nothing can be made that which 
it'is already, nor receive that being vmich it hath before-hand. 
5. Of Atheiftsand Mockers, who deny God, and fcoffe at the h(\ 
resurrection, and at the ending of this World in the laft day, all 
which are manifelHy proved by the creation. Laft!y,of all Ido- 
laters, who erteem and wormip that for God their Creatour, 
which is but the image of a creature, and in nature and forme far 
inferiour to the leaft creature formed by God. 
fip e * Thirdly, it ferves for reprehenfion and juft reproofe, Firft of 
Kcproofe them, who thinke that God can be worshipped and pleafed by 
to two mens givin? of outward things to him immediately for his owne 
frrt*. ufe ; as go$, f frlver, meat, drinke, clothes, and curious ornaments: 
all which God rejeiteth as things unufefuli for him ,- upon this 
very ground, and for this reafon , becaufe hee created the whole 
World, and all things therein are his owne already, PfaL 50. and 
tsfft.17.25. Secondly of them, who fret and grudge, and too 
much repine and grieve for the overthrow and deftru6tion of 
Kingdomes, Countries, Nations, Cities, Men, or Beafts, which 
God at his plealiire, a»d in his juftice doth deftr6y for mens (ins , 


OfthCmm ingnerdl. 19 

and over-turne withall their glory and being. Who is he, that in 
fuch a cafe dare mutter agarnft God ? For hee may doe vyich his 
owne what he pleafeth : if they offend himjie may deftroy them,, 
and magnifie his juftice, and glorifie his power in their deihu&i- 
on ; and he can repaire them at his pleafure. 

Laftly, here is for all that tru(t in God, love and fervehim, life 4. 
plentiful matter of comfort againft poverty, and all calamities, £ om h forc 
and perfecting enemies. No. poverty ought to pinch, or vexc- r ?* 
them ; for God their portion is more worth then all the world : * 
all riches, and other things are but the worke of his hands, and he 
can give them when hee will, and will give what hec in his wife- 
dome knpwes to be^neceflary and ! profitable. All ftrength js of 
nirvana 1 he can weaken all enemies in a moment ; fo that if he 
be for us, none can ftand againft us : hee can raile fweec out of 

Thus much for creation in generall. 


Of the creature in generall. Thames of the creatpre expounded, te few 
their nature. Inftruttwns cencernwg the creatures* Ftve Ufes made 

BEfore I pafle to the /peciall adts or branches of Creation , I 
hold it fit to infill upon the creature in generall, which com* 
prehends under it every ipeciall kind of thing created by any a& 
of creation. This Hiftory of the Creation , though not in any 
one word , yet in one fentence doth exprefle the creature in ge- 
neral!, that is, the whole frame and collection of a.11 things crea- 
ted Chapt.2. 1. in thefe words, Thus were the heavens and the earth 
fintjhed, and all the holt of them, Of all their furniture, that is, w ha t- 
foever is in them rightly ordered and difpofed , like an Army 
well marfhalled ; fo the Hebrew- word Half doth properly figni- 
Ee. And other Scriptures, both in the Old and New Teftament, 
doe oftentimes in one word propound to us the generall. conlide- 
ration of all joyntly together. I will therefore firft fpeake of the 
creature in generall, as it comprehends in it rhe heavens, and the 


20 Names of the Creatures expounded. 

earth,and all things in them, and that in fuch words andphrafes, 
as Gods Spirit in this and other Scriptures is pleafed to ufe for 
our inflrudHon, and for the help and illumination of our weake 
under/landings. And in this generall defcription, I will firtt con- 
fider the words and phrafes, by which the creature in generall is 
called, and will mew what they doe import in their fignif7cation r 
Secondly, I will from thence and other Scriptures note fuch in- 
itru&ions, as may direct us to the knowledge of the creature m 
general!. And lattly, will make fome ufe and application fit and 


Names of The flrft name, by which the creature in generall is called in the 
thecrca- Old Teftament, is the Hebrew word^D , which fignifies an urn- 
mres. verfality, or perfeB comprehenjion of all things : By this name, the 
* whole univerfality of things created, is called, Pro.i 6.4. where it 
is /aid , that the Lord bath made all things for htmfelfe ; not fo 
much as the wicked man is excepted, who is made for the day of 
evill. Alfo, 7/^.44.24. the Lord faith, I am Jehovah that maketh 
all thwgs, L /2 nu)j) : Anfwerable to this are the Greeke words, 
to 7r£v, and to 6'Aov, ufed by the Greeke Philofophers, to fignifie 
the whole univerfall world, or the univerfality of all things ; and 
jd ndnoc, which is. commonly ufed in the New Teftament,where 
there is mention made of the creation, and the creature in gene- 
rall, as John i-l'By him were all things made. And Rom.i 1 .ult. Of 
him 7 and by him, and for him are all things. And Colof 1 . 1 5. and %c- 
vel.4.1 1 . But yet, as the Apoftie, 1 Cor A 5.27. fpeaking of Gods 
putting all things in fubjeclion under Chrift, faith, that nee muft 
be excepted, -who hath pnt all things under him : fo here, though tht 
words ^D and -ndvrx doe fignifie an univerfality, and compreherr- 
fionofall things; yet it is manifeft by the word joyned with 
• them, that God the Creatour, who is faid to make and create 
them, is excepted, and all other things befides him are included. 
X Another name,by which the Spirit calls the univerfality of crea- 

tures, is the Greeke word cfi&vxs, which anfwers to the Hebrew 
word CZnO 1 ?^:; and is, al waies ufed by Septuagints,in their tran- 
flation 'of the Old Teftament, to exprefle it. By this name the 
creature in generall is called, Heb.i .2. and 1 1 .3. where it is faid, 
that God by his Son made the -worlds, and that the worlds were fla- 
wed by the word of God, Aadiiuhe Syriack and Hebrew tranfla- 


Names of the Creatures expounded. 2 1 

tioiK, the words are N07J) and nroVy : and according to their 
ori^inall and true notation, they all doe irgnifie not onely an eter- 
nal! duration and continuance from the firlt moment and beginning 
of time, to the lad end thereof throughout all ages, and the eter- 
nall duration of thing*; in the world to come ; but alfo all the things 
■which are mes.fered by thin protract itm and duration of times, and of 
time beyond all times , even all things under heaven , and all 
things above the heavens , as Angels and bleffed Spirits . and all 
things which mall be upheld and kept in being after the end of the 
world : For the Hebrew word CoSy Signifies times or things. the 
beginning and end whereof are hid and unknown tomortall men 
of fhort time , by reaicn of the long continuance of them ; and 
the Greeke word oiiQVKC, being compounded of aec and <3V, iigni- 
fies being, and duration, or whatfoever is alwaies, and in 
all times ; and it is ufed in Goipel to fignifie, not only this world, 
wherein we live in this mortal! life j but alfo the world to come, 
both the Kingdome of glory, and alfo the (tare of all things after 
death ; as appeares tMat.i 2.32. and Heb.6.5. 

The third name, by which the creature in generall is called ,is 
the Greek word nofffioc, which is commonly tranflatcd the world; 
and doth fitly hgnirie that well ordered, decent, beautifully and comely 
frame of heaven and earth, with all the goodly furniture, and well 
ordered hoft of creatures therein contained. For it is a word, 
which in Greeke doth properly fignifie beauty, decency, 2nd 
comely ornament ; and by it the Greeks commonly doe call the 
whole frame of the world, becaufe of the beauty, and comely or- 
der of the creatures therein : and by this name the creature in 
general.', and the universality of things created is called, CMatth. 
25.34. '^ W - T - 20 - arj d Ephefi .4. where the Spirit of God fpeaks 
of the creation and foundation of the world : And left we mould 
thinke, that by this word kcV/uoc, is meant onely the inferiour and 
vifible world, the ho'y Apoltles.when they fpeake of ir,adde the 
word tstSj and call it tsts tS vJf(ax 9 as appeares 1 Cortn.i.zo. 
and Ephef '2.2. to mew that there is another world, even the in - 
vifible, called alfo by this name : And John 1 .3. the Evangelift ha- 
ving affirmed, that all things were made by the eternall word, 
doth in the io.Verfe fhew,that this 7tocyrx, all things ,\\2ls ok:V/xoc, 
the world. I am not ignorant that this w r ord is ufed alio in a more 



Thames of the Creatures expounded. 

ftri£t fenfe, and that it fignifies fometimes the habitable world, 
or circte of the earth inhabited by men , as (Jlfatth.q.S. and John 
i. p. Sometimes men inhabiting the earth , as T^om^.i 2. By one 
man fin entred into the world. Sometimes the eleit, who are the 
chick ones of the world, and of mankind, as John 3.1 tf.and 2 far. 
5. 1 9. and 1 John 2.2. Sometimes for the carnall,unregenerate,and 
reprobate multitude of mankind, as John 14-17. Whom the world 
cannot receive : And i J. 9. 1 pray not for the world .Sometimes earth- 
ly things, as Gat.4.3. oppofed to fpirituall ; and fometimes fin full 
and corrupt things oppofed to holy and heavenly , as Cjalat.6.14. 
But the molt full and proper fenfe is that which I have firft na- 
med, and in that fenfe it is ufed in all places, which fpeake of the' 
creating and founding of the world^and fi°nifiesthe whole frame 
of heaven and earth, with the furniture of them. 

The fourth name, by which the creature in generall is called, is 
the Greeke word ttfcV/uoc, or jifrVic, which properly fignifies that 
which is created, and made of nothing , by the aft of creation ; by 
this name the creature in generall is called , as it comprehends 
every thing created either in heaven, or earth, or in the fea , or under 
the earth, Revel. 5.1 3. And by this name vCf'urig, the whole world 
is. called, UWar.i 3-19. where our Saviour faith, There jhall be fueh 
affiiUion as was not from the beginning of the creature, which God crea- 
ted, that is, of the. world, noir/us, as the word is rendered by the 
Evangelift Matthew, Chap. 24. 2 1 . 

Now from thele feverall names ufed by the Spirit of God in 
Scripture, to fet forth the creatures in generall, that is , the uni- 
verfality of things created, we may oblerve divers things for our 

Firft, that whatfoever hath any being in heaven, or in earth, 

ons con- 
the crea- 

either in this world , or in the world to come , even all things 
which can be conceived to have a true being , befides God him- 
felfe, are created of God, have a beginning , and were made out 
of nothing at the frrfr : This,as it is laid downe in my Text , fo it 
appeares plainly by all the foure names before cited , and is con- 
firmed by the Scriptures produced , to fhew the true fenfe of 
them, to wit, 7/^.44.24. John 1 . 3. Coki .1 <5. and %evel.^.\ 1 .And 
befides thefe, wee have many other, as Exod.20.1 1. Tfal. 146.6. 
and Pfal.i 48. in which places the heavens, and the heaven of hea- 

InflruEtions from tfa Names of the Creatures, 2 j 

vens. the Angeis, and all the hofts of God, the Sun, Moon, Stars, 
the Aire, and the Meteors, the Earth, the Sea, and all things in 
thern are (aid to be made, and created by God : to which we may 
adde, cxftr.14.1 5. and 1724. Heb.1.10. 

2. The fecond thing which I obferve from thefe names of the 
creature in generall is , That the World was made in perfect 
beauty, ft to flourifh perpetually ; and every creature, as it was 
created of God, was good, perfect, and beautifull in his kind free 
from all difcord, dilorder, and corruption. This is gathered from 
the names a/avac,and kcV^cc by which the World is called • the 
one of which figniries beauty, ornament,and decencie, free from 
ail deformity, di/cord, and diforder ; and the other a perpetuail 
being, or a perpetuail flouriOiing in being and perfection. And 
the laft words of this Chapter confirme this fully, to wir, God 
beheld all things which he had made, and lo th^y were exceeding 
good. The words alfo of God himfeife, Job 3 8. from the 3-Verfe, 
where he fets forth his manner of creating all things in a moft ex- 
cellent order , by laying the foundations of the earth fure, by 
meafuringit as it were by line , by Cutting in the deeps within 
bounds, by bringing forth the lights of heaven rejoycing, and the 
Angels Zinging joyfully , and by making all things toflourifh. 
Reg/on alio grounded on the Word^or God doth prove this 
plainly : For that v\hich was made in perfeft wifedome, and in 
the framing whereof Gods eternall wifedome had an hand, murt 
needs bee molt beautifull, decent, and flourifliing : For if Gods 
wifdome in Betake I and Aholmb ,made them fo excellent in work- 
ing curious and glorious workes for the Tabernacle, much more 
excellent is it in God himielfe. Now the Scriptures plainly te- 
itifie, that God founded the world in wifdome, Prov.3.19. that in wif- 
dome hee hath made all things, Tfd.i 04.24. and that wifdome 
had an hand in ordering all things, Prov.S. Therefore the creati- 
on of the World was in perfect beauty and comeline/Te. 

3. The third thing which we learne from thefe names is, That 
the deformity of the world, the enmity of creatures, the corrup- 
tion of man,andtheconfufion of things created, were not in the 
world, nor in the creatures thereof at "the frit ; neither are they 
Gods handy-worke, nor things by him created : for the world is 
koV^oc, a beautifull frame ; And the Scriptures call the worlds 


24 InfiruEtions from the names of the Creatures. 

dtSvoLS, things of being, and continuance > not things deformed, 
corrupt, and perifhing. This alio the Scriptures mew, Gen, 3 .that 
the earth was cm fed for mans fake, and mans hnne came from him- 
felfe,andthe Serpent : And T>eut.2 8.2 3. and L^//".2<5.Godhim- 
ftlfe in the Law profefleth, that for difobedience and fin of rebel- 
lious people hee doth make their heaven over them as braffe } and 
their earth as iron : And €ccl.j.ip t it is {aid, that God made man 
upright, but they have fought out many inventions. 

I might here alfo obferve from the name kqo-^oc, r ^at the 
world was alfo made in a beautifull and pJeafant feafon , even 
the pleafant time of the Spring in all probability ; but I love 
not to build opinions on fuch weake foundations. 

And from the word oci£>voc$, which tigti'iRcs/ong lafting ages, I 
might obferve the ages of the world, and diicufle the queftion a- 
bout the ages and years from the creation; but they may more 
feafonably be touched hereafter, when we come to fpeake of the 
particular branches of the creation. 
fife 1. Now I come to the Ufe of thefe considerations : Firtt , they 
The world ferve to make the thoughts and conceits of Atheifts and carnall 
not ctcr- philofophers hatefull to us ; to wit, that the world is eternall, and 
had no beginning, neither mall have end. For here wee fee, that 
all things univerlaily were created of nothing , and are creatures 
formed by God. It is a point of faith above all naturall reafon to 
underttand, that the worlds were made of nothing, as the A pottle 
fhewes, Heb.11.3. And that was it which made Ariffioile#x& o- 
ther witty and learned Phifofophersjed by reafon, doubt of the 
creation of the world. Befide, when they obferved the liability 
of the heavens, and heavenly hott, and their beautifull order and 
incorruptible being, this did further them in thisconceipt , and 
made them thinke there mould be no end of it. But Gods Word 
teacheth the contrary, andfheweth, that all things were created 
and made out of nothing, except only God himfeife ; and though 
they were made perfect and good, fit to flour ifh for ever, and 
fome of -them have ftill a great remnant of that glory and perfe- 
ction, as the heavens, which change little in many ages ; yet by 
mans fin they are corrupted and made changeable , and fo much 
more,by how much more neere they come to man : And Ms the 
Philofophers f^h and perceived, infomuch that many of them did 


Gods eternity admirable. 

acknowledge the creation, and the end of the world ; and even 
aArifiot/ehimCelfe, though he could not conceive that the world 
fhouldbe made of nothing by the courfe of nature, yetheedid 
acknowledge God the Father. Maker and Preferver of it ; andfo 
likewiie mail all beconfounded,who are not fettled in this truth : 
Therefore let us looke up to God,and beleeve his Word,and hate 
all blind conceipts of worldly wife men ; and fee and behold in 
the mod rationall and wife natural! men , denying this truth of 
the worlds creation, that the wifdome of the world is fooltjhnejfe, 
and the imaginations of the flefh enmity again ft God. 

Secondly, this confederation of creation and beginning of all ufe 1. 
the world, ierves to make us more admire Gods eternity, and to Admire 
ravifh us with the confederation of it. If there cculd be a man Gods c- 
found on earth , who had Iked ever fmcethe time of Chrill , or te" 11 ^ 
fincethe daies of Adam or T^oab, wee would highly eftee'm him, 
and feeke to him from the uttermoft parts of the earth , as the 
Queen of Sheba did to S^aw*. But behold, all this world is but 
of iTiort continuance , created of God not many thoufands of 
yeares ago* God is before it > even from all eternity. And this 
world (hall perilh, but he endureth forever, Pfil.i 02. And there- 
fore if wee wonder at the longlafting heavens, and the furety 
founded earth ; how much more ought vve to admire the eterni- 
tie of God, the ancient of dates, before all daies and times,and with- 
out beginning or end ! 

Thirdly, though this world be beautifull by reafon of fome re- *,f 
liques of perfection and beauty remaining from the creation ; yet 0v dove 
feeing it had a beginning, and is corrupted by fin, and hafiens to- noc t h c ' 
wards an end, let us not let our hearts onit,orany worldiy thing; world, 
but looke up to God, and have our hope and our affections firmly now <kgc- 
fet on him , whofe beauties of holineffe fhall not fade as the fa- neratc * 
fhion of this world doth ; but his glory endureth forever. 

FourthIy,we may here fee,that the world was created forus,& life 4. 
for our ufe, not for any need which God had of it ; for God was Not God, 
infinitely bleffed in himfelfe without it , from all eternity : and buc , w f 
certainly, in that God did not create it 9 and time with it, many ^"jj, c 
thoufancls of yeares before he did, this is a ftrong evidence, that 
God is all-fufhcient in himfelfe, and hath for himfelfe no need of 
any creature. 

D LaftJy, 

26 SeVerall branches of Creation mgenenll 

life 5. Laftly, it ferves co make us hare fin, as the Divels poyfon,and 
Hace fin: turne from it, and be affraid to communicate with it, as wee doe 
Motives, with things createS by God ; becaufe it is not of Gods forming, 
but is the corruption of mans nature poyfoned and defaced : and 
all enmity, which is among the creatures , vexing and deftroying 
one another, came in by fin ; and all the pleafiire which men take 
therein, is corrupt, finfu&and againft pure nature : Wherefore let 
us afcribe all deformity, diforder, and difcord in the world to 
mans fin, as the proper caufe thereof. 

Of Creation immediate, and mediate. The Hebrew words expounded. 
Sundry Dolhinespropofed , and made ufefull. Some que ft tons dip 
cuffed: 1. Of the time of the year e, wherein the world was created* 
i.Of the number of the yeares fme thi<s was* Of the highefl hea* 
vens : 5 .points propofed, 

THe creation and creature in generall being defcribed out of 
thefe words , and the reft of the hiftory of the creation in 
this and the next Chapter,I proceed to the feverall parts and fpeci- 
all branches of the creation, which I will unfold in that order in 
which they are here laid downe , and will defcribe the feverall 
kinds of creatures, which God created together with the ftate and 
condition wherein God created them. 

The worke of creation confidered in generall, comprehends in 
it two fpeciall branches, as I have noted before. 

The firft is fimple 3 abfolute, and immediate creation, which is a 
giving of the firft being to things fimply and abfolutely out of no- 
thing, when there is no matter at all to worke upon. 

The fecond is a mediate and fecondary creanon, which is a gi- 
ving of the firft being to things out of a rude, unfit, and undiipo- 
fed matter; and that inftantly, without any precedent altering, 
or difpofing of the matter of which they arc made. 

Each of thefe confifts of two fubordinate branches : Firft, abfb- 
lute creation is either a making or things perfe.* out of nothing, 
or a making of things imperfect out of nothing. Both thefe parts 
or branches are here laid downe in this firft verfc:Of them there- 
fore I purpofe to fpeake out of thefe words; and for the better 


The Vords^ln the bcgmning y expounded . 27 

performance thereof, I will fife the words particularly in the firft 
place, and Co will come to the Doctrines. 

And -for the generall meaning of the words. I have thus far laid 
it open, That the firft word T\iWC\^Berefkith, fignifies the time The words 
of the creation. The word Nla, Bara, fignifies properly creating expeun- 
of things out of nothing, or out of a rude matter fit for nothing, ^* 
and uncapable of any efTentiall forme. The word Slohtm, inti- 
mates the Trinity of perfons in the unity of efTcnce. The word 
Heaven, is to be taken for the Heaven of heavens, or the higheft 
heavens. And by the Earth, is meant the rude matter, out of 
which God framed the whole inferiour vifible world. I now 
come to fift the words more particularly ,ib as that they may give 
Jight to this firft ipeciall branch of creation, and to the two par- 
ticular parts thereof. 

The firft word T\vO&Xl,Berejhith 3 which is here tranfiated in the j t 
beginning, may admit a threefold expofition : Firft, if we take the 
word rh"£7fc*^, as fometimes it fignifies in Scripture, for the chiefe 
orprincipall ; or for the firft fruits, which were the first and chte- 
fefi of every thing ; then this word may figni fie either as iho. He- 
brew Rabbins expound it, Berejhith, in or for the chiefe, that is, for 
Iiraels fake, who were the chiefe of the Nations, and choice peo- 
ple of God, God created the heavens and the earth, and in them 
God laid the foundation of all things created : Or qICq Berejhith, 
in the firft fruits, that is, in Chrift, who is the chiefe and the firft 
fruits of all ; and for the elects fake in him, God created the hea- 
vens and the earth, as fome Chrift ians have expounded it. But if 
we take the word Rejhirh y as it is commonly taken in the Scrip- 
ture, for the firft beginning of a thing; or the firft part of the be- 
ing of it ; or the firft part and moment of time , wherein a thing 
comes to have being ; then may this word (Berejhith) fignifie 
the firft part of time , wherein things created came to have 
being ; or the firft part of creation : and this may bee the 
meaning, that in the firft part of time , or in the firft parr of 
the creation* God created the heavens and the earth;and the crea- 
tion of them was the firft acl of creation. This, as it is the expo- The be- 
fition moft commonly held, and generally received : fo I take it g'™ in g 
to be the beft and fitteft^nd that which the Spirit of God chiefly ^ mc 
intended in this place : for though it is true, that God created all m e ca c „ f . 

D 2 things 

z8 The y?ord Berefliith expounded. 

things in Chri(t,and for his lake, and his elects fake efpccially : 
yet here it /lands with more reafon, and is more agreeable to the 
icope ofthe p'ace, to thinke, that the firft part of time, or of the 
Argim,!. creation is meant rForfirit, it is manifeft (as (hall appeare here- 
after) that here UWofis doth not fpeake generally ofthe creation 
of all particu'ars, which are after named in the Chapter: Neither 
doth he by the heaven & the earth under/land the whole world 3 & 
all the particulars therein contained; but by Heaven,is here meant 
. the higher! heaven ; and by Earth, is meant the rude made, out of 
which God framed the inferiour vifible world. Now they onely 
were not created for Chrilts fake, but all other things alfo^ and 
they oneiy were created in the rlrft part or moment of time, and 
in the firft beginning of the creation : therefore it ftands with 
tetter reafon to expound thefe words [in the beginning) for the 
firft beginning of time, or the firft part of the creation, which is 
the fubjedt of this holy Hirtory ; then to understand it^of Chrift, 
that in him, and for him, the heavens and rude earth was created, 
and for his elects lake, for whole ufe ail other creatures alfo were 
2 Secondly, the Scriptures themlelves doe in other places, which 

handle the fame matter, expound this word for the firft beginning 
of time, or the firft part and moment of creation, as Tfal.i 02.26. 
where T>avid, fpeaking ofthe firft foundation of the heavens and 
the earth, faith, They were founded of old, that is, in the firft time ; 
for fo the word O^a 1 ? fignifieth, which hee there ufeth in ftead 
of this word Berejhith ; and which is tranflated by the Apoftle mt 
«'fX*S> 'in the beginning, Heb.1.1 o. and therefore it is manifefbthat 
here this word notes unto us the time when this firft a$ of crea- 
tion was performed, namely, the beginning or firft part of time. 
Some, who hdd that the higbeft heavens and the firft rude 
made ofthe earth were created from all eternity, and had their 
being long before the firft beginning of time • doc- here take this 
word Berejhith to fignifie from all eternity, and doe thinke that 
fb it may be tranflated ; from eternity God created the heavens 
and earth. And to this purpofe they bring an example, where the 
words (in the beginning) fignifie from all eternity, to wit, Joh.1.1. 
where it is faid, In the beginning was the IVord, that is, from all 


In the begimimgyCreatedjElohlmjexpoimded. 29 

But this expedition may eafily be confuted by other Scriptures; 
for E.vod.2o x i r.God himfielfearT!rmeth,that in fix daieshe made 
heaven and earth, and all other creatures : and therefore the hea- 
vens were not created from all eternity , but in the beginnings in 
the firft day of the creation. As for the words of the Evangeliftj 
thcymaycafily Deanfvvered j for indeed they doe not properly 
fignirle ctornify but the f rft moment of time, in which God began 
to give being to his creatures. And yet fake thefe words (in the be 
gtnxing). joyntly together with other words, which immediately 
follow in theriameTentence,'and they necefTarily imply and prove 
that the Word 7 , was eternall,and from all eternity,coeternall with 
God the Rather ■: For hee who was already, and had a being with 
God, and was God, and made 'all things 111 the beginning, mud 
needs be from alleternity, and before the fir ft moment of time, 
in which he was not made nor created ; but was,that is, had a be- 
ing already, yea was coeternall to the Father : Therefore thefe 
words (m the beginning) as the Evangel ift ufeth them, doe fignific 
eternity ; but in that he faith ,7'he JVordw*is-> that is 3 had already a 
being w ith God in the beginning, when hee began to give being 
to all other things, this proves by neceftary confequence,that the 
Word was eternall : and therefore the common expofition ftands 
fore, that here the word (Berefhith) fignifies the beginning, or firft 
part of time. 

The fecond word of this Text, that is, Bara, created, fignifies II. 
the giving of fir ft being to all things , either fimply out of no- 
thing, or out of matter undifpofed for the forme introduced (as I 
have noted before.) And by a Metaphor , it fignifies great and 
mighty workes, which refemble the creation ; but here it fignifies 
abfolute creaticn,or giving the fir ft being to thehieheft heavens, 
and to the rude maffe or matter of the vilible worlcf,out of meere 
nothing ; for they were created ofno matter before exiiling (as 
aJJ doe holdjand of their creation onely this Verfefpeakes. 

That the third word (Elohvm) being of the pJurall number, fig-. Ill, 
nir-es three per tons in one God the Creatour ; and that the 
creation was the worke of all the three perfons in the Trinity, I 
have before fliewed. Here let mee aide further a CabalifticaJI 
proofe, gathered from the Hebrew word fcVia, which fignifies the 
act of creation, and confifts of three Hebrew letters, which are 

D ? the 

3 o What meant by HeaVenjtnd Earth j&c. 

* ~ ~~~~~~~~~ ————— — ■ ' -%■ 

the firft letters of the three Hebrew words 3** p and nil, which 
fignifie the Father, the Son, and thQ Spirit : And therefore if the* 
Cabaliifticall art be of any credit, this ait of creating is the work 
of all the three perSbns, the Father, the Son, and the holy Spirit, 
one and the fame God. 
IV. V. Th e tvvo foft words,n *Q\d and ^"IN, the heaved and the earth, do 
here fignifie (as I have noted before) the higheSt heaven, and the 
. earth which was without forme and void, that is, the rude mafle 
and common matter of the vifible world. Some learned men do 
by heaven and earth understand 'the whole world , in the fame 
fenfe as the words are, Chapt.2.i J>y heaven , they conceive .the 
higheSt heaven, the vifible Starry heaven, and the , whole firma- 
ment of the aire to be meant : by earth, the lowest globe of tfia 
earth, which hath the fea intermingled with it ; and ny creating* 
they understand the whole worke of creation in general!, and 
not that firft fpeciail act, by which God made the higheft hea- 
vens,and the rude maffe and matter of the vifible world onely. 
The main reafbn which they have to prove this,is drawn from the 
Hebrew Articles n&, which is joyned with CTOUk and n, which 
is prefixed before the word V"W> earth. The SirSt of which Arti- 
cles confifts of the firft and laft letter of the Hebrew Alphabet, 
and fo implies an univerfall comprehension of all things , which' 
were created both the firft and the laft. The other, to wit, n, is 
. of plaine demonstration, and Sheweth that this heaven and earth, 
as they now Stand, are "faid to be created here in thefe words. But 
this exposition is plainly overthrown by the Text it fdfQ, and the 
reafon anfwered without any difficulty : Firft,the act of creation 
ipoken of and intended in thisVerfe, is that which was perfor- 
med in the beginning, that is, in the firft moment of time, fo the 
Text affirmes : but the whole world, and all creatures in heaven 
and earth were not made in the firft moment of time, nor in the 
firSt day , but in fixe daies ; therefore the whole world is not meant 
in theSe words, nor ail creatures in heaven and earth. Secondly, 
if the Article TIN be of generall comprehcnfion , then each of 
thefe words Should fignifie the whole world; for it is added to 
each of them, and fo the other word fboukfbe fuperfluous in this 
place. Thirdly, we may fa.fely grant, that thefe words are of ge- 
nerall comprehension, and yec we need not expound them of any 


What meant by HeaVen^and Earth ji^c. 

other heaven then the highert heaven , nor of any other earth 
then the firrt rude matte , out of which the whole vifible world 
was made, which was without forme, and void&% it is certified in the 
next words, Veric 2. For this heaven did comprehend in k the 
hicrhelt heaven, and all the Holland inhabitants of it, the Angels, 
actually. And this earth or tude maffe did potentially compre- 
hend in it the whole vihble world , which afterwards in the fixe 
daies was actually formed cut of it : and therefore I take this to 
be the beft expof tion, to imderrtand by the heaven , the highert 
heaven onely where the Angels and bleffed Saints have their dwel- 
ling, together with the hort thereof: And by the earth to under- 
stand (as the next Verib fheweth) the rude made, out of which 
God after formed the whole vifble and mutable world , confi- 
ning of the ffarry heavens, and of the aire, water, and earth with 
all things in them. As. for them who here by heaven and earth 
underftand the whole world, actually formed and made; and 
them, who underffand the common feed and tude matter of the 
heavens, both highert and invifible , and alfo the vifible heavens, 
and the inferiour world .; they exclude out of this hirtory of the 
creation, the dirtintt and tpcciajl narration of the creation of the 
higheft heavens, and of the glorious hort thereof, the Angels and 
fuper-celertiall Spirits, contrary to that which Cfttofes himielfe 
plainly teacheth , Chapt.2.1. where-repeating fummarily the 
whole creation in generall,whicb he had before diftin&ly related, 
and in all the parts thereof defcribed in the firrt Chapter, he faith, 
Thus were the heavens and the earth finijhed, and all the hofl of thern^ 
that is, the Angels among the rert ; for they are called the hea- 
venly hort, Luke 2.1 3. 

From the words thus expounded, we may gather an excellent 
description of the firrt fpeciall a6t. of creation , which is called 
fimple and abfolute creation, and of the two particular branches 
thereof, to wit, 

1 That it is that acl: of creation, whereby God in the firrt begin- 
ning did create, and give the firrt being out of nothing to the 
highert heavens, and to the earth, that is, the firrt rude maffe and 
matter of the vihble world. 

The parts of this a6t are two:The firrt is that- acl of fimple c?e~ 
ation,by which God created out of nothing, and gave a moft per- 

D 4 fcft 

jz Gods omnipotenciejfrifdome&c. 

feet glorious being to the higheft heaven, and to all things therein 
contained. The fecond is that a6t of fimple creation, by which 
God gave the firit imperfect being to that rude earth, the mane, 
which was the common matter , ouc of which hee formed the 
whole in feriour, vifible,and mutable world. 

In this delcription of the firft a6t of fimple creation, and of 
each branch thereof, wee may obferve foure things : The firit is 
the matter both generall and Ipeciall, laid downe in the word Ba- 
ra 3 created. Secondly, the author of it, God the Father, Sonne,and 
holy Choir, Eloh'tm, three perlbns in one God. Thirdly, the time 
and order of k,in the beginning) Berejhith ; it was the firit act, 
performed in the firit moment of time. The fourth is the object 
or effect, to wit, the things created, the heaven and the earth: The 
heaven is the object and effect of the firft particular branch ; the 
earth is the effect of the fecond. Thefe foure things confidered 
both joyntly together , and feverally by themfelves , doe afford 
unto us divers profitable inftru&ions, and divers quel lions to be 
difcuffed, worthy of our consideration. 

Firit, the matter and fubtfance of this act, is a fimple and abso- 
lute producing of reall and fubltantiall things ouc of nothing; yea 
creatures, which of all others were molt perfe«5t and glorious, to 
wit, the higher! heavens, and the glorious Angels the eternal! Spi- 
rits, which were made and placed there, to ftand in the fight and' 
preience of God. Now this offers to our confederation an excel- 
lent meditation of Gods infinite power and omnlpotencie,i"hew- 
ing it felfe moll cleerly in this firft act of creation ; for in that 
God, contrary to the courfe of all other the molt cunning Arti- 
ficers, did immediately and abfolutely of himfeife, and by him- 
feife alone create, and make out of nothing in the firft begin- 
ning, the moll perfect creatures of ail, even the higheft heavens, 
and the glorious Angels and eternall Spirits * and fo the firit act 
of creation was the mod perfecl and complete act of all. This 
¥>ou.i . teac heth us, that God is of himfelfe infinite, omnipotent, and all 
By * tioa fa& c & m m povver and in wifdome, able to doe all things, and to 
God Is per forme and bring to pafle by his owne mighty. hand,inftantiy, 
fcen to be without any help, counfell, or advice -of any other,the greateff, 
infinkely ^d moit perfect,and glorious- workes which can be done,named, 
wifcand orimamned in heaven and earth. Wee find by experience and 
Fitful!: * r m rm, 

manifefted in the Creation. ft 

reafon, that all Artificers, before they have in and ofthemfelves 
skill and power furficient to bring to paffethe workes which be- 
long to their art, doe firft practife by the direction of others in 
imaller matters ; and by nit and practice grow more skilfull.and 
fo proceed to greater and more perfect vvorkes : and becaufe the 
moft cunning and exquihte workmen in the world are limited in 
their powerand skill to one thing at once, neither can their 
minds intend, nor their understandings conceive, nor their hands 
performe all things at once , which are required for the perfor- 
mance of a perfect worke ; therefore in every inch worke they 
proceed by time, leafare, and degrees : firft, laying a foundation 
of matter ; fecon dly, forming ana framing of every feverallpart,- 
thirdly, Rtly composing of all parts together in one,and fo bring- 
ing the worke to confummation and perfection . And (6 God 
mult have done in the creation , if hee had not been infinite in 
power, and all-fufficient : Ifhis wifdome and power had been li- 
mited, he mult have begun with imaller workes, and afcended 
by decrees ; and in every worke hee mult fir ft have either bor- 
rowed matter from others , or made it himfelfe for to worke 
Upon. Secondly, he mnrt have fitted the macter, to receive a fit 
forme. Thirdly, he muft have introduced the forme into every 
part, and have compofed ail together into one perfect creature : 
But we fee all was contrary ; he performed the greateft and molt 
perfect worke at the firft, even the moft glorious heavens,and the 
eternall Spirits, which are durable,and abide forever j therein he 
letup his glorious throne, and madean habitation for his blefied 
Saints and Angels. He mewed that he was all-fufficient in him- 
felfe for the greateft worke, becaufe he did performe it of him- 
felfe, before there was any but himfelfe, and no creature made to 
help him. He did not by degrees get his skill , but at the firft 
iliewed the belt worke , and performed it in an infrant : And 
therefore in this firft act of creation, we may fee, as in a cleere 
glafle,the- infinite wifdome and omnipotencieof God. Thistruth 
is alfb ftrongly confirmed by firme proofes from other Scrip- 
tures, as Job 37.2 3. £///?#, that wife unrcproved friend of God, 
full of the Spirit, doth from this very ground, namely, the won- 
derfull creation of the heavens and other things , conclude the 
omnipotence and infinite wifdome of God , that he is Shaddai* 


g4 Gods ommpotmcie, lotfdomzj&c. 

the Almighty, All-fufflcient, that he is excellent in power and 
judgement, and that we cannot find him out by reafon of his in- 
comprehend ble vvifdome and power. Soalfo Job 3 8.1 .and 40.2. 
God himfelfedoth from the creation of the heavens,and the An- 
gels fu}i of glory, and fhouting for joy, and from his making and 
ordering of all things moil wifely prove, that hee himfelfe the 
Creatour is Almighty, one who cannot be inltru6ted nor repro- 
ved, and againft whom none can contend. 1 And J*£ himielfe, J^ 
42.2. upon the fame ground and confederation is moved tocon- 
fefle, that he knowes God to be able to doe every thing, and that : 
he is infinite in wifdomeand knowledge ; that no thought can be 
withholden from him, and that the things of God are too won- 
derfull for him to know. The Prophet 'David, alio, Tfiu. 8.1 ,2* 
from the confederation of Gods glory i which he hath let above 
thevifiblc heavens, iri the higheit heavens; and from the excel- 
lent nature of the Angels y weighed with himfelfe, doth break out 
. into an admiration of Gods excellent greatnefle , thereby made 
fcnowne ; and wonders that hee, fo' mighty a one, mould regard 
pooreman at all; who 3 though the chiefeofvifiblecreatures,is but 
a worme, and as nothing before God : Lord, iaith he, how excellent 
is thy ^ame in all the world, who hafifet thy glory above the heavens ! 
When I confiderthe heavens , the worke of thy fingers, I [ay, Lord, what 
is man, that thou art mindfull ofhim>or the fon of man that thou vifitefl 
him ? And PfaLi 9.1 . The heavens (faith he) declare the glory ofCjod, 
that is, the glorious attributes of his omnipotencie and infinite 
vvifdome. And moil fully and plainly doth the Aportle Taul 
fpeak to this purpofe in a few words, faying, that the 
invifible things of Cjod , even his eternall power and CjodJoeadfrom the 
creation are cleerly feen y being under flood by the things which are made, 
life I- The confederation of which truth ferves firft to incite us,and ai- 
Look up fo direct us, to make a right and profitable ufe of Gods flrft ac"t of 
to the creation, by putting us in mind , that it is not enough for us in 
ommpo- reading the hiftory of it, to think of it only as of fome great work, 
thcTcrea- an ^ t0 cont ^t our fdves with the bare and naked undemanding 
tour* and remembrance of the glorious heavens and Angels , thereby 
created and made ; but that we all ought,by meditating upon the 
excellency and abfolute perfection of that flrft worke above the 
reft which followed, to be lifted up unto that further meditation 


manifefted in the Creation. jj 

of the omniporencie and infinite wifdome of God , and of his 
power and abi'ity to doe ail things, and to bring into perfect be- 
ing any molt excellent vvorke at his pleafure,whenfbever he will ; 
And hereby to be ftirredup and encouraged to rejoyee more a- To re- 
boundantly in the Lord our Creatour, to reft more confidently on i°y c f an< * 
him, when we have committed our felves to his protection, and [ n 
he hath received us under the fhadow of his wings, and to hope 
for ail b'effings which he hath promised ; and for the performance 
of all his promifes in due time and feafon, without hinderance o.r 
re(iftance of any power. As ail created things were made for 
fome end, and whatfoever is not fit to ferve for fome fpeciallend 
is a meer vanity ; fo the knowledge of things, without the know- 
ledge of the end and uie of them, is a vaine notion fvimming in 
the braine : and therefore the maine thing which we ought to 
drive at in feeking the profitable knowledge of things,is to know 
and underftand the fpeciall uie of them. Now Gods creating of 
the higheft heavens^ and the hoft of them in glorious perfection 
by himielfe alone, in the firft a6t of creation in the . beginning, 
doth ferve moft properly, naturally, and neceflarily to mew the . 
infinite wifdome and omnipotencie of God the Creatour (as is 
before proved) that we feeing therein thefe divine attributes of 
God. as in a glafTe,may rejoyee in him, and reft fecurely on hh 
promifes, knowing that he will performe and fulfill his word,and 
none can refift him : Wherefore let us ftudy to make this right 
ufe, that our knowledge may be found and faving , and may 
bring us on to falvation. 

Secondly, this may juftly fmite our hearts, and make us aflia- #£ 2 , 
med of our ovvne dulnefle and negligence in this point, in that we BewaUe 
all, or the moft part of us have fo often read, heard, remembred, the con- 
and underftood in reading and hearing the Word of God , this traryiicg- 
great vvorke of creating the heavens and heavenly hoft, and have * ] g ence ' 
beleeved it, and fpoken of it, and fo have parted it over , without 
feeing, beholding,and confidering in it the wiidome, power, and 
glory of God. Alas, there be few amongft us, who have taken 
care to look fo farre into the end and ufe of thefe things of God ; 
and that is the caufe, that icience abounds without conTcience,and 
much knowledge goeth alone without any found or fincere pra- 
6tife. O let us be throughly afhamed of our negligence in the 


36 The three Perfons in Trinity y coequatt ? coeteniallj& 


times paft, which is too much indeed ; and let us labour to re- 
deem the time hereafter by double diligence , ffudying to fee 
Gods glory in thofe great vvorkes ; and feeing ,. to admire his 
wifdome, and to adore his heavenly Majefiy. 
Ufs % . Thirdly, Gods truth in this doctrine beleeved and embraced, is 
Checks . a ffrong Antidote againft all Atheifticall thoughts, which pofTefTe 
all Athei- the hearts of divers dull and carnall people, wfio cannot conceive 
tliouEhr thoroughly, nor fully bekcvt , but often doubt of Gods omni- 
ot Gods potencie and ability, to create in a moment out of meere nothing 
power, moft perfect and glorious creatures, fuch as are Angels andblef- 
fed fpirits, and the heaven of heavens. , Such doubts are the caufe 
that they cannot beleeve in God,reff on his power, and be confi- 
dent in him in cafes of extremity, when the whole world feems 
to be againft them , and all outward helps faile- If they did but 
difcerne the power of God,by the flrft ilmple a&ofcreation,they 
might know and beleeve, that hee out of nothing can raife more 
help then they can defire or ftandin need of in their greater! ex- 
tremities. • 
T>oB^. Secondly, ill that here in the flrft aft of creation, performed in 
The three the firft beginning of all things,and in the firft moment of time, 
perfons*- q j ^q Creatour is defcribed by the name Elohim, which ilgnifies 
are equal a p] ura ]£ t y f perfons in the unity of effence ("as I have before pro- 
ved) and this ait isafcribed to all the three perfons equally in one 
and the fame word : Hence we may gather a neceffary doctrine 
concerning theconfubfrantiality, equality, and eternity of all the 
three perfons in the facred Trinity ,to wit,That the three perfons, 
the Father, the Son, and the holy Gholt are all co-eternall , and 
without beginning, all equall among th em felves, and confubftar- 
tiall, of the fame undivided nature and fubffance, three perfons di- 
ftindt in one infinite eternal! Jehovah, For plaine reafon tells us, 
that whatfbever had no being given to it ; in or after the flrft be- 
ginning of creatures, but was, and had a being already in the flrft 
beginning, and before any thing was made, yea, was the authour 
and maker of the flrft worke of all ; that muff needs be of abfo- 
lute eternity, every way eternall,. without any beginning or end 
at all. Now fuch are all the three perfons in the bleffed Trinity, 
they all by this word {Slohim) arc fliewed to be equall in the flrft 
aft of creation ; and fo to be before the firft beginning of all 


Comfort againjlfeare ofJpoflacie. \7 

things, as the authour and caufe before the worke and effect they 
all are declared to be one and che fame lingular God and undivi- 
ded eifence : and therefore this Doctrine doth hence truly ariie. 
I need not here againe (rand upon further proofe of it ; for that I 
have done aboundantly already,™ expounding the Doctrine of the 

Onely the confederation of this truth may ferve firft to con- Ufi i. 
vince all Heretickes of horrible errour and blalphemy, who deny Againft 
either the Creatour of the world to be the true Cod ; or the Son, Antfcrim- 
and the Spirit to be equal!, co-eternall, and of the famefubffance taues# 
with the Father ; as the Arians and others did. Behold here the 
blafphemous fictions of thefe men cut off before they fhoot forth, 
and rooted up before they were fowne, by this firft act of crea- 
tion, as it is here defcribed by the Spirit of God : and therefore 
let us hate and abhorre all flich dreames and fictions, as moft 
monftrous and unnatural!, damned in Gods booke, from the firft: 
words of the hiftory of the firft creation. 

SecondJy, Jet us even from this furtheft ground fetch the all- Ufi 2. 
fiifficiencieof our Mediatour and Redeemer Chrift, and the effi- Truftin 
cacie and perfection of his full fatisfa&icn, that we may reft on Chrift,& 
him confidently without fcruple, feare, or doubting. Asalfo the* . .°' y - 
inflnitepower of the Spirit, that we may reft in his ftrength for * mU 
perfeverance. If the Son Chrift,or the Spirit were inferiour Gods, 
and of an inferiour nature, not infinite nor co-eterna'l with the 
Father, men might have fome colour of diffidence , and ibme 
caufe to doubt of lufficient fatisfaction, redemption, and ftedfaft 
perfeverance. But here we fee the contrary, that the Son is the 
Word, by vehom all things were made * and the Son and Spirit oi:e,the ^ '* 
fame God and Creatour with the Father; and the Spirit as he is- in 
the regenerate^ is greater every way then he that is in the world, 
1 John 4. therefore let us comfort our fdvQs in -the all-fufficiencie 
of Chri/t for full redemption, and of the Spirit for Janctification 
and perfeverance. 

Thirdly, in that here the firft aft of creation even the creation r he t \ mCr 
of the higher! heavens with the ho ft of them , and of the com- in the fr-j 
mon matter of the vifible world out of nothing, is laid to be per- £**««£• " 
formed in the beginning, that is, in the firff part or moment of 

time : 

^8 'Ihe^orld Tea* not from etwiity. 

time. Hence fome profitable Doctrines arife,and here fome que- 
ftions offer themfelves to be difcufled. 
Dottr. Fir ft, we here are taught , That the whole world, and all things 
The therein, even the higher! and moll durable heavens, and the firft 
w° r . w > and matter of the viiible world had a beginning, and were not from 
had a be- all eternity, as fome Heathen Philofophers imagined. This Do- 
ginning, citrine, as it is plainly affirmed in this Text, which alone is proofe 
iiifficie^it • fo other Scriptures doe aboundantly prove and con- 
iirme it : John 1 7.24. our Saviour faith, that God the Father lo- 
ved him before the foundation of the world. Ephef.i.^* the Apoftle 
faith, that God hath chofen us in Chrif t before the foundation of the 
world : And 1 Pet a. 20. it is faid , that Chrift was ordained before 
the foundation of the world ; And T?w.8.2 3. the Wifdome of God 
faith , I was fit up from everlafling., before the earth was, or ever the 
heavens were prepared. Thefe and fuch other Scriptures, which 
mention things before the firft beginning and foundation of the 
world, doe moft evidently mew, that neither the world, nor any 
part thereof was from eternity ; but with time , andjn time be- 
gan. And if this be not Efficient to fatisfie Atheifts, who refute 
to beleeve God or his Word , natural! reafbn it felfe is able to 
prove it againft them , by their owne Principles which they 
Reafi. Ek&i they acknowledge, that whatfoever is corruptible or mu- 
table by nature, muft needs have a beginning,and cannot be eter- 
nall : Now it is manifeft, that the whole world , and all things 
therein, are by nature corruptible, and changeable-, and whatfoe- 
ver therein is conftant,unchangeab!e and incorruptible , it is fo, 
not by any naturall power in it fclk , but of the free grace of 
God in Chrift. The A ngels, the moil glorious creatures, and the 
fpirits and foules of men, which are created of nothing, they are 
changeable by nature, asappeares by the fall of the Divell , and 
mans fall and corruption : and therefore it is faid, that hee charged 
his Angels with folly, to wit, them that did fall • and to the reft 
which ftand he adcfed light, even fiipernaturall light of his fancti- 
fying Spirit, Job 5. And although the wileft of the Heathen Phi- 
lofophers did gather from the conftant courfe of the viiib ! e hea- 
vens and the ftarres, that the heavens were incorruptible and un- 
changeable ; 

Tl?e Tborld Vtas not from eternity. ?p 

changeable ;yec experience hath caught the contrary, and it is 
found by long obfervation of Aftronomers, that there are many 
fixed fterres, and ft range comets or blazing ftarres , generated in 
the heavens farre above the Moon, which appeare for a time, and 
after doe vanifli away, as the late blazing fiarre, m <tAnno \ 61 S. 
was found to be by certaine demonstration. But for the inferiour 
Elements under heaven,an j the creatures therein ; every eye f^cs 
rhem to be in daily change and alteration , and to have no con- 
ftancie in them : Therefore the world is not from all eternity. 

Secondly, that which is eternall , hath no caufe fubfifting be- Reafii. 
fore it ; nor any fuperiour to over-rule, order, and difpofe it , but 
is abfolute of it fdfc : And that which hath fuch a preceding and 
fuperiour caufe, authour, and di/pofer,muft needs have and receive 
a beginning from another. Now fuch is the world, and all things 
therein ; the world, and the whole courfe of it is over-ruled and 
difpofed by God, as every eye may fee : For whereas it is the na- 
ture of Summer to Be hot, when the Sunne, which is the fountain 
and caufe of light and heat, is moft prefent with us ; God, at his 
pleafure, for the fins of men, doth turne our Summers heats into 
cold Winter ftormes, and doth drown our Harvefts with immo- 
derate raine, in the midft of the dry fcorching dog-daies, as we 
have found of htc yeares 1 So hee makes fruitful! lands barren, Pfal.107* 
when they are belt tilled ; and the barren wilderneffe hee turnes 
into a fiui trull field, and the defart into fprings of water. Alfo 
daily experience doth teach us, that things which naturally ferve 
for health, are fometimes turned to poyfon ; that which enrich- 
eth one, doto impoverifh another : and that which hurteth one, 
doth help another. All which fhew, that God over-rules the 
world , and that all things are under hh hand , and he is the fu- 
preme caufe and difpofer ofall : Yea,if we ob ferve all parts of the 
world, we fhall fee, that the earth and the fea are ruled much by 
the heavem 3 an jche heavens are moved by fome fuperiour power : 
Therefore the world is not eternall , without caufe or begin- 

' Thefe and fuch arguments and experiments convinced the 
Heathen Philofophers and Poets, and forced them toconfefle, 
that the world was not eternall ; but made in the beginning of 
time, as appeares in Hermes , Tnfmegiftos, Tjthagorat, Plato, Or- 


40 The World not to be loVed y and Dohy. 

phew, Sophocles >Homer, and others. And even zAriftotle himfelfe, 
though he affirmed ftiffely the worlds eternicy, and did oppofe 
the fictions of T/ato and others, concerning the making of rhe 
world of a matter which was before exiiting, and without begin- 
ning ; yet at length he was forced to confefle , and doth in divers 
of his Sookes, that God is the authour and preferverof the whole 
univerlall world, as appeares nrnnd.o& gener.& corr. 
fife i. Thisadmonilheth ns, not to (ht our hearts on the world., nor 
Love not content our foules with fuch things as are therein ; but tolooke 
the world, up higher to a better portion, if we defire full fatisfaeiion , and 
being fo true contentment and felicity indeed. He that builds on a foun- 
movablc ^ at ] on ^ wfcch of it felfe may faile, and needs a iupporter it felfe, 
he can never dwell (zkely and fecurely, but in continual! feare, 
that his houfe will falion his head ; neither can he ileep in peace, 
till he hath laid a deeper and lurer foundation under that. Now 
here we fee the world is a moveable foundation, it was not from 
eternity, but had a beginning ; and the being of k hangs on an 
higher caufe> even God : And therefore let us not fet our hearts 
on the world, nor make it our portion ; but looke up to God 3 and 
fet our affections on him, and feeke to him to be our portion : for 
he onely can fill our foules, and he is y and hath been, and mall be 
forever the fame ; and in him is no variablenefTe,nor fhadow of 
v life 2. Secondly, this truth ferves to arme us againft all temptations} 
Arme a- of Sathan, and all cunning fophiftications of Atheilts, which tend 
gainft A- to fhake our faith in this point of the worlds beginning ; and to 
theifme. ma ke us thinke, that the world hath been from all, eternity, we 
have here a fure foundation from Gods infallible Word, and 
itrong reafbns alfb to confirme our hearts in this doftrine : and 
therefore let .-no cavills of oppofers trouble our hearts : Yea, that 
we may more cleerly fee , and more firmly beleeve this truth 
As in without doubting, I will briefly mew the weaknefle of the belt 
fomeOb- arguments, which are brought to the contrary; and fo will re- 
jeftions move thofe clouds and mitts out of the way, which feem to eclipfe 
anfwcrcd * the truth. 

objtft.u The moft weighty Objections are gathered from Scrip- 
ture termes and phrafes: as for example , from the name which 
the Scripture giveth to the world, and the ages thereof, to wit, 


— ' ' ' 1 — — — — — ^ m 

The T&w^Everlafting, bow taken in Scripture. 41 

a/<5Vac, which comes of 6iu and <Sv, and fignifies a being ahvaies .• 
for fo the world is called, /W. 1 1.3. Alfo 2 T/w.i.p.and 7/M.2. 
the times of the world are called ygoW aifivu&v, everlaflmgttmes % 
as the Greek words fignifie. 

The word didwv,everlafting y is two waies taken in Scripture, r \ 
and in humane writings alforFirft, it fignifies an eternall bewg y **" 9 
without beginning or end, even a being before and after all 
times ; and To God onely is called a/ca'v/oc, everlafling , 1 Tim.6. 
1 6. and the Spirit is called dicivWy eternally Heb.9.14. 

Secondly > this word fignifies a be'mg m all times , from the firrt. 
beginning to the lalt end of time, but no more , not before nor 
after ; and thus the world, and the ages thereof are called ever- 
iaftmgy ocitovtx* The places objected prove this fenfe j becaufe in 
them the Apoftle fneweth,that thefe everlalting times had fomc- 
thing going before them , and were but times which have a be- 
ginning and end: And therefore thefe objefted places make muck 
for this doctrine, and not againft it. 

The Objections of Ariftotle are drawne, 1 .from incorrupt ibi- Ob]eft % i 4 
Iky , which he imagined to be in the heavens : 2. from this, that 
the world was not generated nor made of any pre-exiftent mat- 
ter, neither could be brought into being, by any naturall genera- 
tion : 3. from the eternity of motion, which he thought to prove 
by this, That no motion can be found in nature,but hath another 
motion going before it. 

All thefe may eafily be anfwered : for firft, the heavens are^w- ^r^; 
ruftible by nature, ana the vifible heavens fihaliperifh :and that 
rhehigheft heavens are mcorrupttbfe , it is not by power of their 
nature, but of the will of God, preferving them. 

Secondly, though the world was not made of matter pre-ex- 
iftent, nor by natural! generation ; yet it may have a beginning 
fvpernaturall, being created miraculoufly of nothing by Gods om- 
nipotent hand, as all miraculous things are -done, which never- 
the'eflearenot eternail, nor endure for ever. 

Thirdly, though in naturall things we find no motion , which 
hath not another motion going before it j yet it is not fo in the 
creation, which was a worke farre above the courfe of nature : fo 
that thefe Objections are of no force to difprove this doctrine.A'H 
that csfrittvtfc with his fubtle wit cculd deviie, was nothing but 

E " this, 

41 Time had a beginning. 

— ■* * ..I ^ 

this, That the world was not made by thecourfe of nature, nei- 
ther did come into being by natural 1 generation, nor was framed 
out of an eternall mane of matter , as T/ato and other Philofo- 
phers dreamed. Alio that there was no time before the world, 
neither fhall there be any time, wherein the world (hall not be ; 
and that the world is as durable, and lalfeth as long as all times ; 
all which we grant without feare ; and yet it doth not follow 
that the world is eternall : For that is properly eternal, which ne- 
ver had beginning, neither in time, nor with time, nor before 
time ; but as for time it i'dfe, it hath a beginning and an end, as I 
fhall fhew in the next place: Therefore let us hate and abhorre 
all Atheitficall dreames of the worlds eternity. 
Dottr.2. The fecond thing which Iobferve from this word Berejhith,m 
T..-C had the beginning (which (ignifieth in this place the firft being or mo- 
a begin- ment of time) is this, That time it Cdfe is but an adjunct, or cir- 
nin S* cum rtance of things created, and had a beginning, and fhall have 
an end with the mutable and moveable world. For proofe of this 
we need feek no further but to the fifth Verfe,where it isfaid,7#tf 
evening and the morning were the firfi day, that is 9 time was produced 
by the Word of God, even the firft day together with the things 
therein created ; and fo it followes of all the daies of the firft 
weeke, they are faid to be made with the workes created in 

And indeed in reafon it mult needs be fo ; becaufe time is no- 
thing elfe but the continuance of things created and the meafure 
Gfthe motions which are in the created world, a day is the mea- 
fure of the Sunscourfe from Eait to Welt , and round about to 
the Eait againe : An houre is the time in which the Sun runs the 
foureand twentieth part of his dayes motion : A weeke is the 
fpace of feven daies, and a yeare the time whi e the Sun goeth 
his courie through the twelve Signes of the Zodiack ; and the 
whole rime of the world confiffs of yeares monerhs and daies. 
Now all thefe had a beginning, and have an end ; yea, there was 
no day till light and darknefTe we"e made and diitinguifhed ; no 
moneth nor yeare till the Sunne and the Moon were fct in rheir 
courfe : therefore time bad a beginning and is nor eternall. There 
were ibme things before all times and ages of the world, 2 Tim. 


No time before the Creation. 43 

Firft, this ferves to admoniin us , to call off all vaine thoughts UfiU 
and imaginations of time going before the creation of the 
world. It is the folly of many, v\ hen they reade of the worlds 
creation but fo many thousand yeares ago, to dreame or time be** 
fore creation,and toqueftu;n what God did in that time?A witty 
old man did once ani'wer this quell ion (as Saint <*Anftm faith) ra- 
ther tauntingly then folidly, viz* That Cjodin thofe times wo* ma~ 
king an hell for fuel) curious inqutfitors : But the true anfwer is, there 
was no time nor any thing to be done in time; but God was only 
in himfelfe moil blefled by contemplation of himfelfe in abfolute 
eternity, in which there is, neither before nor after, no beginning 
nor end : For where there was no day nor night, nor haven to 
move, nor any thing to be meafured by time> there could be no 
rime at all. 

Secondly, this trurh ferves to make us lee our owne vanity, and %r e 2> 
the weakneffe of our owne reafon and under/tanking. Let a man Sec thy * 
©f the ftrongeft braine and wit , and the deepeft reach in the own wcai% 
world, doe what he can, and ftrive and ftraine to the utmoft , he nefle* 
fhail not by humane reafon md capacity conceive, how any thing 
can be without time . How God couJd be before the world, when 
there was no rime; or what eternity mould be, bur a long time 
without beginning or end- And yet this is Gods truth, as my 
Text faith, which cannot lye, thar time was not till the creation : 
Let us therefore here learne to lee our owne weakneffe , and the 
fhort reach of our reafon. Let us acknowledge, that while wee 
have our fouies imprifoned in our mortal! bodies, looking onely 
through the narrow grates of our outward fenfes, we mall never 
be able to fee, or to comprehend things fpirituall andeternall Co 
as they are. And let this put us in mind to be humble here , and 
to reft in hope, that the eternity, and the eternall joyes of heaven 
are fuch, as neither eye hathfeen, nor eare beard, nor mans heart con- x Cor«2.9, 
eeived: And kt us labour to walke by faith, and not by light , as 
the Apoftle faith, 2 Cor.5.7. $° much for the Doctrines. 

1 There be alfo two queltions which here offer themfelves to be 
ducufled : The h*rit is,What time of the the world was crea- 
ted,and which day & moneth were the firft of the world; without 
the knowledge of this we cannot exactly tell how long it is fince 
the world was created.The fecond is,How long it is fince that foil 

E 2 beginning, 

44 Tfo Worlds beginning in September confuted. 

, i ■ ■ i . i ■ . .. i . . — _• 

beginning, wherein God created the heavens and the earth : For 
tjkofes doth carefully fet them downeuntiil his time ,• and fo alfo 
doe the fueceeding Prophets, which £heweth,that this knowledge 
is not to be neglected. 

g*uej?.x t For the firft exertion : Some hold, that the world was created 
in September, in the timeof the Autumnall equinocriall. Others, 
that it was created in the Springtime, and in March , when the 
day and night are equall , and of one length in all the world. 
Both thefe opinions are maintained by reafons and arguments 
produced out of Gods Word ; but the reafons which are brought 
to prove the latter opinion, I conceive to be more ftrong and fo- 
lide: and therefore I doe incline to beleeve , that the world was 

The world created in the Springtime, and not in Autumne;and that o- 

bcganin t h ers ma y De better confirmed in this truth, I will propound the 

1 c pring reafons on both fides, and will anfwer the one, and confirms the 

Arium i Themaine Arguments which tend to prove , that the world 
* ' ' was created in September, are foure efpecially : The firft, becaufe 
September was from the beginning obferved and accounted for 
the firft moneth of the yeare , both by the Israelites and Fore- 
fathers, and alio by the Egyptians and other Nations : For Exod. 
1 2.2. it appeares, that March for a fpccia.ll reafbn was made the 
firft moneth to the Tfraelites ; becaufe in that moneth they came 
out of Egypt. And that till then both they and the Egyptians ac- 
counted September the firft moneth. 

'An'** * anfvver,that the Egyptians did erroneoufly begin their yeare 

in Autumne ; and the Israelites living with them , did for civill 
refpe&s follow their account : And therefore, when they were to 
depart out of Egypt, God did both teach and command them the 
right obfervation in Abib^oi March, Exod.i 2.2. and called them 
to the true ancient and originall forme of beginning the yeare in 
the Vernall eqiiino&iail, which is in aAbib, that is,March : Yea, 
the Caldeans and Perfians, who were of better credit then the 
Egyptians , did alwaies from the beginning account March the 
firft moneth of the yeare : therefore this Argument is of no 

Arvpnui* Secondly, they argue, that September was the moneth, wherein 
the yeare of Rejft, and the yeare of Jubile did begin by Gods ap- 

The Worlds beginning in September confuted. 45 

pointment, as appeares, Levit. *$.<>. foron the tench day of chat 
moneth, God commanded the Israelites to found the Trumpet of 
Jubiie in all the land, and fo to begin their yeare of Jubile and 
Releafe : Therefore that is the true beginning from the crea- 

I anfwer to this two waies : Firft, that as the yeare of Reft was Al ^ 
not the firft, but the feventh , and the laft of the feven ; and the 
yeare of Jubile was the next year after feven Sabbaths of years : 
So the Lord did Hill follow the number of feven,and would have 
it begin in September ; becaufe it was the feventh moneth,and 
not the firft by the order of creation. Secpndiy, the moneth of 
September, when all the fruit is taken from the ground, and men 
be°in to fow and plant for the next yeare, is, the fitteft time for 
to begin the yeare of Reft, and of Jubile , wherein every man 
was to re-enter into his land which he had fold, as appeares, Verf. 
x 0,1 1. and this was the caufe of beginning in September; not 
becaufe it was the firft moneth of the world , and of the yeare, 
reckoned from the creation : but becaufe it was the fitteft for 
men to give up the land empty to the owners, when they had ga- 
thered in the come and fruit, and cleared the ground : and fo this 
Argument is of no force. 

Thirdly, they argue, That the time wherein all things naturally Argnm.}! 
come to perfection , is moft likely to be the time, wherein God 
created the world, and all things therein pe.rfecl: in their kind,and 
that is Autumne and September as experience teacheth : There- 
fore it is moft likely to be the firft moneth from the creation. 

This Argument is divers waies defective : Firft, the ftate of the Anp»\ 
world in the creation, was far different from that ftate of things 
which now is ever fince mans fall and corruption : Then all times 
were both Spring and Karveft , and trees did both bloflbme and 
beare perfefl: fruit at all times of the yeare : Therefore no cer- 
taine Argument can arife from this ground. Secondly , if any 
time be more perfect then another, and retaine perfection from 
the creation, it is moft likely to be the Spring time ; for in the 
Spring all things begin to revive,and fhoot forth of the earth, as 
they did in the creation : then are the fields moft frefh and green, 
ana full of beautifull flowers, as in the ftate of innocency. And as 
for Summer and Harveft, they doe but ripen things which the 

E 3 Spring 

46 Arguments Tbhy the World ll?ould begin in the Spring. 

■ — ' — — — — ■ ^ 

Spring hath quickened and nourished , and hatten them to cor- 
ruption, and not to perfedtion, cauftng them to die and wither : 
Yea verily, if the earth had not been curfed for mans fin, it would 
now bring forth in the Spring not pnely flowers, and bloflbmes, 
and Spring fruits; but alfo all other kinds of fruit : Therefore this 
is a weak Argument. 

Argum^, As for their fourth Argument, which is CabaliiHcall , drawne 
from the Hebrew word iT^na, which fignirieth , in September $ 
agreeing with n^£7fcVU, which iignifieth, /# r/?<r beginning , in the 

A»fo. fame letters , I have anfwered it before , and mewed that they 
differ in one letter, to wit (n>) and therefore it is but a fal- 

* But now for the beginning of the yea re naturally in the 
moneth of March, which is called by the Hebrevves Abib and r NJ- a 
fan, as being the moneth in which the world was created,and that 
the world was created in the Vernailequinoc1:iall, when day and 
night were equalljnall the world, divers of the Ancients affirme 
and hold, as Athanafms , Ambrofc , Theodoret, (jril , Damafceney 
Beda, and others ; and with them many judicious and learned Di- 
vines of later times doe concurre, as Junius, Polanus, and others : 
Their reafons are very ftrong, forcible , and convincing , which 
cannot be gain-faid. 

ArountA Firh\ they prove it out of the Scriptures, Cjen.K.i 3. where that 
moneth is called thefirftoftheyeare> by account from ihc creati- 
on, wherein the waters were dried up from the earth ; and it be- 
gan to bring forth fruit for Noah, and the creatures with him : fo 
that in the next moneth there was food for him & the creatures, 
and birds and bearls began to breed and multiply in the earth. 
Now that could not be in September and October, when the 
fruit s and herbes begin to decay and wither.Certainly,^^ tur- 
ned not out the creatures againft Winter to feek food from the 
earth ;that was no time to breed aboundantly. It is March,where- 
In the earth begins to bring forth ; and April, the fecond moneth, 
is that wherein the creatures, comming out of the Arke ,, might 
find graffe,herbes,and other food ; and Noah might fow and plant 
againft Summer and Harveft : Therefore undoubtedly March is 
the firft moneth from the creation. 

*iwri*u Secondly, they prove ic from Z.xod.i 2.2. where God recalls the 
u Ifraelices 

,.■ . .■■ ■ " ■ III. . . 

Arguments ~tohy the World Jhould begin in the Spring. 


Israelites from the Egyptian obfervation,to the old beginning of 
the yeare from the creation ; and to account Abtb t or March, the 
firft moneth, as the Text fheweth! 

Thirdly, the Spring time is every way fitted for the beginning Argum.;\ 
of the world , and or* the natural! yeare : then things begin to 
fiouriin in all the earth, as they did in the creation ; then is the 
aire molt temperate and healthful! for the bodies of men , as in 
was in the creation; then day and night are ec/iall in all the world, 
and thedaies begin to grow longer then the night in the country 
of Eden and Babylonia, which was the place of Paradife , where 
Adam was created. But in September , daies begin to Shorten, 
and all herbes to wither, and fruits to fail from the trees : There- , 
fore March is the fitted moneth for the time of the creation. 

Fourthly, the Cal deans, Perfians,and all cunning Aitroncmers Argum.4. 
did,by their art and ski!! diicerne,and by tradition from the rird 
fathers were taught, that March was the fird moneth «f the year, 
and that in the Spring time the world was created. 

To theie let me adde one Argument more,drawne from the in- Argumj. 
carnation and paffion of Chrid : For it is mod likely, that the 
moneth, in which God appointed Chrid to be incarnate by con- 
ception in the wombe of the Virgin , and alio to fufter for the 
worlds redemption, was the moneth and feafon of the yeare , in 
which the world was created : For fo thetime,in which God /enc 
forth his Son, made of a woman, and made under the Law,and to 
redeem them that were under the Law , comes to be the fttlncffe 
of time , as the Apodle calls it, GW^.4.4. Now this was the 
moneth of March : for Chrid being borne on the fhorted day of 
the yeare (as Saint Aufien and the Ancients , who lived within a AuguJlJn 
few ages after Chrid , by tradition had learned, and did teach) n<u 
mud needs be conceived in March, nine moneths before , in the tAl * Dom " 
Vernall equinoctial!. And in the fame moneth hee iuftered for 
our redemption; and rihng from death, triumphed over death. the 
Divell, and all the powers of darknefle; even at the time of the 
Paflbver (astheGofpel tedifieth) which fead was kept in the firft 
rnontth Abtb, £\*W.i 2.2. and 1 3.4. that is? in March , as all con- 
rciTe. And fo we lee Gods performing ofhispromiie in the ful- 
nefle of time, was his keeping of his word to a day, giving Chrid 
to be conceived in the very day of the yeare, wherein he was pro-; 

E 4 mi fed 

48 Of the number of yeares fince the Creation. 

m mk ■ ■ • — ; 

mifed to our fir/1 parents, and to-fuffer for <tAdams finne in the 
fame day of the vveeke, and of the moneth, in which sAdam vvat 
made, andmarr'd by fin (as fome of the learned Fathers have ob- 
ferved.) Even as he delivered Urael out of Egypt , at the end of 
430.yeares, on the [elf e fame day , when the terme of yeares was 
accomplifhed,£*W.i2.4i.' Therefore I conceive that the time 
of the creation, and of the fall of our firft Parents, and of thefiril 
promife of Chrift, was in the fame firft moneth,in which he was 
conceived, and alio perfected mans redemption, that is, in Abib, 
the moneth of March ; and fo he was lent forth infnlneffe of time y 
as the Apoftle faith. 
Jgueji.ii The fecond queftion which arifeth from the word Beginning* 
is about the number of yea res , which have been fince the creati- 
on : For if there was a beginning of things , in which the world 
was created, as the Text here fheweth ; then there muft be acer- 
taine number of yeares fince that beginning, which number if we 
can find out, and prove from Scripture, it will much confirme us 
in the truth of the creation , and of the whole Hittory of Gods 
Word. Now about this number of years there is much difference 
among the learned : but the befl computation is that which is 
grounded on thofe testimonies of Scripture , which doe moft ex- 
cellently chaine together the holy Chronicle ; and by .that com- 
putation the world was created 7,960. yeares before the death of 
Chrift ; and the day of Adams fall being upon the fixth day of the 
weeke,even towards the evening of the fame day , wherein he 
was created, was that day 396o.yeares before the day of Chritts 
death, which alfo was on the fixth day of the weeke, in the fame 
moneth of the yea re. To confirme us in this truth, wee have 
moft excellent testimonies of Scripture : Firft, the age of Adam, 
when he begat Seth, counted together with the ages of the Suc- 
ceeding fathers, before the birth of their fucceeding fons , make 
up in all unto the birth ofHpah from ^*»w creation, 1 ojtf.years, 
Gen.*>. and from Noahs birth to the Floud, is <5oo.yeares, that is 
in aH, 1 6 5 6. yeares, from the Creation to the Floud. 

Arphaxad the fonofShem, borne two yeares after the Floud, 

Cen.i 1 .1 o. his birth ("as the ages of the Fathers from him to Te* 

rah there reckoned doe mew,) was before Teralfs death 425. 

% yeares^ Now the two yeares between his birth and the Floud,to- 

r^n&a gettier 


Of the number of yeares fince the Creation. 49 

gether with the faidnumber of 425. being added to the yeares 
before the Fioud, make up from the creation to the death of 7V- 
rah, 208 3. yeares. Immediately after Terafrs death God calied 
Abraham, and removed him out of Charan, into the Jand of Ca- 
naan ; but gave him no inheritance therein, but onely promifed 
to give it co him, and his feed for a pofleflion,^^^,?. and that 
in his feed all the families of the earth mould be blefFed, Cjen.i 2. 
1,2,3. and thispromife was 430^?*/ before the Law -wot given by 
UHofeSy Cjalat^.x 7. which was immediately after the departure 
of Ifrael out of Egypt, that is, the fiftieth day after 3 when they 
and their fathers, from Abrahams firft peregrination in Canaan, 
had fojourned 43o.years,i:.*W.i2.40. And from Ifraels coming 
cut of Egypt, to the building of the Temple, in the fourth yeare 
of5^w^/reigne,is48o.yeares, 1 Kin. 6.1. from thence, to the 
death of 'Solomon, is 2 6.yeares. Then Ifrael departed from Judah, 
and continued 3 po.yeares in their iniquities, Eztch.^.i^.to the 
de(tru6tion of Jerufalem , and burning of the Temple, ip.yeares 
after the beginning of the 7o.yeares captivity ; from the end of 
which captivity, to Chrifts death, is feventy fevens of yeares, "Da- 
niel 9. that is,49o,yeares, all which make $96o.yeares, from the 
creation. Now from Chrilts death, which was in the 33-yeareof 
his age, or 3 3. after his birth , iris in this prefent yeare 1623. 
the full number of 1 5 9°-yeares, which being added to 3960. be- 
fore Chrifts death, make from the creation 5 5 so.yeares. 

Now this computation of yeares,together with the clearing of 
the former queftion, may ferve 

Firft, to dilcoverunto us divers wares the admirable providence tlfeu 
of God, in that he doth fo order all things, that the time of the Gods pro 
incarnation of Chrift, the fecond Adam , mould fall in the fame videncc 
moneth with the creation of the firft Adam .-and the d^y of re - toben<> - 
deruption from finne and death , fhould be the fame day of the lc f * n i 
week, and of the moneth,with the day of Adams falling into fin, 
and bringing all mankind into bondage to hell and death. And 
that in the holy Scriptures, which were written by holy men of 
God in feverall ages , the true computation of times and yeares 
mould be put upon record; andreferved and kept iafe through all 
ages untill this d^y, in the midit of fo many dangers,and among 
fo many alterations and changes which have happened in the 


50 Mans redemption demonftrattdjby &c. 

world. Surely, he who is fo provident in orSering the circum- 
ftance of times, and preserving the records of them , even his holy 
Oracles, when the Nation of Jewes , to whom they were com- 
mitted in truft, is call off, and fcattered over all the earth , will 
much more keep his promifes, and fulfill all prophecies and pre- 
dictions, every one in the fet time and feaibn which he hath ap- 
Ufe 2. Secondiy,this exacl recordof times, and of the very moneth of 
Truth of the creation and of the redemption,, ierves : to confirme us in the 
creation verity and truth of thole things which are written concerning 
^and re- ^ beginning and creation of the world, and the redemption of 
hcTebyde- man kind by Je&s Chrift, comming in the exact fulneffe of time 
monfira- t0 redeem the world, according to Gods promifes ; when feverall 
ted. vvitnefles or writers,who never conferred nor confulted one with 

/ another, doe agree in their relations, not only in the maiiie mat- 

ters, but in the circumftances of time alfo ; no man can have any 
Jeaft pretence or colour of doubting. And thus doe the writers of 
the holy Scriptures, who lived in feverall ages ; they exactly agree 
in the hiftories of creation and redemptions even to thecircum- 
itancesof times, the very daies and moneths wherein they were 
performed. And therefore let us firmly beleeve them , and reft 
on the truth of them : for we have fure grounds of beleeving, but 
not any pretence or colour of doubting. 
fl r e 3 , Thirdly, hereby it is made manifeft,that the world being crea^ 
All made ted in time, and onely fo long ago as is before fhewed, was made 
forus,and onely for us, and for our benefit, who live under time, and not 
robe ufcdf or the eternall God , to adde any good , or any bleiTedneffe to 
for God. fo m ^ w j l0 was a ij.(yffi c i enc anc j mo # blefled in himfelfe from all 
eternity ; and both could, and would have made the world mil- 
lions of yeares before , if it might have been profitable to him- 
felfe : Wherefore let us hereby be ftirred up to ufe the world as a 
gift, and as talents given to us by God, to be weJl imployed,and 
liudy to honour him by all worldly things created. 
Ufe 4. Fourthly, hereby wemay juftly be moved to admire the eter? 
Note and nity of God, when we fee the whole time of the world to be but 
admire .55 5o.yeares , which' are feefore him but as 5 .daies and an halfc £p ol . a thoufand yeares with him are but as one day, 2 Pet. 3.8.) 
PfaTioi. Wherefore, as holy 'David, when hee compared Gods eternity 
*y,i* ' ■ With 

Sh&m&jim, Ji^ijying Hczv ens ^kence derived. 51 

with the temporary being of the heavens and the earth,and their 
inciinincr to decay and changes, like avefture and wearing garment , 
did adnitre Gods infinite and eternal! Majefty : So let te all be af- 
ter the fame manner affected with reverence of God , and admi- 
ration of his eternity , when we compare the ages of the world, 
even the longeft of them, the thoufands of yeares hnce the creati- 
on, to bi but as fo many daies with the Lord, who liveth and abi- 
deth the fame for ever. 

The fourth thing in this Text is the object and effect of Gods 4. 
firft worke of creation, to Wiethe heavens andthe earth. 

Firft, the Heavens come to be conlidered , together with the 
creatures here comprehended under that name ; and that thefe 
things may more plainly appeare to our underftanding, we mult 
firft fearch and fife out the true fenfe and hgnification of the word 
(Heaven) in this Text, and then come to the inftru^tions which 
doe thence naturally arife. 

The name, by which it hath pleafed the Spirit of God in this Derfoat* 
place to call the Heavens, is in the Original! Hebrew Q^IP, °nofthc 
Shamajim; concerning the fignification and Etymologie whereof, w ° r ?"g- 
the learned much differ among themfelves. Some make it a com- Hcllens 
pound of aw, which fignifieth there , andn^o , which fignifieth i 
waters ; becaufe above in the aire(which is the loweftand neareft 
heaven) and in the clouds, water is engendered, and in fhovvres di- 
i\ills from thence. Some compound it of UN, which is fire , and 2. 
CD^O, waters • becaufe the heavens ieem to be made of both : the 
Sun, Moon, and Starres refemble fire, and the reft of the heavens 
refanbie calme and ftili waters. 

Some derive this name of CDOu;, which fignifies nfloniibment ; , # 
becaufe if a man doe ftedfaftly behold and consider either the 
glory,or the wonderflill height and compafle of the' heavens, they 
are things which will da z!e his eyes , and make his heart aftohi- 

But the beft derivation of the word, which is grounded upon + 
thebeft reafons.isrhat which fome late Writers have obierved, 
to wit, that it is derived of the fimple Hebrew word C3M \ which 
ilgniheth there, and is never ufed, but when we fpeake of being in 
a place which is remote and diftant from us : For as the Hebrew 
wordna, h*r* > fignifies the place prefent- } fo this wordC3**> 


52 Shamajim, figmfying Heavens phence derived. 

there, fignifies a place remote and diftant from us, and the being of 
things there, in that place. Now the heavens are the utmoft and 
molt remote place from th& earth, which is fet in the middle,and 
about the center of the round world , and upon which men doe 
live in this world: Therefore this derivation doth agree very aptly! 
to the heavens. 

Secondly, of a place which is moft excellent, wee are wont to 
fay, There, there is the beft being, and in a kind of vehement and 
affectionate ipeech, weufeto double the word. And heaven is 
the mo ft excellent place ; and therefore the word CZiQ\p, which 
is of the duall number , and fignifies as much as There, there, or 
there double, is molt fitly derived of CZ3^, there. 

Thirdly, the heavens are divided moft properly into two hea- 
vens, the highefl heavens, which is invisible ; and the vifible or 
lower heaven, which alfo confifts of two parts; the (tarry and the 
airie heavens : And all thele are divided into two equall parts to 
all men living on earth. The one is that which wee lee in our 
Hemifphere , and within our Horizon from Eaft to Weft , and 
from North to South, above the earth. The other halfe is that 
\vhich is hid from us by the earth, and is feen by the Antipodes, 
that is, them who dwell on the other fide of the earth , dire&ly 
oppofiteto us ; and both thefe parts of the heavens are equally re- 
mote and diftant from the earth. Moreover, the heavens doe 
move about two Poles , the North and South Pole : and there- 
fore in many refpeifcs the name of the heavens, CZ31DTC?, is moft 
fitly derived of EZ3TP, brought into the forme of the duall num- 

Fourthly, this derivation of the name, and the fignification of 
it,doth fitly agree to all things which are called by the name Hea- 
ven ; and is verified in them all, even the higheft heaven, the ftarry 
heaven, and the fiiperiour regions of the aire ; for they are all re- 
mote and diftant from the earth, and are divided everyone into 
two equall Hemifpheres, equally diftant from the earth : But in 
the higheft heaven there is neither fire 3 nor water, nor any muta- 
ble Element : and therefore the name CZJiQ^, derived of y;^, or 
CD^Q, cannot agree to it at all. And as for the fuperiour regi- 
ons of the aire , they are not £o glorious , nor fo high as to 
aftonifh us : and therefore E3EWJ, derived of DQ^, cannot 


Ttiversftgnifications of the Tnrd Heavens, 55 

agree to them : wherefore the Jaft is the belt derivation. 

The next thing after the derivation of the word, is the diverfi- Divcr/Ity 
rie of fignirications, which we are to note in the next place ; and of its fig- 
withall, to (hew in what fenfe it is here ufed in the Text. nificttb, 

Firft, this word is ufed, in a Jarge fenfe, for that whole fpace ons * 
from the upper face of the earth and thefea, to the utmoft height x 
of the higheft heavens, which comprehends in it the higheft /the 
Harry ,and the airie heavens ; thus the word Heaven is to be un- 
derltood, </<?#. 2.1. and in all other places, where the Spirit of 
God comprehends the whole world under theie two words, The 
heavens and the earth. 

Secondly, k is ufed to fignifie more fpecidly either the higheft 2 * 
heaven, as De tit. 2 6.1 5- Looke downe from heaven , the habitation of 
thy holineffe, which Saint *PatiL calls the third heaven, 2 Corin. 12.2. 
Or the itarry heaven, as Gen. 22. I will multiply tlyyfeed as the fiarres 
of heaven : and Pfal.19.6. Or the airie regions, wherein birds flie, 
as Cjen.1.26. where mention is madeofthe/W<?/ of heaven. 

Thirdly, the word Heavens, by a Metonymie of the caufe for 3. 
the effect, and of the fiibjecl:, is ufed in Scripture to fignifie foure Foure 
things : Firft, God the pofiefTour of the heavens, whole glorious things fig- 
Majeftie doth dwell in the higheft heaven , as l Dan./\.i6. where „ fied by 
the heavens are /aid to reigne,xhat is, the God of heaven: And Luk^ ea ^ en$ * 
I 5.1 8. / have finned again ft heaven : and Matt h. 2 r .2 5. Was the 
boftifme §f]ohn from heaven, or of men f Secondly, the Angels and 2 
bleffed Spirits, which dwell in the higheft heaven , as Job 15.15. 
The heavens are not ckane in his fight : and PfaL$$.6. and 69.3 5. 
where the heavens are faid to praifi God, that is, the Angels and 
Saints. Thirdly, the Church militant,which is a congregation of 3* 
people written m heaven , begotten from above of heavenly feed, 
and whofehope, reward, and triumph is in heaven, as JCto.8.10. 
the armies of the faithfull are called the hoft of heaven : And fo 
in the Prophets and tht Revelation , Heaven fignifies the true 
holy Church • and the Earth fignifies earthly men of the world. 
Fourthly, tht clouds in the aire, and in the face of heaven, as 4. 
Levit.26.1 9. 1 will make your heaven as iron, that is, the clouds j in- 
fomuch that they fhall yeeld no raine. 

Now here in this Text is meant (as I have before touched) the 
highefi heaven, as it is diftinft from the rudemafle^without forme, 


54 Angels comprehended under the name Heavens, 

which is here called Earth, which was the common matter of the 
itarry andairie heavens, and of all the vifible world, asappeares 
in the next Verfes. And under this name here the Angels, who 
were the holt and inhabitants of the higheft heavens , are com- 
prehended :For as the word Jerusalem is often ufed in the Pro- 
phets, to fignihe the people and inhabitants , together with the 
citie and place ; fo here the word Heaven , Signifies not the bare 
place and body of the higheft heaven, but the place, with all the 
holt and inhabitants of it, the Angels. As for the vifible Marry 
heavens, which are the light of the inferiour world and the aide 
heaven called the firmament, they can in no cafe be here under- 
stood : for they were made out of the rude made, without forme, 
called Sarth, and oppofed to heaven in my Text. 

From the word thus expounded , I come to the infttu&ions : 
For whereas fome doubt,whether there be any heaven betides the 
vifible Harry heaven ; where thofe heavens are, and whether they 
were created, this Text doth cleare the doubt; and fheweth, that 
there is an heaven which farre exceeds the heavens which are feen, 
in all glory and excellency : For here CMofes fpeakes of an hea- 
ven created in the beginning, with or before the common mafTe, 
out of which the Sunne, Moone,and Starres , and all the vifible 
heavens and world were made : Yea, in that this heavem was crea- 
ted out of nothing, and had not a being given it out of the rude 
mafic, without forme , out of which God made all the vifible 
world (as the Text here faith) this doth imply , that they have a 
more excellent being, of another kind, farre better then all that 
is feen, and above , and without the compafle of the vifible hea- 
vens ; fb that hence thefe Doctrines arife : i .That there are fuch 
heavens: 2. That this heaven is not God, but a place created by 
God: 3-That it is. above the viable heavens: 4«That it is moll 
large and ample • and yet not infinite , nor every where,as God 
is : 5. That it is a place moil excellent and glorious, free from cor- 
ruption, excelling and exceeding the naturall knowledge , reach, 
and apprehenfion of men. 
Dottrl* F * r ^' we ^ ere l earne > T hat, befides the vifible ftarry heavens, 
* which were made out of the nrrt rude defotmed earth , there are 
heavens created out of nothing,in the firft beginning of the crea- 
tion : And this is confirmed by thofe Scriptures, which fpeak ex- 


The higheft Heaven is not God. 55 

prefly of che Heaven of heavens, that is , an heaven befides thefe 
vilible heavens, as TW.10.14. 1 Kings 8.27. T/^/.dS^.and 
11 $.1 6\ Alfo by thofe Scriptures, which mention an heaven , in 
which Gods glorious Majefty is kid to dwell; and the holy An- 
oels, which cannot be the ftarry vifibJe heavens, as Deut.26.1 ?. 
1 Kwgs 8.30. and cflfor. 18.10. Yea, the holy Apoftle puts all out 
of doubt, 2 Cor.i 2.2. wherehe calls this the third heaven. 

That this high-eft heaven is not God , but a place created by DottrA. 
God;for here it is faid,that (fod created this heaven : Some thought 
that there was no place above the Spheres of heaven ; but that 
there God is all in all, and that there all things are in God, and 
iubhlt in him. Their ground is that fpeech of the Apoltle, 1 C<?- 
rinth.i 5. that God fhall be all in all. But that (hevves the contra- 
rie, that God is in all, not that all things are or fhalbe, and fubfift 
in God, as in a place. Againe, this fhewes not the place, but the 
ftate of the blefTed, that they fhall immediately injoy God with- 
out a Mediatour. Now, that the higheft heaven is not God , di- 
vers reafons mew : Firff, it is Gods throne , Ifa t 66.i Deut.26.1 5. 
therefore not God himfelfe. Secondly, it cannot containe God ; 
but he is infinite, and farre without the compafTe of it , I Kings 
8.27. Thirdly, God is every where ; but this heaven is not fo,it 
is onely above, not in the vifible world. Fourthly, it is fuch a bo- 
dily fub(fance,as can containe glorified bodies ,as the body of Chrift, 
Enocb,an& Eliah. It comprehends the vifible heavens within the 
compafle of it : But God is a fpirit. 

That it is not God, but his creature, and his workmanmip; and 
that he hath rhediipofing of it, as his creature,appeares, (jen.i.i. Pfal.11 5.16. 

That this heaven is above the vifible heavens, divers Scriptures Dottr. ?» 
teflir;e:For It is called Heaven above,w here Jehovah isyDeut.q.39. 
Jof.z.i 1 . that is, above all the viable world. Into this heaven 
our Saviour is faid to be taken up on high, when he afcended Lake 
24. 5 1 . Yea, he is faid to afcend up farre above all the vifible hea- 
vens, £phef.A~\o. 

Fourthly, that this heaven is a moft ample and large place, may Doftr.A* 
eafily be gathered and proved from this, That it was madediitinc* 
from theearth,which was the matter of the whole vifible world; 
and doth lublift above, and without the compafle both of the 


56 The glory and excellency of Heaven. 

mafle, and of all things which were made of it ; and fo compre- 
hends them within the large compare of ic. And our Saviour in- 
timates fo much, where he affirmes , that in ic are many man/tons, 
John 14.2,3. Alfb the Pfalmift, TfaL68.^ where hee calls this 
heaven niSIP; which Signifies faire, and large fyacious piaines: Arfd 
yet it is not infinite , nor every where ; for God fills it and the 
earth alfo, and it is not able to containe him, 1 Kings 8.27. 
pcflr*5* The fifth inftruition is, That the higheft heaven is a place moft 
glorious and excellent, free from all corruption, and full of glo- 
rious light, farre furpafllng our fraile imagination, and the reach 
of mans naturall underftanding. The very Signification of the 
name fhewes that it is farre remote from our fight, conceipt,and 
apprehenfion. And that rule in Philofbphy proves, that it is free 
from alteration and corruption, to wit, That thofe things onely 
are changeable, and may be corrupted, and turned into their firft 
matter, which are made of a common matter , capable of divers 
formes. But things which have no part of any luch matter in 
them, are incorruptible, and unchangeable, free from alterations 
• incident to inferiour things. Now fuch are thefe heavens disco- 
vered to be in my Text : For they were made abfolutely of no- 
thing, with, or before the firft common matter of thevifible 
world : Yeajn the next words the Spirit of God doth dirtinguifti 
the rude maffe from thefe heavens , by this , that it was full of 
Excellen- darknefle, and without forme,and void ; which implies,that thefe 
cJe of hea- heavens were farre different , that is , full of beauty, forme, and 
vcn# light. And other Scriptures fully confirmethis : Firft,by the 
names, by which this heaven is called,and by the excellent things 
which are fpoken of it ; for it is called the Heaven of heavens, that 
Is, the heaven farre above all heavens in glory and excellency, 
^^r.10.14. and 1 Kings 8. 2 7. and TfaL 68. 54. The Heaven of 
heavens everlafting, fo much the Hebrew word CZnp,doth inti- 
mate. And Saint 7W, who was rapt up into this heaven, was fo 
aftonifhed with the glory of it, that he knew not whether he 
was in the body or out of the body : there he heard words , which ic 
was not lawful! to utter ; and the fight thereof was fuch a caufe 
of glorying, that he was afterwards in danger thereby to be too 
much exaltcdy and had need to be bu&tted by the Angellof Sa- 
than for his humiliation, to keep him from exceifive boafiing, 

2 Cor.i z. 

The glory and excellency of the higheft Heayen. 57 

2 Cor.i 2. And the fame Apoftle calls trie inheritance therein re- 
ferred for the ele«it, the inheritance of the Saints in light, Colofi .12. 
and he faith of God, who dwels there by his glory, that he dwels 
in light, which none can abroach unto 9 i Tim- 6. 1 6. which teftimonies, 
with many other which might be cited, fully prove the glory and 
excellency of this heaven. ^Befides, we have many Arguments 
to this purpofe. 

The ririt is drawne from the proper efficient caufe of this hea- R Ca r ort r , 
ven : For it is molt certaine, that the place and city which hath 
God only for the builder & maker of it;& in the building where- 
of God hath fhewed fuch admirable divine wifdome, that it more 
fpecially is called his worke and building , muft needs be molt 
excellent and glorious. Now fuch is the higher! heaven, it is cal- 
led the citie, whofe builder and maker is God, Heb.i that is,the 
city which God builded alone as his matter-piece , for his owne 
purpofe , to mew therein his glorious wifdome and art r as the 
word Tixv'mic there ufecf doth lignifie. Yea, it is /aid to have foun- 
dations, that is, to befo firmly built, that it can never faile , but 
Hand ftedfaft forever, world without end : Therefore it is a molt 
glorious place. 

A fecond Argument is drawne from the proper inhabitants of Reafimi. 
thefe heavens : For in all reafbn, and by thecourfe ofnature,that 
is the beft place which falls to the mare, and is allotted to the beft 
inhabitants, by the will and appointment of him, who is the wi- 
feft of all, and doth order all things in wifdome and equity.Novv 
the higheft heavens are allotted by God to the bell inhabitants: 
Firft,he hath chofen them to be his owne habitation, wherein he 
delighteth to dwell, not onely by his eflentiall pretence and 
power, as he is in all other places, but alfo by his vifible glory >ho- 
JinerTc'and unfpeakable majefty , So the Scriptures teltif7e,Z)<?#r. 
26.1 5. where thefe heavens are called,*/?*? habitation of his holineffe. 
And Pfal.i 13.5. the high dwelling , in which God is fo high above 
all. And I fa. 57.15. and 63.1 5* the high and holy place , the habita- 
tion of Gods holinefle and glory ; and even eternity , which fhali 
never decay. Secondly, God hath appointed this place to be the 
habitation of his holy Angels, which kept their ftanding, in 
which he will have them to dwell, and to behold his glorious face 
continually, as our Saviour faith, Matth.i 8.1 o. and so much u in- 

F n'mated 

5 8 The glory and excellency oftk higbeft Heaven. 

timated i><% 2.1 -5- where Angels are'called the heavenly hofl. 
The third fort of inhabitants, to whom God hath allottee! thefe 
heavens, iv the glori lied company of his Saints , with Chrift their 
head, in whom they arechoienjand brought to fa I vat ion. Though 
tAdam was made after Gods image, yet,by creation , and in the 
ftate of narurali uprightnefTe, he was not capable, nor worthy of 
heavenly g'ory ; that is the proper purchafe of Chrift for his e- 
lect, and it is the gift of God in Jefiis Chrift , which he gives only 
to them who are made in Chrift the firft fruits of his creatures, 
fbns andheiresof God. Our Saviour teftifiesfb much, Job.i 4.3. 
where he fa ith, that he prepares a place for his faith full in that houie 
of God : And the holy A p of lie, Heb. 9. where he faith, that Chrift 
©nely opened the way into this Holy of holies ; and that none can 
enter thereinto but by him the way, and the doore. And Ephef. 1.3. 
he faith j that God blefieth us withali fpirkuall blelTings w hea- 
venly places m Chrift. And 1 Pet. 1.1,4. vve are &*& t0 be begot- 
ten to a lively hope, by the refurre&ion of Jefus Chrift from the 
dead, to the inheritance incorruptible, and undehled , that never fa- 
deth, re fervsd in heaven for us : wherefore it ismanifeft by the ex- 
cellency of the inhabitants, being none but God himfelfe, and 
the eledt Angels and Saints ,' which are moftneare and deare to 
God, that this Heaven is aplacemoft glorious and excellent. 

A third Argument may be drawne from the fit 'nation of it : For 
the higheft place is ever the beft by the law and courfe of nature, 
as our fenfes doe teach, and we fee manifeftly in all knowne parts 
of the .world ■ and by faith we ought tobeleeve , that it is ib in 
places beyond our fight , cfpcchlly becaufe the Spirit of God in 
the Scriptures extolls the higheft pkces, Pfal. u $. 5. and I faith 
57.1 5. Now the higheft of all places is the third heaven in fins* 
ation : For Chrift afcending up thither, there to remaine, and to 
make interceilion for u^Aci.^.21 . and Heb. 9.1^.1% faid to afcend 
farre above all other heavens, and rhofe heavens are called tZPCnO* 
the high places, Pfal. 148.1. and T<x v fax} the highefi places , Ephef 
4.3. and //<?£. 1. 3. Therefore they are the moft excellent and 
glorious places. 
Kcafin 4. The £ )u "th reafon is drawne from the excellent things, which are 
there laid up in (lore for the Saints : For the wifdome of God re- 
quires., that he mould ftore up the beft treafiires and things in the 



The glory and excellency of the higbeft HeaVen. 59 

belt place ; and undoubtedly that place is the bed , where God 
Jayesup in (tore fiich treaiures. Now in the higheft heaven are 
the bell: trcafures , which neither ruft nor moth can corrupt , nor 
theeves touch with unjuft hands, Matth. 6.20. there is the inheri- 
tance of the Saints in light, Celof.i .1 2. and the incorruptible and 
undefiied, 1 Pet.i 3. There God hath prepared for them that love 
him frch things as neither eye hath feen, nor eare heard, nor mans 
heart conceived, 1 Cor/n.z. That is the place of Gods right hand, 
and of his pretence, where isfxlneffe of joy , and pleafitres for ever* 
more, Pfal. 6. Therefore it is the belt place of all. 

Fifthly, that place from whence every piper n at nr all good and per" R ea r on r; 
fill gift doth come , mult neceflari.'y bee the moft excellent : and 
fuch a place is the higheft heaven. Chrift, the fecond esfdam, the 
fountaineof ail bleflings, is faid to be from heaven, heavenly,! Co- 
rinth.i 5. and to be the bread oflifQ , which came downs from hea- 
ven, to give lire to the world, John 5. The calling of men to the 
participation of all excellent graces, is called the heavenly calling y 
Hebr.^.i. The gift of fupernaturall grace is called the heavenly 
gift, Heb.6.4. The iubftanriall things fhadowed out under legall 
types, are called heavenly things, Heb.%.^. and the new Jerufalem, 
the moft glorious Church , is called the. heavenly Jerufalem, Hebr. 
1 2.22. and is faid to come downe from heaven, l^evel.n . In a word, 
every good and perfect gift is faid to come downe from above, from 
the father of lights, that is, from heaven ,Jam.i .1 7. Therefore thii 
heaven muit needs be a moft excellent place. 

Sixthly, the Spirit ofGodinthe Scriptures doth defcribe and Rcafinf* 
fet forth this Heaven, by all the things which are, or have been moft 
excellent in this world , and doth make th.m but types and fha- 
dowes of it : as firft, by the earthly Paradife , in which God put 
Adam in the ftate ofinnocency, which was the fweeteft and moft 
excellent place that ever was knowne in the world, 2 Cor.i 2.4. 
by the hill of Zion, which wasmoft beautiful for iituation,andthe 
joy ofthe whole earth,//^-: 2. 22.By7^r/^/<-w,rhemoft glorious 
citie of all the world the place which God chofe to put his Name 
there, Gal. 4.26. and by the Temple of Jerufalem , the moft glo- 
rious San&uary of God j and the Holy of holier Tfil. 1 1 .^nd 
j%.7.Habakj2.20.Heb.9.iy. and to. p. Therefore this Heaven is 
moft excellent. 

F 2 Laftly, 

60 The glory and excellency of the higbeft Heaven. 

Laftly, that this Heaven is a place of wonderful! light and glory, 
and a worke of God, which fhall never be changed orperifh,but 
ftand and endure for ever ; it appeares by the Jight which hath (Li- 
ned from thence , and by the eternity of the things which God 
hath annexed to it. The light which (Lined from thence on Saint 
Paul at mid-day, did ferpajft the brightneffe of the Sun, AH. 26. i 3. 
And the houfe which the faithfull have there prepared for them, 
is faid to be etemall in the heavens, 2 Coring. 1 .And the inheritance 
there referved is faid to be immortally 1 Pet.1.3. and the life which 
the ele6t fhall live there, is called life etemalh is a 
moft blefled place. 
Ob]tCt. Now, though fome Scriptures feeni to fpeak to the contrary, 
that the heavens (hall perijb, as Pfal.i 02.26. and that heaven , as 
vyell as earth , fhall pajfe away , Matth.24.35. and the heavens 
(hallpajfe away with a notfe^ 2 Pet. 3.1 o. and be burnt with fire : 
Anp». Yet tht truth is, they {peak not of the higheft heaven , which 

was with the Angels created immediately out of n/othing ; but of 
the vifible fiery and ftarry heavens , which were kreited out of 
the fame rude mafTe, the common matter of the aire, water, and 
earth : They may be burnt, and fet on fire, and pafle away 5 but 
the higheft heaven, being not of the fame common matter, no 
fire can take hold of it. 
Ufe 1 . Now thefe inftruclions concerning this firft worke of God,the 
Tocon- higheft heavens, ferve for excellent ufe: Firft, to discover the 
fute the madneffe and folly of all them , who either deny the creation of 
• d W f C t ^ ie ^ neavem ' as C a i eta} *, nAugufttnut, Steuchns , and other great 
Popifh Writers have done ; or doe hold this heaven to be no- 
thing elfe but God, or his glorious Majefty, and light mining 
forth to his creatures. Thefe Doclrines prove the contrary, and 
declare all iuch profane conceits to be doting dreames^ ever to be 
Ufe 2. Secondly, they (new the admirable free bounty and love of 
Admire God towards hiseleft , and his eternal! fatherly providence > in 
the boun- that he hath not onely provided fuch an excellent habitation for 
ty of God them , wherein they may live moft happy and bleffed for ever ; 
*? *l l$ but alio made it the firft of all his creatures and workes. If the 
Lord had firft made us ; and tryed our obedience how we would 
ferve him, before he had made and furnifhedthe higheft heaven, 


Motives tojiirre us up to prepare for Heaven. 6\ 

the houfe of glory ; men might have imagined, that by their own 
doings they had procured it : But Jo, God hath cut off all fuch 
vaine conceits, in that he made this firfr, and by lb doing, fleweth 
that it is his love and free bounty, not our merit ; it was his pro- 
vidence,not our purchafe or care for our felves : Let us therefore 
give him the glory and praife of a God vvonderfull in goodnefle, 
free grace, and providence ; even from the firft foundation of the 
World, creating a place of reft and glory for us. 

Thirdly, in that thehighelt heaven is here difcovered to be fo yr c .; 
high & excellent a place, fo full of glory and light,and the proper Be afha- 
country of the Saints chofen in Chrift;this oughc,as to reprove us, of 
& make us afhamed of our immoderate love & afTedtion to world- jhy earth. 
ly things , and of our groveling on the ground, like brute bearts, e ^ e fr c 
and cleaving to the earth , like moles and earth-wormes, and of 
our negligence in inquiring after heaven^and meditating on this 
heavenly country : fo alfo to ftirre us up to the contrary , and to . 
direct us how to prepare our fdvQs for it , by looking and mind- p2 " e -for" 
ing high things, and carting oft all earthly clogges, and workes of heaven. 
darknefTe, and all undeannefTe and filtriinefle, and by putting on 
all holinefle,and the armour of light. If we were to goe into an- 
other country, there to fpend all our daies , we would be carefull 
to enquire after, and learne the nature , qualities , fafhions, and 
language of the country : And fo let us doe concerning our hea- 
venly country and city, which is above. Let us enquire after hea- 
venly things, fafhion our (cIyqs to it ; and becauie there is our in- 
heritance and our treafures, let there our hearts be alfo. 

Fourthjy> feeing heaven is fo high, and ib excellent and glori- fife 4. 
ous a place and habitation, that man in innocency was neither ca*- Be thank 
pable, nor worthy of it , this ferves to magnifie in our eyes the f "! 1 for 
infinite goodnelTe and admirable bounty of God, who hath given Q s & O0( * 
Chrilt to purchafe for us , being corrupted, and become finners ^ r V1 1 n ' 
by sAdams fall, a more excellent place, Irate, and condition, then 
did belong to us in our beit. naturall being in the irate of pure 
nature. This alfo magnifies the vertue and power of the grace of 
Chrift, which hath lifted us up from the valley of darkneffe ; and 
of thefhadow ofdeath;and hath advanced us to be heires ofa 
better inheritance then the earthly Paradife, even to live and 
rei'jnc with God in his heavenly Kfngdome. 

F 3 Fifthly, 

6i Of the creation ofAngeh. 

Ufe 5. Fifthly, here is matter of lingular comfort , and of patience, 

Comfort and hope in all the afflictions, which can befall us here on earth in 

ki all af- j-fos va j e of mifery ; when men labour, and ftrive , and fight for 

&<fhons. an earr | 1 iy crovvne.and in hope of a glorious victory and triumphs 

no danger of death doth daunt or dilmay them^no pain and griefe 

of wound? doth difcourage them ; but the crowne of glory ..which 

we wreitle for , it is incorruptible , and never fadeth : and the 

Kingdome for which we furTer, is an heavenly Kingdome, and an 

inheritance referved in the higheit heavens, which is a place more 

glorious and excellent then any tongue can exprefle., or heart of 

. man conceive : And therefore tet us be tied fart and unmoveable, 

never daunted with any danger, nor difmayed with any feare, but 

comfort our felves, and poflefle our loules in patience , knowing 

Kom.8.18. and counting , that ail the iufferings of this life are not -worthy of 

the glory which {hall be revealed , and our momentany pailions mail 

aCor.4, bring a farre more exceeding and eternall weight of glory in heaven, 

2 7 * where a durable fubftance is Itored up for us, 

Ufe 6, . Let m hence learne to loath and hate al fo that erroneous opi- 

Againft nion which fome hold, to wit, that the higher! heaven is not or- 

th Chili- dained to be the habitation of the Saints after the latt judgment; 

afts * but that Chrilt mail reigne with them here on earth in his bodily. 

prefence : a fond conceit, contrary to the exprefle Word of God, 

utterly razed by the former Doctrine. 


Of the creation of Angels. Their names. They had a beginning : %ed- 
fons andtifes. They were till created by the one true God : with Ufes. 
They were made in the beginning of the world. They are Gods firli 
Mid befi creatures : with the Ufe. They were ?nade in heaven, and to 
mhabit heaven : l^eafons and Ufes. Seven Corollaries or Conclufi- 
ons concerning the Angels. 

I Proceed in the next place to the inhabitants or hoft of the 
highelt heavens, the Angels, which were by the fame Word of 
God in the beginning created together with them ; asappeares, 
Chapt.2.i. Andhowbeit they are not here exprefly named by 


Angels comprehended in the name Heavens. 61 

Mofes ; yet they are neceflarily included in this word , flN Angds 
CTQtDiT the heavens, as may eafily be proved, and made mani fell c °mp r c- 
by three reafons : Firft , the Article n,is demonstrative, and|*£ d * din 
fhewes that there is an Emphafis in this word; and the particle Htautm.* 
rttf, confining of the firfr, and laft letter of the Alphabet , is of i. 
generaJl comprehension, and fliewes, that by thefe fpeciall and 
moil glorious heavens, he means all whatfbever was created with 
them , and whatfbever was in the creation contained in them, 
even all the glorious Angels. Secondly, it is a common and ufu- 2 « 
all thing in the Scriptures, for the Spirit of God, to fignifie by 
the name of the place, both the place and the inhabitants :as for 
example , ^Pfal. i 47.1 2 . and Jerem.^.i 4. O Jerufalem , wafh thine 
heart. And LMatth.23.3j. Jerufalem, Jerufalem , that kdlefl the 
Prophets. In thefe places, by Jerufalem is meant not the city on- 
ly, but alio the inhabitants. And fo the name croe;n , the hea- 
vens, is ufed to fignifie the Angels, which were the created inhabi- 
tants of heaven, Job I 5.1 5. where it is iaid , The heavens are not 
f fire in his fight, that is, the Angels, becaufe many of them rebel- 
led,and loit their habitation, and were ftained with finne. And 
Tfal.%9>6. And the heavens jhal I declare thy wonders ,0 L or d^ that 
is, the heavenly hofi : Therefore by analogy of Scripture,the An- 
gels may here be underftood. Thirdly , what is here meant by 5. 
the heavens, Mofes himfe.'fe fheweth, Chapt.2.1 . namely, the hea- 
vens and the hofl of them, that is, the Angels, for they are the hofi of 
thehighefi heaven, and fo are called ,Luke 2.1 3. Therefore un- 
doubtedly the Angels are included in the word Heavens. 

So then the creation of the Angels coming now the next in 
order to be handled , I will feeke no further for a Text ("though 
there be fome more plain and exprefle) but will ground all my 
Do6trines,concerning the creation and nature of Angels, on this 
word, taken in that fenfe which I have here proved; which offers 
to our confederation five maine and principall points of inftrudU- 
on, unto which all other Doctrines may be reduced , which con- 
cerne their nature and creation , and may be as branches com- 
prehended under them. 

Firft, we here learne, that Angels had a beginning, and were not Points 
from all eternity. Secondly, that God created them , and that concern- j 
they were made by that one God and three perlbns , here called in & the ?* 

F 4 Ehhi/ffp 

^4 Severall points ofDotlrine con cerning Angela 

Elok.m. Thirdly that they were created in ThTb^h^TT 
the word Berejk,th; taken in the molt ftrid fenfe, n^SF 'Z 
firft moment of time. Fourthly, -that they were S3 k i 
firft fimple a a of abfolute creation, dm?, hey werem^ 7 ** 
ending, mofl perfect and glorio^S^Sfe 
Fifthly, that they were made in and with the higheft heaven w 
by the law of creation made to inhabit them « th P r, ™ i 
of their naturall habitation. Thefe are ft a W !£ ^ P ^ C ?, 
Pol^s of D W wWch irnme diatey flrftomte'S 1 
And thefe, efpecially the Mi of them , <Lh offer to ou ,c3Sfc 
ration divers other particular queftions andnnll^- a n . 
to be handled. A s ffrtt, feeingXy were ^ created inld U ^°, n 

SSK IT* t0 b 1 the ^^ em'ftEefo J 
they are of an heavenly nature, even pure, excellent w i • 

Ws, fuch as the nature of the pIacfreo£2 "to be toffee 

habitants. And here an occafton is offered To feeke onr"?/ n " 

defection of AngeJs,and to enquire after their wLZ fUC 

and fuch like properties, wherein they exce 11 and ZiT™"' 

Cod the Creatour, bearing his image 7 Secondly he^k 

fered to us thefe points to'be handfed , and El' Zt J * e °f~ 

difcuffed, «fe. That the Angels are of a finite mn,l ° m r 5 bc 

their places : Alfo, whether °they ^ircSSKS S?? ^ 

by t e placc mwhkhtheyare/or .rather KKSyfeJ 

whether, and how they move from place to placed &h 

Thirdly, the moll hioh and Jar^e heaven* r™™„>r l 
the whole : vifible worl/in and withUS u eywe Setto 
be the hoft of them ; doe import, that the A JJk were created 
many in number, according to the lar^ereffe of thJX/ ^ 

compSnT innUmerab,et ** ^ m - S reS S 


a being in other places; How they come o be ont V h? ""T* 
ipaturall place , and feme of them S baring l^W** 
for ever/ And here their tnurabiSyffi ftSS ^ ^ 
Jed ,• and the diftinaion of them into „ A T ?, be hand " 



What fignified by the name Angels . 6j 

Jeadus, and what large fcopeit gives us to /peake of the Angeli- 
call nature, and the heavenly ipirhs, the firit and chiefeft of the 
creatures of God. 

That we may better underftand thefe Doctrines , I will fir LI 
confider the name of Angels, what it fignifies, and how we are to 
rake it in this place. 

The name, Angell, comes of the Greek name^yytA©- 1 , which Of their 
/ignihes a tnejfenger , lent forth from fome fuperiour perfbn , or names, 
irate , to deliver a meffage, and to declare the mind of him or 
them that fent him. The Hebrew name, 7*^Oj which is the 
name of an Angell in the Old Teftament , fignifies alfo a mejfen- 
ger ; but yet in a more full and large fenfe : For it jftgnifles fuch a 
meflenger,as doth not only deliver and declare a meflage by word 
of rnourh , but alfo doth act and execute indeed the will of him 
that fent him, and doth performe his worke injoyned, as a faith- 
full minifter and fervant. And hence it is, that the Hebrew 
word, r-lDN^O* which is derived of it , and is ufed for the office 
and worke of an Angell , fignifies in generall any thing which 
ierves for the ufe and miniftery of man. And as the fignification, 
according to the Etymology, is generall and large ; fo the word 
is ufed in the Scriptures , to fignifle any meffenger or minifter 
lent forth upon a melTage , or fome employment , either from 
God or men. Jacobs mefiengers which he lent unto Eftu.Cjenef. 
32.3. to worke his peace, are called by the name, ZZj"jD^VQ>^«- 
gels. And\^ the meflengers which CMofes fent from 
Kadefh unto the King of Edom, are fo called , and in Greeke 
tranflated a.yylKxQ. But when Gods meffengers are thereby figni- 
fied, it hath the name Jehovah , or kv%Iv> molt commonly added 
to it. 

As for the firft fTgrfiflcation, we let it pafie, as a ftranger in this 
place, where we are to difcourfe of heavenly Angels ; and doe 
rake it in the fecond fignification , for the Angels of the Lord. 
And being fo taken, it is ftill doubt full, till it be "more particular- 
ly diitinguifhed : For in this fenfe it fignifies three forts of An- 
gels, as the Jearned have well obferved. 

Firft of all it fignifies, that chiefe and principal! meffenger and 
ambafladour of God,his Son Jefus Chrift, who was fent forth as 
God; in the forme and fliape of an Angell and Meffenger to the 


66 What fignified by the Tfrord Angell. 

fathers before his incarnation: And as man, in ruinefle ot time 
by incarnation , and affuming of mans nature into his per/on ; 
For, ^#.48.1 6. by the Angell which delivered Jacob , and which 
he prayeth, may bleffe the fins ofjofeph, is meant the Lord Chrift. 
And in all places, where the Angell which appeared, is called Je- 
hovah, or was w or (hipped, God the Son is meant , as Exod. 3 . and 
Zach.3. there by the Angell Chrift is meant,appearing either like 
an Angell, or in the fhape of a man,to fore-fhew his incarnation. 
So like wife, where we reade of the Angell of Gods pretence or 
face, as lfa.63.9. Or of the Angell of the Covenant, as CMalac. 3.1. 
Or of the Archangel!, as 1 Thef.^.i 6. Jud.$. Chrift is meant. 

Secondly, this word is ufed to fignihe men, by divine infpirati- 
on called, and fent from God upon lbme fpeciall meffage, efpe- 
cially the meffage of falvation^ as Job 3 3.2 3. Judg.2,i. MaUc.z.i* 
and 3. 1. and ReveL2.dc .3. 

Thirdly, this word is mod frequently and commonly ufed, to 
fignifie the heavenly fpirits created by God , to itand about his 
Throne in heaven , to behold his face continually ; becaufe they 
are* as by nature fit, fo by office ready to be fent on his meffage, 
andtodoehis will, as 18.10. In 
this fenfe we are to take the word in this difcourfe of the creati- 
on of Angels : For though Chrift be the Angell of God , and the 
great meffenger of falvation ;and Gods minifters,as they are 
Godsembafladours , fent by him , are Angels of the Lord : yet ' 
they are not Angelicall fpirits, created in the firft beginning; 
they are onely Angels by office and calling , not by nature in the 
creation. Onely the heavenly fpirits, whom God hath made at 
the firft fit to minifies and hath fince in Chrift appointed to be 
miniftring fpirits for the good of them , who are chofen to be 
heires of falvation inChrirt ; they are Angels both by nature and 
office. And they are the proper fubjeel: of our prefent difcourfe. 
I proceed to the Doctrines , which I will profecure in order , as 
they arife out of this Text. 
VoftY.i* Firft, feeing the Angels are included in this word, the heaven ; 
Angels hence we may learne, that as the heavens, fo the Angels, the hoft 
had a be- f neaV en , had their beginning with the higheft heaven , and were 
ginning. not - m k CJ [ n g f rom a ]j etern j C y ; which point is farther confirmed 
by all fuch Scriptures, as attribute a beginning to all things, and 


• Angels had a beginning. 67 

tell us chat they are,and fubhft not of them felve?, but from God, 
as %om.n .36. where the Apoftle faith, that of God, and through 
him, and to him are all things : and i Cor. 8.6. But to us there is but 
one God ^q Father , of whom are all things, and we for him \ and 
one Lord Jeius Chri/t, by whom are ail things. And Revel.4.11. 
and 10.6. thou Lord haft created all things, and for thy pleafure 
they are and were created. And that God , who iiveth for ever, 
created heaven , and the things that therein are* And that in this 
univerfality of things created , the Angels are comprehended, 
the Apoftle fheweth moft plainly , Colofi.i6. where hee af- 
firmes, that all kinds of things vifibleand invtfible, whether they 
be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or -powers, all were created 
by him, and for him. But if any mail cavill and fay, that though 
they are of God, and he is the caufeand creatourof them; yet it 
doth not neceffarily follow/ that they were created in the begin- 
ning with the heavens , but from eternity, and as co-eternall ef- 
fe<5te have their being from God. The next words which follow 
will cut off this objection, which affirme, that Chrilt is before all 
things, and by him 'all things confift, Verfe 17. and therefore 
they had a beginning after Chrift, and were not co-eternall with 

Reafon alfo confirmes this , drawne from the fall of a great fyafon 1, 
multitude of the Angels : For things eternall, which were, and had 
their being from eternity, without beginning , and before all 
times, they cannot fall in time, nor be changed, but abide the 
fame for ever : But a great multitude of the Angels did fall. And 
the Divell was once one of the mod glorious among them, and 
he with many others, who left their habitation , are referved in 
chaines to the latt judgement, 2 Pet. 2. 4. and Jud. 6. Therefore 
they are but creatures, made in the beginning. 

Secondly, though Angels are not circum fc ribsd , and meafii- Kcnfon 2. 
red by a bodily fpace or ciimenfion; yet they are definitively in 
place : and where there is no place , there can be no Angelh as I 
fhall mew hereafter. Now before the creation of the heavens, 
there was no place at all wherein Angelsmight be,abideand fub- 
fi if therefore before the heavens they were not,but were created 
with them. 

But Angels are called Jehovah , as that Angell which /pake to Oby&.u 


An fa* 

6% Angels not from all eternity. • 

Agar, and Dromifed to multiply her feed, Genefio.i 3. and the 
Angell, which appeared to CMofes in the bufh, Exod.$.q. and the 
Angell which rebuked Satan, Zach.3.1. And Jehovah is without 

The Angell mentioned m thofe phcts was Chrift the. Sonne of 
God, the Angell of the Covenant, and fo was y?W^,indeed,the 
creatour of* Angels ; the words of the feverall Texts fliew fo 
much : For that Angell faith, / tvi!l multiply thy feed: and I am the 
Cjod of Abraham : Therefore this Objection is of no force. 
obictt.i. Angels are called the fons of Cjod Job 1 .6. and 3 8.7. Therefore 
they are of Gods nature and fubflance , begotten from all eter- 
nity ; not created with the heavens. U» 
'Anfw. Every fon of God is not a natural! fon, begotten from all eter- 
nity ; for men are alfo called fons of God by creation , regenera- 
tion, and adoption ; and yet are not naturajl, and co-eternall fons 
of God. And fo Angels are fons : Firft by creation, in refpe6t^>f 
the fpeciali image of God , in which they were made , and to 
which they are conformable. Alfb the good Angels are fons by 
adoption unto God in Chrift their head. But none of them all is 
the Son of God by nature , as the Apoflle teftifieth, Heb.i.qrf. 
that is proper to Chrift alone ; he onely is the brightneffe efhis Fa* 
then glow, *rtd the expreffe image of his per fon : and he onely is cal- 
led the rTrrt-borne, and the onely begotten Son of God, John 1 . 
14,18. Therefore this Objection is of as little force as the o- 
Ufi 1 • This point ferves to mew, that abfolute eternity, without be- 
ginning, is the proper attribute of God; and to communicate it 
to any other, by holding, that any other befides tbiQ one onely 
true God is eternall , is no Jefle then a facrilegious robbery , and 
taking from God the honour due to him : For feeing Angels are 
all created in the beginning, when the heavens were made, and 
' are not from all eternity ; much leffe may eternity be attributed 
to any other, befides the true God. 
. r Secondly, here we fee diQ groffe errotir of Papifb , who vvor- 
UJe2. jflup Angels, and pray unto them. As alfb their foule mistaking 
jiouo be an ^ w retting of fome Scriptures, & fome examples of the Patri- 
worfhip- archs, as Abraham, Jacob, and A<fofes,xvho did worfhip the Angels 
ped. which appeared to them, and fpake unto them. For thefe were 


Cbrift abjolute Lord of the Angels . 60 

not divers Angels, but the great Angell of the Covenant, Chrift 
the Son of God appearing in the forme of an Angell, who, as he 
is Jehovah, the true God ; ib he is called by them who prayed to 
him, and is worthy to be worshipped and prayed to : but not any 
of the Angels, which are but creatures, and not Jehovah, can be 
worthy of this honour which God requires as proper to him- 

Thefecond Doctrine hence flowing is, That all the Angels DoOr.t. 
Wece created by that one God y and three perfons,herc called Slohim ; Angels 
and that the Son, together with the Father and the Spirit , is the oli ciea ~ 
Lord the Creatourof them : which truth is confirmed alfo by di- l ^ y 
vers Scriptures, as John 1.3. where by the Word, the eternall Son all 
things are laid to be made, and nothing without him. And Co/of. 
1.16. all things in heaven and in earth, whether they be thrones-, 
or dominions, principalities, or powers, all are laid to be created 
by him. To which we may adde thole places, Pfal.i 04.4. Revelat. 
4. 1 1 .and 1 o.<5.where all things in heaven and earth,and by name, 
the Angels are faid to be made by God. 

Which point may comfort us with aflurance , that Chrift is Ufei. 
abfolute Lord of the Angels : and as he hath a Jove to us, and a Chrift i$ 
will to help, and alfi(tus;fo he hath the Angels, which ex- Lord of 
cell in flrength , at his command , alwaies ready preft to doe *? An ~ 
his will , and to execute his word for our good. The bell ^ s% 
ground of Lordihip and Dominion, which any can have over any 
things, is the creating and making of them : For it is good rea- 
fon, that none mould have more power over a thing, then he who 
made and formed it by his owne hand and skill, and gave the 
whole being to it. And this the Scriptures fhew, where they at- 
tribute great power and lordlTiip to the potter over the clay, which 
he formeth, and the veffeli which he makes of it, //i.45.9. Jerem 
1 8.5. Rom. 9. Now this the Lord Chrift our Saviour hath over the' 
Angels, as he is their -Creatour, in an high meafure,- for he made 
them out of nothing by his owne power : And therefore juft it is 3 
that all Angels, Principalities, & Powers mould ever be fubjedt to 
him ; and that they fhould not only worjhip him, Heb. 1 .6. but alfo 
mould be his minittring fpirits, lent forth to miniMer for the good 
of them, who are heires of falvation in Chriit. In this aflurance 
let us folace our CqI\xS} and be of comfort, knowing that the An- 


70 Chrift took not the nature ofAngds upon him. 

Mac. 1 8. gels in heaven are miniftersfor us , when we are Chrifts little ones * 
and they behold the f^cQ of our heavenly Father. And Jet us in this 
hope harden our faces, and ftand with courage before all wicked 
violent enemies and perfecutours. And as we are here affured,that 
the Angels being created by the Lord Chrift, and having him for 
their held, adding light andholinefTe unto them ; muft needs love 
us as fellow- creatures and members under the fame head, and be 
ready and willing to help us when God fends themrib we are here 
admonished to iove them as our fellow-fervants, under one & the 
fame Lord, and as creatures made in the fame image , but more 
excellent, and by one and the fame hand, rejoycing in heaven at 
our conversion, and turning unto God by repentance. 
life 2. Here alfo we are admonimed, that we are not to dream or ima- 
gine, that Chrift tooke the nature of Angels on him , though he 
Mal.3.1. be called the Angellofthe Covenant, and otGods prefence, and the 
Archangell, that is, the Prince of Angels ; for an Angell he is cal- 
led in refpe& of his office, but by nature he is no Angdl , but as 
different from Angels, as theCreatour and Lord differs from the 
creature, who is by him created of nothing, and the fervant mi- 
ni ftring to him. 
■£$&r.$. The third point of inftru£tion is , That the Angels were crea- 
Angels ted/# the beginning of the world , in the firft moment of time, by 
the begin- Goc ^ s ^ a ^ of creat * on - This * s confirmed . Job 38.7, where 
ning of Angels are called the fins of Cjod , to fhew, that he is their father 
thecrea- by creation ; and alfo the ftarres of the morning, to fhew, that 
cion. t {j e y W ere created in the firft moment or morning of the creati- 
on, with the firft light, the higheft heavens ; and are faid to fing 
together, and to lift up their voice, when God laid the fir ft cor- 
ner-ftone and foundation of the earth; which neceffarily implies, 
that then they were already made, and had a being given before, 
even with the heavens. Alfo Pfal. 1 04.4. where God is firft faid to 
make his Angels fpirits , and his minifters a flaming fire ; and 
then to lay the foundations of the earth, that is, of the inferiour 
vifib!e world. 
Ufe. This ferves to fhew, that Angels and their anions are not Co 
properly meafiired by time, as the anions of men, and other infe- 
riour creatures :but as they were created in the firft beginning, 
with the firft moment of time ,• fo they can remove their pre- 

Angels Godsfirfl and cbiefejl creatwes. 71 

fence into places far dittant in a moment, without time, and doe 
things quickly in an infant, and are fwift mefTengcrs.j 

Fourthly, in that the Angels are here included in the word r>o£I>\4. 
2fa*io*/*and are faid to be created with them in the beginning ; Angels 
Hence we may learne , That the Angel * are Gods fir/* creatures, ar ^? r ^. 
made perfect out of nothing , by the flrit ad of fimpleand abfo- creatures 
lute creation. For proofe of this we need no further argument 
but thofe Scriptures which arfirme, that God made his Angels 
Sftrirsy that is fpirituall rub fiances, which are the mo(r perfect of 
creature 5, and come ncareft in nature to God, who is a fpirit , as^.^.zn&Hcbr.i-']. If they had been created out ofany 
matter made before, then rhey mult have been made out of the 
rude marie, without forme , alkd earth: For all things which 
were created not by abiolure and lamp e creation , but out of 
feme thing made before were creared out of the rude mafle^ the 
earth ; but Angels were not made out of it : for ic is the com- 
mon matter of the vifible and inferiour world ; but Angels are 
invifible, and were created to bee inhabitants of the higher!: 
inviiible heavens: therefore they mult needs be the f ti\ of Gods 
creatines made perfedhas the invifible heavens were, of nothing, 
by the fir/t a 61 of G mp'e and abfolute creation. 

This difcovers to us the excellency of the Angelicall nature,that Ufe. 
the Angels are Gods mafter-piece , his firft and moft perfeft Exccllen- 
worke in all the creation. The rude matfe, without forme, called ^ °f lhc 
earth, \va<! made out of nothing , iro per feci , void , and full of n S cIs ' 
darknefle , and was no perfeex creature ; but the matter of the 
vifible inferiour mutab ? e world, and all the creatures therein. The 
higher! heavens were alfo made perfect out of nothing, to be the 
place of the Angels. the heavenly Spirits; but yet the Angels mult 
be more excellent then they by nature , becau e they were made 
to ferve for the ufe of Angels , even to be the place of their habi- 
tation. And yet the Angels , thofe excellent and cfueferl of sl\1 
creatures, are in Chrirl become our brethren and fellow-fervants- 
yea, they are after a fort made our lervants and minirtring /pirits, 
fent forth to minifter for rhem, who mall beheires of falvation : 
Wherefore, as we are by this doclrire itirred up to contemplare 
with admiration upon the excellency of the Angelica)] nature ; 
and to wonder at Gods bounty to us frai'e men : inferiour earthly 


72 Angels created in and V>ith the higheft Heavens. 

creatures, in honouring us fo farre, as give his glorious Angels to 
minifter for us : So alfo we are provoked to magnifie, and extcll 
the infinite excellency of the merits and mediation of the Lord 
Chrift our Redeemer and Saviour , who procured and purchafed 
this honour and dignity for us, that theblefted Angels mould mi- 
nifter for our good, who of our felves, and by our finnes, de/erved 
to be flaves of the Divell, and exill Angels : Wherefore, as An- 
gels grudge not to minifter for us ; fo let not us grudge , but re- 
joyce to minifter for the pooreft of the Saints, and the lktlt ones 
of Chrifts flocke, our brethren. 
VoClr^. T he fifth point of Doctrine is, That the Angels were created in 
Angels and with the higheft heavens ; and by creation were made to in- 
made in habit thofe heavens, as the naturall and proper place of their be- 
liea . v en, & ing and habitation. This Dodtrine is confirmed, firft by the ex- 
hcavcn. preffe words of CMofes himfelfe , in the firft words of the next 
Chapter, viz»Gen.2.i. Thm the heavens and the earth were finifhed, 
and all the hofi of them. In which words he plainly affirmes , That 
not onely the heavens and the earth, but alfo all the holt of them 
were thus created and perfectly finifhed, that is, in that order and 
maner as he hath before related in my Text,& the reft of this firft 
Chapter.Novv in this Chapter we have not one word which can be 
underftood of the creation of the hofi of the higheft heaven, that 
is,the Angels, but onely thefe words of my Text, which afrlrme, 
that in the beginnings that is, in the firft moment, when God began 
to give being to his firft creatures, he created the heavens ; that is, 
the higheft heavens diftind from the earth , which was the com- 
mon matter of all the vifible world j and with thofe heavens the 
hoft of them, that is, the Angels, which are the hoft and inhabi- 
tants of them. For it is anufuall thing in the Scriptures, to figni- 
fie by the name of a place the proper inhabitants of the place, to- 
gether with the place it fdfQ, as I have before (hewed by divers 
examples. Yea, the word heavens isufed to fignifiethe Angels, as 
I have mewed from Job 15.15 .Therfore it is a thing molt clear & 
manifeft, that the Angels were created together with the higheft 
heavens,as the hoft & naturall inhabitants of them, and thofe hea- 
venly the law of creation,are the naturall and proper place of 
their being and habitation. Secondly, the Scriptures fully prove 
this point, which call the Angels, the Angels of heaven; as CMat- 


■ ■*- - ■ ,—,-.,. , ■ • < 

Angels rented in and With the fkghcft Heaven^ 7 j 

thew 24.36. and Galat.i.S.and the heavenly hofl, zsLnke 2.1 3. and 
name the Angels among the hofts of lHq Lord , which from the 
heavens, and in the heights ling Halleluiah and praife to him , as 
yfal.i 48.1 >2. Thirdly, this doctrine is confirmed by divers rea- 
ibns^rounded on the Word of God. 

The firit is buiided upon the Doctrines before proved by plaine ^ a [ m , ( 
testimonies of holy Scripture, to wit, that the Angeis were not 
from all eternity, but were created by Elohtm , that i?, the true 
God , who is one God and three perfons y as is plainly terrified, 
Pfd. 1 04,4. and 148.5. and Co/of. 1.16. upon this infallible ground 
I thus argue, That Angels being creatures , created and made by 
God, mult of neceffrty be created either before the heavens, or in 
and with the higheft heavens ; or elfe together with the Ele«- 
ments, and the creatures of the inferiour viiible world , which 
were all made out of that rude mifle called earrh,\\lkh was with- 
out forme, and void. But they were not made before the hear 
vens : For the heavens were made in the beginning, that is, in the 
firft moment , when God began firrt to make;and to give being 
to creatures , before which beginning there could be no creation 
of Angels, or any other things. Neither indeed was there any 
place, wherein Angels could tub fi ft, be fore the heavens were made. 
Certainly, no finite creature can fubfift in it felfe, without a place 
in meer nothing ; it is proper to God onely tofiibfift in and of 
himielfe. Neither were they created rogether with the eanh,and 
other elements and creatures of the viilbJe world : For it is plain- 
ly teftified, Job 38.7. that when God laid the foundations of the 
earth, and ftretched the lines upon it , and laid the corncr-ftone 
thereof, then the fans of Cjodthoutcdforjoy, that is, the Angels ; for 
they are called the fons o£God, Job 1 .7. and there were no other 
living creatures then made : Therefore the Atageis were un- 
doubtedly created before the earth , or elfe they could not have 
(homed and fung together, when the earth was made. 'David 
alfo teftifieth,that the Angels were made fpirits firlt,T/2r/. 104.4. 
and after them God laid the foundation of the earth, Verle 5. 
Therefore it followeth neceffariiy, that the Angels were created 
in and with the higheft heaven, andare the hoit and proper inha- 
bitants thereof. 
Secondly, that place from which 'the evill Angels werccafl faafin *. 

G downe, 

74 dngels created in and "frith tk bigbeflHeayeitsi. 

downe, and did fall, when they finned , and left their firit eflate 
and habitation, is their natural! proper place in which God crea- 
ted them ; and they by creation are the proper inhabitants there- 
of. Now that is the higheft heaven : for when fome of the An- 
gels, to wit, proud Lucifer, the :Divell and hi? Angels finned, and 
left their habitation , as Saint Jude fpeakes, Jude tf.then they were 
caR downe to hell, z Pet. 2. 4. even from heaven , as tfie Prophet 
Ifaiah teftifleth, 7/^.14.1.2. faying, How art thou fallen from hea- 
&ei 9 O Lucifer 1 Therefore undoubtedly.the Angels in their crea- 
tion were made in and with the higheft heavens, and had them gi- 
ven for their proper andnaturali habitation. 
Keafin 3 . The third reafon is drawne • from the order which God obfer- 
ved in the creation : For as foone as God had fitted any part or 
place of the world for the creatures which were to dwell, and to 
have their being in it ; he made thofe creatures, and replenished 
the place mth them : So foon as the airie heavens were made, and 
the waters feparated from the earth, and place made for the Sun, 
Moone, and Starres, and for their beamesto be ftretched out 
from heaven to earth ; then the holt of the viiiblc heavens , the 
Sunne, Moon, and Starres were created and placed in them: And 
fo foon as thefea was fitted for living and moving creatures,God 
created them out of it; and fo likewife when theearth was made 
to (land out of the waters, and furnifhed with herbs, plants, and 
rrees, for the ufe of living creatures,God created birds and beafts; 
and when it was furnifhed with all creatures fit for mans ufe,then 
he created man,and the woman alfo an help meet for him:There- 
fore undoubtedly fo foon as he created the higheft heavens, the 
proper and naturall place of the Angels, then and together with 
thofe heavens he did create the Angels , which are the heavenly 
hoft,and luffered them not to remaine one houre empty, without 
?heir furniture and inhabitants. 

This Doctrine thus laid downe and proved, befides fome fpeci- 
< all ufe which we may make of it for affection and practice, is a 
ground and foundation of many other Doctrines concerning An- 
gels ,which flow as Conclusions and Corollaries from it,and anoc- 
cafien of queftions to be difcufled : Firff ,let me make fome briefe 
application of it, and then proceed to the Doctrines and QuefTi- 
ons* «■** 


Gods power demonftrated in the creation of Angels. 75 

Firft, in that Angels were created in and with the higheft hea- Ufe i . 
ven by GodspovverfuII Word, and by hisfimpleandabfblute act Godsinfi- 
of creation ; this fhewes the infinite power and omnipotency of nitc p°w~ 
God, that he can make the molt excellent, immortall, and glori- * r hcr ety 
ous creatures,greateft in power and ftren^th , meerly out of no- ^^ 
thing by his ovvnehand immediately. The wifeff, and moil able 
and skilfull Artificers and Mailer-workmen in all the world, and 
among all the fons of men, doe ftarid in need of divers helps and 
inftruments for the effecting and perfecting of any good worke, 
and without them he can doe little or nothing. He mutt have fer- 
vants and inferiour workmen under him; he muft have good 
tooles and. inftruments fitted for his hand, and he muft .have alfo 
good materials to worke upon • for he can frame and make no 
good worke out of courfe iturTe,and bafe metalls : But lo here an 
admirable Artificer and Work-matter , before whom all the arc 
and skill of all creatures is as vanity and nothing. The Lord God, 
the Creatour and Former of all things, he alone hath made all the 
world; and he hath not on,ely made hi? owne materials, out of 
Which he framed this great fabrick of the vifible world , and all 
this without any inftruments or working-tooles ; but alfo hcc 
hath made in a moment, in the firft beginning, together with the 
glorious highe ft heavens , the Palace and Throne of his glorious 
and infinite Majefty , the moft glorious and excellent of all his 
creatures the Angels, and that out of nothing, which are great in 
power, wonderfull in ftrength, and admirable in fwiftnefTe , im- 
mortall fpirits , able to deftroy a whole army of men in a night, 
and to overturne kingdomes and cities in one day ; at whole ,/i^ht: 
and prefence valiant Cj'tdeon^ mighty man of warre^and the great 
Captaine of Ifrael, was fo arYraid and aftonifhed , that he cried, 
Aha.Lord God, I jhalldic, Zacharj, an holy Prieft, was ftricken 
dumbe for a time : And mz hardy Roman fouldiers , which wat- 
ch, J Chrifts fepulchre, wereaftoni(lied,and became as dead men. 
Who therefore can fufficicntly admire this mighty. Creatour ? 
at heart is ab'e to conceive j or tongue to expreflehis. \vi(- 
dome, power, and omnipotency ? Let us in filencc adore him,and 
tremble and feare before him; not wirh icrviie and flavifli hor- 
rour, but widi holy feare and reverence. Let, us flee to him for 
and ftrength in all dillreiVs 'ffbrTuopIy oFall oii 
G 2 wants, 

tlft z. 

tlon of 

7 6 Erroneous opinions cowenimg Angels confuted. 

nts, for guidance 2nd direction in all our wales. If ^ e be aUu- 
• a : hat he is with us, and on our lide. and that 
we (?an J for n fs le I U s r r care who be againft us.aior feare 

what men and Diyek can goe unro us. If w e wanr meanes and 
inllrumcnrs, lee ys not be diimayed; for he can worke without 
tlurn. If we wanr neccllary matter , he can make it , or worke 
without it, and hi: gs molt excellent our of nothing. For 

ijthe Lord ha:h ihcwed himfelfeand his divine power 
in the creation, and by thecreatnres,that we might know and ac- 
kr. j a , love and honour, ferve and worfhiphim,and upon all 
occafionsgive hirri the glory due to his name, and tell the people 
what great and wonderful! things he hath done, and how by fus 
ownearmc and power he hath brought great and ftrange^ things 

SecoDdiy 3 this Doclrine ferves to difcover theerrour and fal- 
mood cf divers opinions, published and maintained by men of 
fug : As tir'r, that of Ortgen, Ba/;/, and other Greek fathers, 
who dreamed, that the Angels were created many ages before 
| and vihb'e world. 2. And that held by fome others, 
That they were created after the creation of Adam. 3. That the 
creation of Angels is not mentioned by 'Mops in the hi/lory of 
cation ; but the time thereof is altogether cjr^ci'cd, which 
h the opinion ct Pcreriuj, and of fome Fathers and Schoolmen. 
4. That opinion of fome Ancients, who held. That God by the 
:eryof A reated this viiib'e world- This Doctrine 

am all to be vaine dreames and fictions, in that it fhewes 
Mainly, by plaine tefiimomes and fo;id arguments out of Gods 
loly Word, that the Angels were created in and with the highefl 
leavens , neither before nor a/ter them 5 and are the inhabitants 
and hoft of th ens mehl :.i. and that exprefly 

by CMcfcs. 5.AIfo for that opinion of the Vo^Cn Schooimen, 
and of their Matter zArifiotlc, who hold, that Angels move the 
; vif.ble heavens , and guide the feverall motions of 
rant v-~. V. - ".v. and Srarres ; it is in no cafe to be allowed. For as 
-a>- doe exprefly a fcribe the creation of ail things to 
God alone ; and to his eternall Word and Spirit , and never men- 
tion Angels, as creators working with God in the creation ; but 
aa aacuiures faft made in and with the higheft heavens ., andre- 


:: •■■-. 1.:.:: 


7 8 The nature of Angels mofl excellent. 

might be eaten up and confumed ; and fuch were the Angels , as 
the former Dodlrine hath plainly proved : Therefore this conclu- 
fion neceiftrily flovves from that Docrrine,and is proved and con- 
firmed by it. 

But we have for further confirmation both plaine testimonies 
and arguments in the holy Scriptures: The royail Prophet Da- 
vid, being ravifted with the contemplation of the luperceleftiall 
glory appearing in the fecondary beames thereof, which mine in 
the viable heavens, and in the Sun, Moon, and Starres , cries out 
in admiration and wonders that God, dwelling in fuch admirable 
glory, and having fuch excellent and glorious company and atten- 
dants about him, mould vouchfafe to look upon man, or have any 
regard of him : what is man (faith he) that thou art windfall of him, 
or the fonne of man, that thou vifteft him ? Pfal.%.^ But in the next 
words he goeth further, and fpeaks fully to the point,and flievves, 
that Chrift himfelfe, according to his humanity , though concei- 
ved and borne mort pure and holy, was made lower then the An- 
gels ; thou haft made him^faith h& a little ,or for a little while lower 
then the Angels, that is, Chrift in the nature of man,whichhe took 
upon him ; for fo the Apoltle expounds thefe words of David, 
Hebr.2,6. And Pfal. 103.20. Tee zAngels (faith he) which excell in 
power. Our Saviour alfo in the Gofpel fhevverh plainly, that the 
Angels in heaven are fo excellent in nature and fubftance,as the 
ele6t Saints glorified mall be after thelaft refurrecrion ; and their 
moft glorious and blefled condition , which farre exeds nAdam 
in innocency, mall be like unto the An ge < s, Matth.2 2. 20. Saint 
Teter in plaine words faith, that Angels are farre greater then men 
in power and might, 2 Pet. 2.11, Saint Taul calls them zAngels of 
light, 2 Coftnth.i 1 .1 4, and the Angels of gods power, 2 Thef.i .7. he 
numbers them with principalities and powers, which farre txCQll the 
nature of man, 3^.8.38. Whenfoeverhe fets forth theereateft 
excellency of things created, greater then in men , he doth in- 
stance in Angels, as 1 Cor a 3.1. though I /peak with tongues of men 
m^ and Angels. And Ga/at.i. 8. If I, or an Angellfrom heaven and 
4. 1 4. Ye received me as an Angell ofGod,jea as Chrift Jefus. In a 
word, whereas man is an earthly creature, framed out of duft, in 
refped of hisvifible part his body ; Angels are pure heavenly fpi- 
ritual! fub fiances, framed immediately out of nothing , by the 


Gods loVe to man free andvduntary. 79 

fimple and abfolute a& of creation. And whereas mans better 
parr, the fouie, though it be a fpirir • yet was not created a per- 
fect complear creature, but made to fubfift in the body, and can- 
not be in fuJJ perfection without it : Angels are fpirits complete 
and perfect in themfelves, without fubfiftence in any other crea- 
ture, as mail appeare hereafter. And therefore Angels are by 
creation, and in nature and fubftance farre above man in his belt 
naturall eltate, even in the ftate of innocency. 

Firft,this fhevves moft clearly , that all the love and favour ^ 
which God extends to man in Chrift, and in giving Chrift to be Ti / e j ' 
mans Saviour and Redeemer , by taking mans nature upon him, f God to 
and making full fatisfaction therein to juftice for him, and in fa- man here- 
ving man from hell and damnation, and exalting him to heaven- ty ccn *- • 
ly glory, is on Gods part moft free and voluntary^ rifing meerly mcn< * c< k 
and wholly from the good pleafure of his ovvne will , and not 
from any merit, worth, and excellency, which heat fir ft created, 
or fince found in mans nature. If the naturall c-xcclkncy of any 
creature could procure Godsfpeciall favour, or deferve his boun- 
ties move him to mew mercy to any creatnre which hath fin- 
ned, and by fin is fallen into milery ; furely,the Angelical! nature 
mould have been more refpecled of God, then the nature of man: 
and Angels, being fallen, mould more eafily have found mercy 
at his hand. For (as this Dodrine hath proved) Angels are by 
creation , and in nature and fubftance the chiefeft and moft ex- 
cellent of all Gods creatures, far excelling man in power, might, 
purity, and being ; And yef,when Angels and man were both fal- 
len, afid found guilty, charged with folly, and involved in mifery, 
God paffed by the Angels, and fhewed no mercy to them ; nei- 
ther gave his Son, to take upon him the nature of Angels, and 
to be their Saviour and Redeemer ; but fo many of them as fin- 
ned, and kept not their firft eftate, but left their habitation , he 
hath referved in ever la fling chaines of darkneffe, unto the judgement of 
the great day, 2 Vet. 2. Jud.6. But for man, who is of lefle worth, 
and farre inferiour by nature , he hath given his Sonne, to take 
mans nature upon him, to be incarnate and made flefh, and hath 
fent him forth in the forme of fraile and finfull flefli , made of a 
woman, and made under the Law, and hath delivered him up to a 
curfed death, and tohellifti agonies, pangs, and fortowes, that he 

G 4 might 

80 Gods infinite love to mankind in Chrift. 

might redeem thisfraileworme of the earth, miferable and fin- 
fuli man , from hell and damnation , unto which the Angels 
which finned are referved under darknefle ; and to exalt him far 
above the Mate of innocency, in which he was created,and his beft 
natural! eftate in Paradife, unto the high eftate of heavenly glo- 
ry, with the dc&. holy, and blefled Angels, which is farre above 
that mutable ftate of olory, in which the Angels were firft crea- 
ted, and from which fo many of them did fall : Wherefore let us 
admire this free grace of God, and (land amazed at his wonder- 
full and fupertranfeendent bounty to mankind. And whatfoever 
mercy we receive from him in our deliverance from any evill. or 
whatfoever bletfing and benefit of bounty and goodneffe in ad- 
vancing us to this Hate of grace or glory , let us wholly afcribe it 
to the good pleafure of his owne free will, and not to any merit 
in our fdves t or any excellency created in our nature. And let no 
man glory in his naturall wit or wifSome, and knowledge gotten 
by learning and ftudy,nor boaftin his owne ftrength ; but, as it is 
written, Let him that glorieth, glory in the Lord, and triumph in this, 
that he knoweth Gods free grace and aboundant mercy in Jeius 
Chrift, and hath the fweet tafte and experience of it in his owne 
Ufe 2. Secondly, this ferves to magnifie in our eyes both the large 
And.the meafure of Gods bounty to his ele<5t in Chrift , and alfo the infi- 
Chrift ™ te P ower anc ^ excellency of Chrift his mediation, and the digni- 
not ti- r y and worth of hisperfon, in which hee hath fo dignified our 
king the fraile nature, by afluming it upon himfelfe, and uniting it perfb- 
narure of jnally to his Godhead; that hee hath exalted it farre above the 
Angels, mo ft glorious and excellent ftate of the Angels in heaven. That 
ut raans. ^^ are ^ j^ anc j c hiefefl: of all Gods creatures by creati- 
on, and in narure and fubftance farre more excellent then man in 
his beft naturall eftate of innocency , I have proved in this Do- 
ctrine. And yet Chrift taking upon him our nature,which was far 
inferiour to the Angels, and uniting it perfonally to himfelfe, as 
he is the eternall Sonne of God , hath dignified, and exalted y and 
crowned tt with glory and excellency farre above all Angels, Princi- 
palities, Thrones, and Dominions, Hebr.i. 7. fo that the holy, 
eleel and blefled Angels exalted above their beft naturall eftate, 
to die immutable eftate of fupernaturall life , immortality and 


Cods infinite love to mankind in Qhrift. %\ 

glory,doe adore and worfhip him, as Davtd fore-told, Pfal.g-j.j. 
2nd the Apoftle affirmes, Heb. i .6. He is the head of all, andthey all 
are made frb 7 'eft to htm , 1 Tff.3.22. And fo wonderfull is Cods 
bounty to man in Chrift, and lb powerfuil and excellent is Chrifts 
mediation for the ele& of mankind , that by Chrifis mediation 
concurring and working together with Gods bounty , according 
to wifdome, and for the fatisfadtion of Gods juttice, a ready way 
is made for them into the HoJy of holies^the Heaven of heavens : 
and they are not onely exalted and elevated farre above their beft 
naturall being, unto the blefled ftare of the glorious Angels ; but 
alfo the holy Angels , with whom they fliine in heavenly glory 
hereafter in the life to come, are made of God miniftring fpirits, 
whom Chriit hath procured to minister for their good here in 
this world in the ftate of grace ; fo that upon him , as upon the 
Ladder in Jacobs dreame , the Angels of God defcend from hea- 
ven to earth, and afcend from earth to heaven , and doe encamp 
roundabout them, to faveand deliver them, as David lakh, Pfal. 
34.7. Yea, and when theeviil Angels mall be judged at thela/t 
day, they fhall through Gods infinite bounty, and for the mcric 
and worthinefle of Chrift, be advanced to fit upon Thrones with 
him, and to judge and give fentence again ft the 2)/W/,and all his 
u4ngels, as wee reade,i Corinth. 6.-$. And therefore if wee had the 
tongues of men and Ange's,we are never able to utter or exprefle 
the infinite excellency, worth, and dignity of the perfonand me- 
diation of Chrift, nor furricientJy to extoll, laud,and magnifiethe 
bounty of God to poore mankind in Chrift. And here we fee, that 
truly verified , which the Prophet fore-told, 7/^.64.4. -And the 
Apoftle proclaimed, 1 Cor.2.9. that fince the beginning of the 
world, the eye of man hath not feen y nor his eare heard, neither hath it 
ever entered into the heart of man , what good things Cjod hath prepared 
fir them that love him. 

Thirdly,this Doctrine ferves to worke in us a true love, and re- fife 3. 
verent reipeet of the Angels of God, as being the chiefeft of Love and 
Gods creature? , and by nature more excellent then man in his reverence 
beft naturall eftate, and great in power, able to heb us more then theAn - 
all other creatures, when Cod offers occasion and opportunity, gc * 
and oWcs them charge over us. Every man is bound to thinke 
better, and more reverently of other men , who are in any gifts 


82 A referent refpeB to be had of the Angels. 

more excellent then himfelfe , though they be all of one nature 
and kind, and of the fame flefh and bloud. And God hath put 
upon the beads of the field by nature a feare and refpe&of man, 
becaufe he is a more excellent creature. Now the Angels are by 
nature and creation more excellent then man in his beft naturall- 
.eftate ; and man in the fupernaturall eftate of glory, frail be but 
equall to the ele<ft and holy Angels : And therefore, as we mult 
ever labour to decline that fervile foperttition, and bafe will-worjhip 
of Angels, which is condemned, Co/of 2.1 8. and muft beware of 
giving divine and religious worfhip to them , which they them- 
felves rejed and refufe, being our fellow- fervants^ and have utterly 
deteftedand forbidden , when it hath been orfered,_as appeares, 
Reve/<i$.io. and 21.9. fo we muft take heed, that we doe not 
thinke meanly of them, a$ if they were but our fervants, becaufe 
they minifter for our good : For in guarding us , and encamping 
about us, and in minifying for us, they are not our fervants which 
owe us iervice ; neither have we power to command them , nor 
ability to requite them for the lea ft fervice : but they are the fer- 
vants of God, and of our Lord Chrift , and fellow-fervants with 
all Kings,Prophets,and Holy men of God ; and as Gods Embafla- 
dors,and Princely Courtiers & Miniften,we ought toefteem and 
refpe6t them, with all love and hearty affe&ion. And, as in all 
places where there are Embafladors and noble Princes and Cour- 
tiers of great Emperours and Monarchs, men will have a care to 
beare them felves orderly, and to doe all things decently, and will 
be affraid and afhamed to commit any abfurdity, or beare them- 
{cIvqs immodeftly :So let us in the publick aflemblies of the Saints, 
and in holy congregations of Gods Church,where Angels are fup- 
pofed fometimes to guard us, and to over-look us (as the words of 
the Preacher feem to import, Ecc/ef.^6. and of the Apoftle alfo, 
1 Coy.i 0.1 1 .) beare our felves reverently, and beware of all vaine 
words, filthy behaviour, and beartly drowzinefle and fleepinefTe, 
-as if we came to the Church like uncleane dogges for company 
only, or to lye fhorting and fleeping , which is the evill cuftome 
and practice of many carnall people. 
Ufi 4. Fourthly, this Doctrine is matter of comfort to Gods poore de- 
Comfort fpifed fervants, in that it doth allure them, that the Angels which 
hereby to ] ove cnem anc j as friends rejoyce in their convcrfion ; and as guar- 
**&tiY? J dians 


JngelspureJ?eaVenly y fpirituallfubftances. & 

dians protect: and watch over them, are great, excellent, and glo- 
rious above all earthly men : And there fore, though the great men 
.of the world fcorneand defpife them, and among fuch they can 
find no favour, help , or defence ; yet let them comfort them- 
felves, and rejoycein this, that he,who is higher then the higheft, 
hath a guar^, to whofe care and charge he hath committed them ; 
and that not of mighry men , in whom there is no help , but of 
Angels, which in power, ftrength, and glory far exceed the moil 
excellent among the fons of men. 

2 .Corollary. 
Secondly, in that Angels were created in and with the higheft Angels ' 
heaven, to be the naturall inhabitants lutable to the place ; hence are hea- 
we may garher a definition of Angels , to wit , that Angels are venty fpi- 
heavenly Spirits, or pure and entire fpirituall fobftances , created "" 
in the beginning by God after his owne image , every one of 
which is diitincl from another by a fpeciall exiftence , or proper 
particular being of his owne , which God hath given to have in 
nimfelfe for ever. Firft, in that Angels were not made and crea- 
ted out of the rude made, without forme, and void,which is called 
earth , and the deep , nor of any other matter before made by 
God j but in tliQ firft beginning or all things were created perfect: 
creatures in and with the higheft heavens, the lively and proper in- 
habitants of them : Hence it neceflarily followes , that they are 
pure heavenly fpirits, and intire ipirituall fiibftances, not pans of 
any body or perfon , nor compounded of any matter firft made, 
and of a forme thereto added afterwards ; and therefore have a 
proper exiftence and being, every one inhimfelfe, which cannot 
bediflblved,butin refpedt of fecond caufes remaines immortall : 
fo that this definition, and every branch thereof flowes from the 
former Doctrine, as a naturall Corollary, or neceflary Conclufi- 
on. And it doth excellently fet forth the nature,and naturall be- 
ing and properties of Angels , by which they are diftinguifhed 
from all other things. 

Firft,in that they are called fpirits, or pure fpirituall iubftances, 
this fhewes their nature and being , wherein they referable God, 
and beare his image , who is the one oneiy true Jehovah , who 
hath his eflence and being in and of himfelfe , and gives eflence 
and being to all things , and by whom all things fubiift , as that 


84 Angels dijlinguijbed by their properties from other things. 

name Jehovah fignifies , which he afTumes as proper to himfelfe, 
Exod.^.i^i 5. and 7/^.42.8. and who isa fpirir, as our Saviour te- 
ftifieth, 7^4.24. And by this mmzfarits , they are diitingui- 
fhed from all bodily creatures. 

2, Secondly, in that they are called pure, intire, fpirituall fiibftan- 
ces, and perfect creatures, which have every one a proper exiftence 
and particular being ; hereby they are diftinguifhed from the fpi- 
rits, that is, the foules of men, which are not intire, comp!ete,and 
perfect creatures of themfelves by creation ; but are made to be, 
and to fob lift in an humane body, and together with the body to 
make up a perfect man. Hereby aifb they are diftinguifhed from 
the breath of life, and the vitall and animall fpirits , which are in 
living bodies of men, and other Jiving creatures : for they are not 
pure, perfect, intire creatures , which fubfift by themfelves , but 
fraile vanifhing parts of creatures, which continually increafe and 
decreafe, fade and perilli . 

3. Thirdly, in that they are called heavenly fpirits,hereby they are 
diftinguifhed not onely from the fpirits created here below on 
earth in this inferiour world, even foules of men, and all bodily 
fpirits; but alio from God,whoisa fpirit,but not conrainedinany 
place,no not in the Heaven of heavens : but is eflentially prefent 
in all places, as well in earth as in heaven, as the Scriptures tefti- 
fie, 1 Kw.8.2j. and Tfal.i 39.8. 

4, Fourthly, in that they are faid to be created in the beginning 
by God, hereby they are diftinguifhed from the abfolute efTence 
of God, and from every one of the three perfbns in one God : for 
they are not created, but are abfolutely eternal!, without begin- 
ning of being. 

5. Fifthly, in that they are faid to be created in the image and fi- 
militudeof God, this fliewes the excellent natural! properties of 
Angels, that they are living, fpirituall, and immortal! creatures, 
indued with knowledge, wifdome, underftanding, liberty of will, 
power, ftrength, and activity to doe and per forme great things 
wifely, jnftly, and freely, and fo to refemble God in his glorious 
attributes and workes. 

6\ Sixthly, in that they are faid to be diftinguimed one from an- 
other by a proper and particular fiibfiftence and being, which eve- 
ry one hath by himfelfe $ this fhewes that Angels are not one 


Angels entire } and complete Spirits. 8 J 

common fpirito breached into the higheft heavens, and everyone 
apart of that one fpirit; but they are every one a whole Jub- 
ilance or perfon by himfeife, as Augufline faith, gncbirid. i 8. EneJmd. 

Laftly, in that every one is faid to have a proper exigence and a ca ^ % 
particular being, which God hath given him to have in himfelfe, ~ 
by which he differs from the reft ; this neceflariiy implies , that 
Angels are fTnire, and limited both in their fubiiance and num- 
ber, and are mutable , not infinite and unchangeable, as God is. 
This is the definition , which in the feverall parts and branches 
thereof doth fully let forth the nature and naturall properties of 
Angels. I proceed to the confirmation of the feverall parts in or- 

Firft, that Angels are fpirits, or fpirituall fubftances, the. holy i. 
Scriptures affirme molt clearly, Tfal.i 04.4. and Heb.i .7. where it They arc 
is faid, that hemakethhis Angels faints. And here fpirits. 
they are called miniftring fpirits. And left any fliould thinke or 
imagine, that Angels are not fpirits by nature and creation , but 
by grace and communion of the Holy GhoiT , which is given to 
the eleA Angels in and by Chrift,and by which they become ho- 
ly, and are fettled in the immutable Rate of eternall bleflTednede, 
we have molt cleare teftimonies in thofe Scriptures , which call 
not onely the good and elect. Angels fpirits, as Atf.2 3.9. and the 
places before cited ; but alfo the eviii Angels of Satan , even the 
Divell himielfe and his Angels, which iniefpect of their fobftance 
which they full retaine, though they have loft their goodneffe 
and uprightnefle, are ftill called fpirits,asLwf.2Q.2 7. 1 Sam. 16. 
1 Kin. 22. CMmh.%.\6. Aft. $.16. Epbef.2.2. where the Divelf 
ipeaking in falfe Prophets, and hisffirit of fury in Sat*l,andvfljing 
in Ahahs Prophets , and his ev'tll Angels poffetfing divers perions, 
and caft out by Chriit and his Apoftles, are called evill and un- 
clean fpirits. 

Secondly, that Angels are entire and complete fpirituall fob- 2 * 
fiances, anj perfect creatures, which have every one a proper ex- E ntiic, & 
ntenceand being in himielfe, the holy Scrip: ures prove moft complete 
clearly by divers reafons : Firit, by naming fome of them by pro- ^ 
per and difiincl names,as the Argell which wzsfent to Daniel,Dan. 
8.1 6. and to faluce the Virgin U\iary> Luke i . is called Gabriel. Se- 
condly, by giving them fuch titles , and afcribing and affignin< 


■ — ■ '■*> 

86 Angels entirepmplcte, and heavenly Spirits. 

to them fuch offices as belong to none but complete fubftances 
and peribns, which have a proper and perfonall exigence : as for 
example, they are called*/*? fions of 'God, Job i «6.and 38.7. They 
are called Gods meffengers andminiflers , as appeares by their He- 
brew and Greek names, and by Scriptures, Matth.^i 1 . and Heb. 
1 . 1 4. They have the office of watchers and guardians, which have 
charge given over the elec"t> and encamp about the righteous , to 
guard and defend them, and obferve and behold the face of God, 
ready to beat his beck for the defence of his little ones , asap- 
pczres, Nftm.2i.z2.Pfat.34.j. and pi. 10. Dan.4.1 3. and LMatth. 
1 8.2-0. 

Thirdly, the Scriptures doe plainly, mew, that Angels doe wil- 
lingly and readily, and by themfelves performe perfect and com- 
plete attions and workes , which none can doe but perfect crea- 
tures, which have a proper fubfiftence by themfelves : as for ex- 
ample, that in the flrft creation as foon as they were created,they 
Aid frag together, and lift up their voice. Job 3 8.7. that they praife 
God, hearken to the voice of his word , and keep his commandements, 
Tfil. 103.20. and 149.2. that they have appeared and fpohen to men, 
as to Cjideon> Judg>6. to the father of Samp fin, Judg.i 2.and to £- 
liah, 1 IGn.19. that they have comforted Chrift in his agony, Luke 
22. rolled the ftone from his fepulchre, U^^.28. opened the 
prifon doores,and fet the Apoftles at liberty, Alb. 5. and 1 2. and 
have fmitten and deftroyed thoufands of men in a night, as 2 Kin. 
19. and rejoyce over finners which repent. 

Fourthly, the Scriptures reckon up Angels not among tho/e 
infpirations, motions, or affections , which proceed from Gods 
Spirit, or any other per/on or fubftance,* but among perfect crea- 
tures, and fpirituall fubftances, which live , and move, and fubftft 
by themfelves, and not in another fubftance ; and fo the Spirit of 
Godfpeakes of them, TfaLi^p.^. and in all the places, where 
they are /aid to come from heaven- to-earth 3 and to be fent from 
God unto men. 
5. The third point in the definition is, That Angels are heavenly 
Heavenly fpirits, that is, neither made of any bodily fubftance, rforcom- 
fpirics. pounded of any elements, or crd&rares of the vifibie world,but of 
a pure and heavenly nature, rnaefcito dwell in the higheft heaven, 
as in their proper and naturall place of habitation, andthere 


Angels are like unto God. F7 

have their continuall residence. This is manifestly proved by the 
former Doctrine, and alfoby thofe Scriptures which te/titie, that 
theyalvvaies, and continually in heaven behold the face of God, as 
Matth.x 8.1 o. and that they are the heavenly ho ft, Luke 2.1 3. and 
Spirits of heaven, Zaeh.6^. And there they encamping, are in a 
moment as ready to defend the righteous , and to guard the 
Church militant on earth , and avenge all wrongs done to Gods 
little ones,as if they were here prefent on earth :for in the twinck- 
ling of an eye, they can defcend from heaven to earth, and deliver 
the godly, and itay the hand of their enemies , and finite them 
with death,** we fee by the army of Angels coming from heaven, 
and guarding Slijha , fo foon as he called upon God, 2 Kin. 6- and 
by the Angel! of God,which, at the praier of //>*,<^/W?,deftroyed 
all the army of the Aflyrians in one nighc : and at our Saviours 
praier in his agony , appearing prefentiy from heaven, and com- 
forting him. In a word, our Saviour arrirmes, that fpirits have not 
flejh and bones, Luke 24.29. They cannot be feen with bodily eies, 
nor felt by bodily hands , as corporal! thing? may be : Therefore 
Angels, being fpirits, are not corporall, nor compounded of bo- 
dily elements, but are pure, and invifible, as the Apoftle cals them, . 

The fourth point to wit, That Angels were created by God in 4* 
the beginning, and God hath given to them their being, is aboun- 
dantly proved in divers Doctrines before : I need not fay any 
more of it. 

The fifth point is , That Angels were created in the image of f« 
God, and doc in many refpe&s refemble God more then any o- They are 
ther creatures : Firlt, in their very fubltance andnaturall being ; q V° 
for as God is a fpirit, fo they at? fonts, yea pure fpirits, and in that j\ 
refpedt relemble God more then any other creatures. Secondly, 2t 
as God is absolutely pure and fimple ; fo they are more pure and 
Simple then any other creatures , and have no corporall or vihble 
fubftance in them. Thirdly, as God is the living God, and even 3* 
life it felfe ; and as he is infinite in wifdome, knowledge, good- 
nefle,and power, and doth all things freely of himfelfe, according 
to the good pleafare of his owne will ; alfo is in and of himfelfe 
molt glorious and blerTed for ever, and with him is no vatiable- 
nefle, or fhadow of turning ; fo Angels are moll quick, active, and 


i-.... - ,i «y iii i i i . ■ ii , 

8 8 Angels are finite in nature and number. 

■ "■ '■■■■■'■ ■ ■ ■ - ' ■ " '■ ' ! ■■ —^— — — — — — ^ 

lively fpirits, the moil excellent, of all Gods creatures in wiA 
dome, knowledge, and liberty of will, and in all goodneffe, and 
good will cowards men : they are alio great in powet,and <?*<:<?// in 
flrengthy Pfal.i 03.20. and are called the blerTed and glorious An- 
gels of light ; heaven,the place of bliffe,is their habitation :Ancf 
as they are incorporeall fpirits, which cannot be diflblvedand die, 
as men doe, when their foulesare feparated from their bodies,and 
the whole per ion is diffolved : fo,and in that refpe<5t, they are im- 
mortall, & do more refemble God,who only hath immortality, 
then any other creatures doe by nature : All theie things, to wit, 
the lively tfrength, activity, knowledge>wifdome,free-w ill >g!ory, 
power, and blefled eftate of Angels , wherein they were created, 
the Scriptures doe molt clearly te/tifieand declare,where they af- 
flrme,that the Angels doe fee Gods face,who is all in alland that 
-they look into all the myfteries, knotv the manifold wifdome ofCjod 
concerning the falvation of the Church , i Tet .i .12. and Ephef. 
3.10. and have great joy in heaven over finners which repent ; and 
doe relate great and mighty workes done by Angels,moft readily 
and fpeedily wirhout delay. 
# # The fixth point is,That Angels are diftincl and different amoncr 
themtelves, and one from another, by a proper and particular ex* 
i(tence,and being : this I have (villy provea in the iecond branch. 
7. The laft is, That Angels are finite in their nature and number, 
They arc and have their bounds and limits; and alfoare by nature muta- 
finitem ^Ie, ^ch as mi^fo fall from the firft cflate, wherein they were 
nacurc ' created. That Angels are in nature finite, and cannot be in divers 
places, or in all places at once, is molt plaine, both by this, that 
they are (aid to b^ Gods heavenly hoff'^ind Angels in heaven^hat is, 
who are confined to heaven for the proper place of their dwel- 
ling ; and when they are here on earth , are laid to be defended 
from heaven, LMattb.2%.2* and to be here, and not there. That 
though they are many, and more then man can number , and in 
„ , that refpecl: are called innumerable ; yet that their number is limi- 

ted, and that God know es the number of them , cals them by their 
names y and brings them out by number, the Prophet teftifieth, 
Jfa.40. 2 6. That Angels are mutable by nature fub; eel to fall from 
theftete wherein they were created, the Scriptures doe tettiRe, 
where they make this Gods property , that hee onely changeth 


A ] (fumed bodies not of tbefub/lance of Angels. 80 

not, Malach. 3. 6. And with him is no vartablcxcffe, lam. 1. 17. 
And where it is teitirled that God hath charged the Angels 
with folly , lob 4. 1 8. And many of the Angels did not keep 
their firft eftate , but left their habitation, and by finning did fill 
from Heaven and arecaft downe to Hell, and delivered into) 
chaines of darknefl'c , 2 Pet. 2. 4. and lade 6. And that onely 
the eleel Angels are made holy and immutably blefled by the 
light which God hath added to them, lob 4, 1 8. Thus much for 
the definition of Angels. 

3. Qorollarj. 

fc» The third Corollary is, That the bodily llupes of men, and Ofthe an- 
other creatures, in which Angels have appeared, were no parts j" merf bo- 
of their nature and fubftance , neither were eflentially united AnecV 
unto them , but were onely affumed for the prcfent time and * 

occafion, that thereby they might make fraile men £ec more evi- 
dently, and acknowledge their preience and their actions. For 
the heaven of heavens is not the place of grofte earthly bodies ; 
and therefore Angels, being naturall inhabitants of heaven, have 
no fuch bodies perfomlly united ; they onely did for a time at 
fume the bodies in which they appeared and performed fome 
actions on earth. The wordes of our Saviour, Luk* 24. 39, 
fhew that Sprits have not flejb and bones. Therefore Angels 
being fpirits have no fuch bodies united to them as thofe 
wherein they appeared. 

4. Corollary. 

That Angels are confined to the places in which tbey are, HowAlI<: 
and arc in places definitively, though not circumfcribed and mea- gels arc is 
lured by them as bodily things are ; Angels being pure {pirits,aplace. 
doc not confifi of farts as bodily things doe; neither have they 
any bodily quantity or dimension, as length, bread th,height, and 
thicknefle ; and lo they cannot bee compaffed about, nor mea- 
fured, nor limited by any bodily fpace; but yet they are defini- 
tively in their places, that is, there and no where cite; and their 
lubftance together with bodily liibftances may be in the fame 
place; as the whole ioule of man is in the whole body, and is 
wholly in every part of it and uo where elfe, fo it is with 
Angels. "":*.", H 1.C* 

9 o The number of the jfngds is exceeding great. 

J. Cor e liar j* 

The nvm. . Seeing Angels are by creation the proper and naturall inha- 
bcrofthcrnbitants of the higheft heavens, which is a moft fpacious place, 
wry great, comparing about the whole vifible World , and more large and 
capacious then all other places ; as Solomon doth intimate, 
1 Km, 8. 27. Hence itfolloweth that the Angels are many in 
number, more then can be numbred by man, and Co in refpect of 
man innumerable. For we mult not thinke that God 3 who in 
the creation replenished the Sea with fifties , the aire with 
birds, and the viiible heavens with innumerable ftarrcs, and the 
earth with beads and creeping things ; and commanded man 
to multiply and repienifa the earth,wouldleave the beftand moft 
glorious place of all not fully repleniihed with inbabitants 3 glo- 
rious Angels, who were created at the firft in their full number: 
undoubtedly therefore there muft be many, farre more then man 
can number. And this the Prophet Daniel law in a vkionand 
tcftificd,Z)rftf. 7- 10. where hee faith that a thoufandthoufand 
miniftred to the Lord Chrift, and nn t henj and then] And ftood 
before him. Alio in the Goipell wee read that there was a Z>- 
gion j that is, fix thouiand divels in one man y Afar^. 5. p. And 
if there be fo many divels, that is, evill Angels in one man; then 
furely the whole company or multitude ofthofc evill Angels 
muft be many. And the whole company of Angels, in the firft 
creation of which fome onely did fall and become Divels, muft 
needs much more bee innumerable. And if that conjecture and 
©pinion of learned men be true, to wit, that the Angels which 
finned and were ca(t downc from heaven, are as many in num- 
ber as all the elect of mankind which have becne,are, or Qialbe 
to the end of the World; and that they mall fill up the glorious 
jiianfions, and fopply the roomes and places of the loft Angels; 
then furely the multitude of all th£ Angels which God created 
muft needs, bee great and innumerable, farre exceeding our ca- 

6. Corollary. 

aktit mo. sixthly the higheA heavens, being the place of reft , and riot 
dr°"tts* pn ~ <rf *B?ti?n which is proper to vifible andcorporeall rtup$s,and 

7bc motion of Angels is Tttonda -cu* quick* 

being the place where God hath appointed that the ctcrnall reft 
or Sabbath thalbe kept ; Therefore the Angels, which were crea- 
ted to bee the natiirall inhabitants of thofe glorious heavens, 
were not made to move with bodily motion, as bodily creatures 
doc: their coming from heaven to earth is not a paflage through 
the whole fpace between heaven and earth, which would re- 
quire a long time; but, as it is with the uiindes and thoughts of 
men , they are now here exercifed about things prefent, and in a 
moment of time, in the t winckling of an eye, they are in the re- 
mote!!: parts of the World, or in the higheft heavens, and yet 
paflc not through the fpace betweene: lb it may well be, and wc 
may with good reafon conceive, that the Angels, which are of 
a purer and more heavenly fubflance then our foulcs, and more 
nimble and active then the mind es or thoughts of men are by 
iiature; can in a moment bee prefent here on earth, and in the 
next moment bee againe in heaven. Buthowfoever, or by what 
wayfoever, they "defcend and afcend , it is mod certainc, that 
they arc the fwiftefi of all things created ; and fo much the Scri- 
ptures tliew clearly in many places, where they defcribe An- 
gels with wings , and call them Cherubim and Seraphins ; yea 
lomc one of them with many wings, which are inftruments of 
flying and of fwifteft motion, as Gen. 3. i^.Ezech. 10. I. 19, 
and 11.2 a. and Ifa. 6. a. Alfo we read that on a fuddaine, even 
in an inftant, a whole multitude of the heavenly hoft have dc- 
fcended from heaven and beene prefent on earth, Luk^ 2.13. 
And the Angcll of the Lord is (aid to encampe with an heavenly 
hoft round about them that feare God, Pfalm 34. 7. not by being 
here reildcnt and abiding on earth , out of their proper place of 
abode; but by (landing before God in heaven, and beholding his 
face ; that they may bee ready in a moment when hee gives the 
watch word to prefent themfelves on earth y there to deliver 
his clrcl:,and to deftroy their enemies, as our Saviour doth in- 
timate, Ma'th. 18. 2o. 

7. Corollary. 

Seventhly , feeing the higheft heaven is the proper place of Oftfcefall 
Angels, arid this is the order which God did let in the crea- a "^ ftan - 
tion, that all creatures fliouW keep their ftatkxi , and not leave d * n S jf 

H * ihek ***& 

9 1 Sin contrary to the nature of Angt Is. 

their dwelling; Hence it followes , that it is againfl: nature, and 
contrary to the order of creation , that many Angel* arc ex- 
cluded and fruit out or heaven, even all the evill Angels: And 
It is a thing above nature, even the fupernaturali grace and girt 
of God , and a thing purchafed and procured by the infinite 
power ^excellency, and dignity of Chrills merit and mediation, 
that the elect and holy Angels fhould bee made minittering 
fpirits, and fent forth to miwfterfor them whojhall be hires offal- 
vattoftj as the Apoftle faith , Hcbr. i. 14. And here now oc- 
cafion is offered to difcourfe about the (in and fall oftheDivcll 
and evill Angels ; how contrary it was to the law of nature, 
that they fhould forfake their ftation , fin againfl: God, and not 
ftand in the truth , and to the order which God fet in the crea- 
tion ; that they fhould leave their dwelling, and exclude them- 
selves out of heaven , and be call: downe into Hell. Aifo here 
is occafion given to fhtw, that the eledl Angels come to mi* 
niftcr for the clecT: through the fupernaturali power and efficacy 
of Chrifts mediation •& that Chri(t,by fupernaturali grace and be- 
nefits given to the heavenly Angels , hath obliged and bound 
them tohimfeifc, to obey him as their head, and to minifter 
for the good of his little ones. But thefe things come more fittly 
to 6eehandkd after the creation, when wee come to difcourfe 
of the confufion of the World by the Divels Apoftafie and mans 
fail ; and of the rcftoring of mankind, and the renuing and per- 
fetting of the. World by Cbrifr. 
ffc 1. Now thefe Doitrines thus opened and proved, are of great 
Comfort ufe for comfort and confidence to all the eled and faithfuil 
by the mi- people of God, in the midft ofall troubles which befall them in 
aifteryof t ft s \{fe . and when dangers and worldly enemies befet them 
j&n&els. rounc l about ; alfo for confirmation and ftrcngthening of them 
againfl all the aifaults , and temptations of the Divell. For if the 
glorious Angels which are mimftering fpirits for their good, 
which alfo love them,rejoycc at their convcrfion, watch for 
their fafety, and are their fellow fervants under one Lord Chrift, 
be fuch heavenly, po werfull, and active fpirits even by creation; 
fo excellent in ftrcngth, fo lively,, quick, and ready at hand to 
help in a moment when God gives the watch-word ;what need 
we fcarc or faint fo long as wee cleave to God and fticke to his 
truth? Heeis a tender and loving father ; and Chrift our high 

Angels neither corporeally corruptible creatures. pj 

Pricft hath a feeling of our infirmities and doth pity us; he will 
be ready to help; and he hath mighty inftruments and miniftcrs, 
even thoufands and ten thouiand thoufands ready to lave and 
deliver us from all enemies, as he did Daniel from the Lyons, 
and his three fellowes from the fiery furnace- Or, if heedoth 
not fend them to deliver us out of the troubles of this life; yet 
hec will at our death lend his Angels to carry our foulcs with 
triumph to heaven, as Elinh was carried up in a fiery Chariot,and 
thcfoule of Lazarus is laid to bee carried up by them into 
vikrabams bofome. Wherefore let us notfeare either multi- 
tude, malice, or might of enemies ; but carefully fervc God, and 
confidently reft on the Lord Chrift our Redeemer and Sa- 

Secondly, Thcfe Doctrines ferve to difcover divers errours yr e% 2 ^ 
concerning the nature and iubftance of Angels ; as that greffe ConfutaL 
opinion ©f Peter Lombard, who held that the Angels are cor- rion of 
foreall fubftances , becauie the Divell and cvill Angels fhall contrary 
iiifter the torment, and feele the paines of hell fire, which hath mot** 
no power but over bodily creatures; Alfothat opinion of the 
Gentiles, and Cardanus who held that the Angels wercmortaM 
and corruptible creatures ; both thefe are here difcovered to be 
erroneous. For the firft is builded on a grofle conceipt , that 
the fire of hell is elementall and corporeal! fire; which, as it bur- 
netii and confumeth bodily fubftances, over which it hath 
power 5 fo it in time wafteth it felfe, and goeth out : but indeed 
the fire of Hell is the fire of Gods wrath, which burnethand 
tormenteth worfe then elcmentarie fire; but confumeth not, 
neither (hall ever be quenched , as our Saviour teftifieth. The 
fecond opinion is alfo confuted by theie doctrines, which have 
proved Angels to be fpirits or fpirituall fubftances ;which,tbougti 
they may bee. ftained with tin; yet they cannot beediiTolved, 
as men are in death by the feparationof fouleand body ; nor 
corrupted, as mens bodies ave m the grave; but the evill An- 
gells i'hall live in ctcrnall torment, and their fubftance fhall ne- 
ver be corrupted and confumed , and the holy and blefled An- 
gels are immortall and fhall live in glory for ever , and there 
lhall be no end of their bkifednefte, 

H 3 Chap 

j>4 O/tbe Creation of the Earth. 

Chap. V. 

Of the Creatien oftloe Earth. The names whereby it is called. Pro- 
perties efit. C^ll creatures have being of God: with Vjts. The 
World is all mutable , and appointed fo to be : Vfcs. Tfx creation 
and redemption of the World , whtrein thejrefemble one .another \ 
ffes. The holy Ghoft is of one andthefame nature with the father 
and the Sonne. 


l He Second thing created next after the higheft hcavcn-Avith 
the inhabitants thereof the Angels , is the Earth , as my 

Gen. i .*+ text here faith in thefc wordes, and the Earth. Butwecmuft 

not here underftand by Earth>th\s earth or drie land upon which 

d?h menanc * kcafts doe live, and move, and have their being; and 

^" . erc which is beautified and adorned with trees ,. plants, greenc 
heroes and flowers ; and repleniQied with ftones and metals of 
all forts : For that was created together with the waters of 
the Sea , and brought into forme and replenished in the third 
tlay, as tppearcs in the, p. 10. n. verfes of this Chapter. But 
here by Earth , wee are to underftand a ccrtaine rude matter and 
matte without forme and void , out of which God made all the 
inferiour vifible World,and all things therein contained ; fo the 
wordes following in the fccond verfc plainely {hew : The earth 
was without forme and void , and darkneffc was upon the face 
*fthe deep. Now that wee may know what creature this Earth 
was,wce are to oonfider thefe 3 things; Firft, the feverall names 
by which it is called. Secondly, the properties by which it is 
ddcribfcd. Thirdly , the meanes by which it was upheld in 
being, and difpofed to bee the common matter of all other vi- 
fible things createdafterwards, 

Tfonames Krft, the names-by which it is calkd are three , 1 jnx, the 

©fit. earth. 2 DTin,the deep. 3 CTBn, waters. Firft it is calkd the 

h earth becaufe ofthe groffencfle , unmoveablcnefie, and impurity 

of it. For the earth is of all elements mod grofTe,heavy, impure, 

and confufed, not fit to move out of the place wherein it is; moft 

untra&able and not ready to apply it fclfc to any other thing, and 


The names whereby Earth is called. 9 5 

hard to bcc turned into the forme ofothcr things without la- 
bour and working of it. This firft rude and informed made 
which God created out of nothing, is here declared by this 
name, Earthyto have beene,like the earth, very impure and con- 
f uied,dull and unfit for motion, refcmblmg., at the firft, the earth 
rather then any purer element. 

Secondly ,it is called Dinn, tht <&rj»,here alio in the text, which 
word (ignirics a great deep or devouring guife, as it were of 
troubled waters, alfo troubled and confounded with mixture of 
mud and myrc; which,though in reipccT: of the troubled mixture 
and confufion it hath a refemblancc of earth, yet it is bottomlefle, 
there is no fblidity in it,no ground or ftay to bee found at aii:Thus 
much the Hebrew word iignifies according to the notation and 
common uie of it. 

Thirdly , it is called D'DH, rvtttrs, alfo in this texfe becaufc 
of the waterifh fluxibility which was in it; by meancs of which 
it was unftable and unfettled, and alfo becaufc it was an huge 
deep like the great wators of the Sea, Now it may fecme ftrangc, 
that this one and the fame rude maiTefhould bee like earth, and 
like a bottomletfe depth of myre or quick-land, and like waters, 
all at once;which are things different and unlike one to ano- 
ther , cfpccially the thinne flowing element of water, and the 
grolTc, dull, unmoveable earth. And therefore the learned Ex- 
pofitors labour thus to qualirie the meaning of the words; 
they fay it was a confufed mafle, even the matter of all the ele- 
ments mingled together; and becaufc the earth and water are the 
moft grofte and impure, and did moft of all appearc in it, there- 
fore it is called earth and water, and the deep,which is a mixture 
of both. But in viewing , reviewing, and lifting the words 
thoroughly ,1 have obferved fcmething over & above that which 
by reading I could obferve in others; to wit, that this rude 
mafle was not fuffered to lye idle one moment from the firft 
creation , and bringing of it into being out of nothing; but being 
a mccre unformed mafic orChaos,it had at the firft a refcmblanc? 
ofr*rt£,becaufe the groffc matter of the earth was fo mingled and 
confounded in it , that it chief ely appeared in the upper face of 
it, and fo it feemed groile and earthy, and is firft called Earth, 
Secondly, by the operation of the fpirit of God cherifhiiu ani 

H 4 moving 


96 The earth in the beqimng without forme&c. 

moving it, the grotfethicke matter fettling downward toward 
the center , it became itnmediatly in the upper face of it like a 
deep mrc or quick-land, which more inclines to water then 
earth, and hath no ground,ftay or bottome in it; and therefore in 
the fecond place it is called the deep. Thirdly, God friaking 
the earthy matter to finke and fettle downward ftill more and 
more, all the upper face of it became morethinne and fluid,likc 
unto impure waters; and thereupon in the third place it is called 
the waters : though indeed , there was neither perfect water, 
nor earth, but a confufed matter without forme and void, out 
of which all vifible things were formed. Thus much the names 
ftiew unto us concerning this maffe, which I propounded as the 
firft thing. 
jProp«rries The fecond thing is the confederation of the Properties by 
*>f iu which it is defcribed ; for it is faid to be Tokn and Bobx, and that 
darkneffe was upon the upper face of it. 

Firft, it is faid to bee inn Tohu, that is ^without forme ^ even 
a thing imperfect , which had neither the nature, nor fubftancc, 
nor naturall {hape or property of any perfect creature. 
2. Secondly , it is called 1i"Q Bohu, void; it had in it no formed 

creature of any kindeto fill and repleniili it; for this word is 
ufed to (ignifie the emptincflfe and utter defoiation of a land 
wholly depopulated & laid wafte,and of a Citie brought to ruine 
having nothing left buthcapes of ruined Walls , Jfa. 34. i i.and 

, Thirdly , it is faid to bee all darkneffe in the upper face of it; 

darkneffe was upon the face of the deep. By darknelle we are not 
here to undemand any darke body , as aire or thick clouds 
ofdarkneffe compafling it round, and over-fpreading of it, as 
the dark aire and thick mift did the land of hgypt when God 
plagued it with darkneife ; but this is the meaning, that in this 
rude matter there was no light, neither did any appeare in the 
out-fide or upper face of it. 

Now thefe properties,by which it is defcribed, do comprehend 
in them that which in naturall philofophy is called privation^ is 
held to be a principle or beginning of natural things. For unto the 
making &generating of any bod ily,crca turf of natural body there 
arc three things required as firft principles. 1 , A matter capable of 


Whrt n -rant by the Spirit moVing upon the waters. $7 

fome term:, that is expreffed in the names of earth, deep, and 
waters. 2. Privation, which is an abiencT or wain of the rormc 
which ought to be or might bee in that matter, for to give it 
that naturall being oi which it is capable, and unto which it is 
inclined. This privation of tormc, and this emptinefle of all 
naturall powers and properties which are required in creatures, 
and this darkeneffe which is the privation of light, they are the 
fecond principle. The third is the naturall and fubftantiall 
forme, which is that which diHnguilheth one creature from 
another ,and gives being to every creature; that is,makes it to bee 
that which it is in the kind of it. 1 his forme God by his word 
gave to thelevcrall parts of this matter, whenheefajd, Let it 
be,& it was fo.But when a matter rude, undigelled and unformed 
is inclining to fome forme, and wants it, there mall be a dilpo- 
fmgof the matter to receive the forme which it ought to have 
to make it a per feci creature in his kind, and which it yet wants 
and requires; and. that working , preparing anddifpofing of 
the matter , that it may bee fit to receive the forme which 
mull perfed it. And this difpo(ing of the common and rude, 
matter of all the vifible World is here cxp ceded in thefe words, 
of the text,* And the fpirit of God moved upon th^ face of the waters* 
Some doe here by the fpirit of God underftand fome Angela vVhac tKe 
call fpirit, which God ufed and imployed to fit and prepare this Spirit ma.' 
matter to his haud:thus dyetan a Romiili Car Jinall and Schoole- vingts. 
man held . Tertallian. lib. 3, contra Hermeg. faith, that this fpirit 
ofGod was a winde, by which God prepared and diipofed it. 
Thioderet (a\x\\ it was the aire, which moved on the upper part 
of it, Qtttfi. 8. in Genef But I conceive all thefe to beeun- 
found opinions Firft, they are confuted by the very words 
of the text, and by ail other Scriptures which afcribe the whole ' l * 
workeof the creation, and the making of the World, and all 
thinr.s therein wholly and oncly to God the Fatkr, the JVorA, 
and the Spirit , three Perfons in one undivided Se- * Io *' 7,< 
condly , it is againft all realon, to thinke that God , who created **■ 
the chiefeft and mod excellent of all his wcrkes the higheft 
heavens, and the Angcls,the heavenly {pints, imnacdiatty of no- 
thing in a moment, andalfothe common matter of all thevi- 
fiblcWorldin an infant; would ulc, or did implcy any creature 


9 8 What meant by the Spirit movi ng upon the Waters* 

to difpofe the matter and to fit it to his hand : Wherefore the 
bed expofnion of thclc words is that which is held generally 
by the bed learned ;to wit,that thisSpirit of God,here mentioned, 
is the eternal! Spirit,one and the fame God with the Father and 
the Son, by whom ail things were made; and Hce is faid here to 
move upon the face of the waters; The Hebrew word hercufed 
doth properly (ignitie the Eagles gentle fluttering with her wings 
over her young ones, thereby tocberifi them; as appeares, Dent. 
32. 11. And here it (ignites the worke of Gods Spirit exten- 
ding his power upon this rude, confuted, unformed and empty 
roaffe, and gently fhaking it , and cauiing the grofler parts 
to fettle do wnewards, and the morefubtle parts to gather into 
the upper place, and fo to prepare and difpofe every part for the 
fubft antiali forme which God at length gave unto it. Thus yoa 
have the text opened . . 
1 ^DoBr ^ rom whence we lcarne,VirIt,That man and all other creatures 
'All aea- " which live, and move, and have any being in the whole vifiblc 
turcs have World, howfoever they are engendered and propagated one by 
being 01 anothcr,yet they have their whole fubftance and being fromGod, 
Goci ' and he is the folecreatour and maker of them. That he made the 
firft common matter out of which they were framed, the text 
here fhewcth plainely. Alfo that the fpirit of God did prepare 
and difpofe that whole matter and every part of it, to receive 
that forme which God gave to the whole World, and every 
creature therein. And by his word he gave a fpeciali forme and 
being to every creature sftcr his kind, as afterwards appeares 
throughout the whole Chapter. And hce gave the gift of ge- 
neration and propagation to every kiriti of creature which is 
propagated and begotten ; and power to multiply; and without 
his power aififting and working together, no creature is formed 
at all: fo that this Doclrine is inoft neceflarily gathered from 
Fience: And other Scriptures fully continue it,as ./*#. 17.25,28, 
where it is faid, that in him we live, move, and have our being; 
and hec gives life, breath, and being to ail : Hce hath not onely 
made the heavens, and the earth, and alt the holt of them, and 
every thing which hath being, even all the changable elements, 
and vanifhing meteors, in the firft Creation, as fire, water, aire, 
earth, hailc,ino\v, thunder, lightening, clouds, vaporo^atid 


Qodis Lord of all the (jt&twts. 9 p 

________ _ 1 r» 

the like, as wee read >]ob 28. Pfa/m. 33. 6. mi*? faint. 145/. 5. 
and //*. 66. 2. but hz*\fo frames every man in the womb of his 
mother;asthe PkL.nift tcftiricth, "P/*/**. 159. 13, 14,15. and all 
children and the fruttc of the womb are t£»/t_and blelling which 
cometh of the Lord,Pfalm. 129. 3. And reaibn drawne from 
the proper name of God, Jehovah, proves this, that hec gives all 
being to every thing; and that as he is abfolutc of himfclfe, fo the 
being of every creature depends wholy on him ; for fo much 
that name fignifktb,as I have elie where proved. 

Rrft| this lervesto admonifiius, that as wee oar felvcsarc Vft I. 
the creatures of God, and he is our Lord to whom wee owe our He is then . 
whole tubftance,being,rx)wer,{trength, life, breath, and motion, Lord of 
and are bound to imployallto his glory : fo all other things a ^ 
in the World which fcrvc for our ufe, or can come within our 
reach, and power, are Gods workmanfhip ; he is the Lord and 
owner of them, and no man ought to ufe orimploy them, but 
by his permiffion, and in his fa-vice, and to his glory. There- 
fore let us devote our lelvcs to God , and ferve him by all 
his creatures, and for our life, breath, being,and all things,render 
duethankestohis heavenly Ma jelly, confefTing that the whole 
World is his, and the fulnefle thereof. 

Secondly, this Dodxinc iheivcth, that no man hath right or Jffi, _7 
interelt before God in any creature, or in his owne life , limbs, All oer 
and members of his body , but by the free gift of God : Yea, right if 
fince mans fall and forfeiture of his life and all things by fin, no * om GoJJ. 
man hath right to any good thing in the World , but in Chrift 
who is heire of all things, and hath by his merit and mediation 
procured the prcfervation and continuance of being to man, and 
to all other things made for mans ufe. Although wicked, 
carnall, unregenerate men , have a common right and intercft ci- 
villy before men in their lives, goods, lands and poffeffionsjyet 
before God(whilc they abufe their power ,riches,and all abilities, 
to fin and to pride , and opprefiion in the fervice of their owne 
lufts) they arc no better then thceves and ufurpers : And let all 
fuchlooketo it, for certainely God will call them to account, 
judge and condemne them,as for unjuft pofle_Ting,_b much more 
for their profane abufe of his creature^ and all worldly blcf- 


loo Ail change in the creature according to Gods counf ell. 

%. Do%r. Secondly, in that God, whD by his infinite power can make 
VLicVVorid perfect in a moment, and that immediatly out of nothing, the 
is all mu- mo ft excellent creatures of all, even the higheft heaven and the 
table, ami Angels; did of his ownc will, and according to his couniell, 
appointed ma kea rude,. confuted , imp:rfeci: and unliable matter firft with- 
out forme, that out of it he might frame, and indeed did frame 
this whole vifible World , and all creatures therein; Hence wee 
may learne, That as all this World is mutable and inconftant; 
io the mutability and inconftancy of all vifible and natural! 
things in this World, is -a thing which God purpofed and fore- 
fliewcd in the creation of them; and all alterations and changes 
which are found in them, are according to the counfell of his 
will, and hee alone doth over-rule,order and difpofe them. Many 
Scriptures prove this fully in all parts . Wile Solomon fhe weth 
at large that all worldly things are fob/eel: to continuall changes, 
Ecclef. i. 45.6. and David, Tfalm 102* 26. teitiiieth of the 
vitible heavens, which are the moft durable parts of the inferiour 
World, that they frail perifh , and i~h ill waxe old as doth a gar- 
ment, and as a vefturc God ihall change them, and they flaallbe 
changed, and Ifa.^o.j. all Flefh is laid to bee agraffe which 
wither eth, and the glory thereof as the flower of 'the Field which 
fadeth ; and 1 Vet, 3. 10. 1 1. the Apoftle arlirmcs, that the 
lieavens fhall paffe *way with a noyfe, and the elements (hall 
.melt -with heat , and the Earth with all things therein JW/ bee 
<bnrnv. and that it is God who over-rukth,ordereth,and dilpofeth 
all mutations , and changes in the World. David alfo frievveth, 
Tfalm 104. 29. 30. thzfaben God hideth his face, all living crea- 
ture s are troubled , when hee taketh away, their breath they dye, and 
are turned into their dufti and Pfalm 46. 6. Hee faith, that, when 
Coduttereth hu vnce, the Earth melrcth, and Verfi. 8. Come and 
behold the werkes of the Lord, how h?e dlfpofeth defo Lit ions in the 
Earthimd Jfa.24 1. the Prophet imh, Beheld the Lordwill empty 
th Earth , and lay it wajte; hee will ov rtxrne the "face of it, and 
dfpcrfe them that dwell therein. Ijt is God who pulleth downe 
the mighty ," and exaltcth the humble and meekly I. Sam. 2. Hee 
reflra ; nes the waters, and rivers are daedup. Hee fendeth them out y 
'andt'jey ovtrtarne the Earthy Hee brcaketh downe y and it cannot bee 
fasti* Again* i i e kai< the ouufellors away fpoiltdj and makith judges 

foe Us 1 

All changes are ordered by Gods wifeclome. \ o i 

fioles\hce removetb arvay tbefpeeckof thetruftie y andtaketh arvay 
the underftanMng of the aged; hte potvreth out contempt upon princes , 
And weaken tb the ftrength of the mighty, Ieb 12. 14. 15. \f t 
20, 21. 

This Doctrine ferves to admonifh us not to put truffc or con- yr 
fidenceiii any worldly thing; not in the earth, nor any creatures Truft not 
in it; not in the face of the heavens, nor in the Sun, Moone, and in any 
Starrcs , becaufc all arc fb mutable and changable. A faire Sun- earthly 
fhine morning may bee turned into a tempeftuousday of haile thin S« 
and rainc. When the Sun is rifen up molt glorioutly in the mor- 
ning upon Sodome,and the countries of the plainc; before noons 
they may beedeftroyed by a [howcr of fire and brimftonc, and 
fruitfull lands may quickiy bee turned into defarts, 1 and barren 
wilderneffe. The Sun itfelfe may (land in the midft of his 
courfe, and may bee turned backe when hee is going downe. , 
Wherefore let us not truft in deceiptfull vanities x but dill re- 
member that of the holy Ffalmift, O put not your truft tn princes, 
nor in any child oj man , for there uno helpe in them, PJalm? 146. 3.. 
and that of the Prophet Ieremie, Curfedu the man that trufteth 
tn man^and make tb fie Jh hit armejer. I J. 5. 

Secondly, though there happen many changes and great con- p- r 
fufion in the World , yet let us here take notice , that they come j^{L 2 * ~ 
not by chance; and allwaycs acknowledge, that they are in the dungts^b 
will and power of God , and are ordered and diipofed by his the World 
over-ruling wifedome. If to the wicked enemies and perfe- toc o m cby 
cutorsofGods Church changes cemefor worfe, to their con- ch:mcc * 
fufion, and overturning of their power; let us fee Gods hand 
therein , and let us give him the praife for working our delive- 
rance, and avenging our caufe on our enemies. If changes come 
to our felves, ana* our peace bee turned into trouble and danger; 
let us humble our fclves , asunder Gods hand, If ouradveriity 
be,c turned into profperity, let God have all thethankes. If 
wee fee juft caufe to feare great changes in Church or State, 
let us flic to God for helpe, ftrength, couragc,and patience , and 
betake our felves to his protection , that wee may reft iafely 
under the fhadowes of his wings. 

The third point of doctrine, which wee may obferve from 
the Spirit otGod moving upon the waters, chenming and 


! o i Ihe fimilitude of Creation and ^edcmptioru 

Similitude fitting the unformed mafle to receive a perfect being and perfect 
of the formes of vifible creatures, doth (hew the concord and perfect 
aaTlU- fi mmtuc * c which is between the worke of creation, by which 
acmp tion. God formed all things by his word and Spirit ; and the workc 
' of reftauration and redemption of mankind , by which he re- 
formes them byChrift and by his Spirit, and brings them to fu- 
pernaturali perfection and bkfledneflc. As in the creation, God 
by his Spirit chcrifhing the rude mafle did prepare, and fit every 
part thereof to receive a perfect forme and naturall being: fo 
in the rcftoring of man kind, being deprived of his image and 
deformed, God doth by his Word, and by his Spirit (lied 
on us through Chrift * regenerate, renue , reformc and 
prepare us for the fruition of himfcife, and doth fit, and prepare 
us for fupernaturali perfection and blcffedncfle. As in Ewhieh 
vifion, the wind from God did move and fhake the dric hones 
fcattered upon the face of the earth, and fitted them by fiefh and 
skinne to receive life , and to ftand up living men in perfect 
ftrcngth and ftaturc : So, by the word and Spirit of God, men 
dead and rotten in finnesand finfull corruption, arc, by the Spi- 
rit of God breathed through Chrift , renucd after his image, 
and fitted by the life of grace , for the eternall life of glory, 
Ezeeh. 37. The Spirit of God ( as our Saviour tcftifieth ) Is like 
the wind, which bhweth where it lifteth : *tishee> which doth 
frame us after Gods image in our new birth, Ioh. 3, 5,8. and 
fits us for the Kingdome of glory. Wee areas farre from God 5 
and from Chrift, and as void of his image and of all Spirituall life, 
as the rude maffe was of all forme in the firft creation; until! 
the Spirit of God bee given to us in Chrift to dwellin us % zn& 
renue us> as the Apoftle -fliewcth, Rom. 8. 9. 13. Epbef. 2.18. 22, 

and7V*. 3. 5-tf. 
vr Wherefore, as weedefireto be made like unto Chrift in the 

^ * image of glory , and to fee , and enjoy God in his heavenij 
Kingdom, where all fulnefle of perfection and bleflednefife is u 
bee found ; So let us by the consideration of this Doclxine be 
ftirred up to thirft after the river of the water of life, even th 
gifts and graces of the holy Ghoft, and never reftfatisfied, tij 
wee feeic within us the tcftimony of the Spirit of Chrift wit 
netting with our Spirits that wee are the children of God 


No calumny mufi dtfcwage the godly. 1 05 

and till wee feele our felvcs fan&ified throughout bo t h infoulc 
and body ,and holincffc engraven upon our hearts without which 
hone can fee God. 

Secondly, feeing the Spirit of God is he who prepares men Vft t* 
fbr fupcrnaturall perfection, and there is no communion to be 
had with Chrift, nor participation of his merits and faving 
benefits to falvation , except men have the Spirit of God 
dwelling in them, and of profane and carnall fons of Adam % 
making them holy, and fpirituall tons of God ; Let us not count 
it any fhame or reproach to us, that profane mockers of thefc 
tail times doe, in mockery and derifion, call us Jpirituall tnm % 
who afcribe all good motions which are in us to theSpiritofGod 
dwelling in us,& directing us in all our wayes.We doe not deny, 
but that all Enthufiafts , and other men of fanaticall Spirit,doc 
mod profanely, and facnlegioufly Pather their ownc fanfies, 
and luftfull motions on the Spirit of God, and therein deferve 
reproach and derifion: but let men take heed , that they doe not, 
by loathing their hypocrifie and arrogancy, runne into Atheifme 
and blafphemous impiety, by rejecting and denying the Spirits 
dwelling if) all Gods regenerate children , working in them all 
(aving graces, and moving them to walke in the holy wayes 
of God which lead unto Tiipernaturall perfection and eternall 
blcffedncffe. For , mod ccrtaine it is that as the hrft rude matter 
of the vifiblc World was fuftained and cheridied by the Spirit 
of God moving upon the face of it, and was not other wife able 
to fubfi(t,or to bee formed into divers creatures, every one made 
perfect in their kind with naturali perfection : fo the perfect: 
ihbilitie of man, in an happie unchangablc eftate; yea the per- 
fection of the vifiblc World made for mans ufe,is theworKof 
the hcly Ghoft uniting man to to God in Cbrift , and 
gathering and reconciling all things unto God in him , who 
is the head over ail. Although man and all creatures (as ap- 
peares in the laft verfe of this Chapter. ) were created every 
one good and ferfett in his kmd> with naturali perfection : yet 
man the chiefe , and the Lord of them all , having not as yet 
the holy Ghoft fhed on him through Chrift,as all the regenerate 
and faithfull have , was mutable, and in that honourable eftate 
©finnocency bee did not ftax4 and abide ? but did foil from it 


i o 4 (7;n/2 j fufferings not efficacious to the uwegenerate. 

very quickly after that the Woman was created and givcri to 
him, as wee read Chap. 3 . yea hee did not lodge one night therein, 
< Tfalmc 49. 12. and by Mans finfull fail and corruption ,the whole 
frame of the vifible World was made fub ject to vanity , and 
groancth under it as under an intolerable burden, and with 
earned longing waiteth for deliverance and reftitution to an 
higher eftate in the glorious libertic of the fons of God, Rom. 
All whom 8. iq. ao. And although theetcrnall Word, the Son of God, 
ChrJift had undertaken for man in the eternall counfeil of the blefled 
fmS a £" Tr ^ mt ^ an( * did (lep in to mediate for man, and in the firft pro- 
tli^Spiri^ rni ^ e mac * e u P on mans &$ was P roc l a ^ mc d to bee the oncly and 
' all-fufficient Redeemer , and was fully exhibited in the flefh, 
and became a perfect Redeemer in his death arid refurrection;. 
fo that in him is plenteous redemption, and matter futficient to 
merit more then man loft by (in , even heavenly glory and im- 
mortality : yet all this profits nothing without the work of the 
Spirit, thrift w T ith all his fufferings, and obedience unto death, 
and all his righteoufneflc, and fullfilling of the law ; are as a 
Tountaine fealed up, and treafurcs hid, and locked up in dark- 
nefle ; fo that none can partake of him or them for re- 
demption and falvation without communion of the holy Ghoit; 
which God in our regeneration doth fhed on us aboundantly 
through Chrift. This Spirit dwelling in Chrift and the faith- 
full, makes them one myfticall body with Chrift, fons and heires 
of God; makes his fatisfaction their ranfomc for actuail re- 
demption and reconciliation , and his righteoufnes their 
righteoufnes for juftification. This Spirit alfo doth renuethem 
after the image of God, and transformes them into the image 
of Chrift in all holineffe, that they may bee fit to fee and enjoy 
God ; and thus hee brings them to the fruition of perfect blc£ 
fednelTe , and to the inheritance incorruptible and undefiled, 
which never fadeth : And Gods bleflings arc through Chrifts 
mediation poured out upon all creatures for their fakes : And 
hereupon it is , that all gifts and graces , which tend to make 
men perfect andunchangably blefled, areafcribed to the Spirit, 
• as wifedome,knowledge,faith, hope, love, meekeneiTc, patience, 
courage, ftrength, prayer, and in a word all holineffe and per- 
fection : and whensoever God is laid to give any of thefe gifts 


All gifts and graces are the Vorke of the Spirit. i o j 

to men in an effecTuall and faving manner and meafure, hce is 
{aid to give them the Sfirit of grace, wifedcrmy &ale and fuppiica- 
tion, as appeares If*. 11. 2.Zach. n. 10. Yea common illumi- 
nation and all extraordinary fupernaturall gifts, which are given 
to unregenerate reprobates for the revealing of 'Ch rift, as the gift 
of prophecic to Balaam and Saul, and the change of heart 
in Saul from cowardly pufillanimity, to fortitude and magna- 
nimityjthe gift of miracles to Indu; alio illumination, tafl of the 
fravcnlygxft, joy in the holy Word of God, given to back- 
Hid crs, H<?£. 6. arc the worke of the holy Ghoft, aififting them 
and infpiring them from without , for the Churches good; not 
inwardly dwelling and working in them for their owne falva- 
tion. Wherefore let us count it no reproach that wee have no 
hope of being in an happy and bleiled eftate, no affara nee that 
wee are in the way to perfection , till wee fcelethe Spirit of 
God dwelling and working in us , moving our hearts, and, con- 
forming us to the image of Chrift ; and that wee rejoyce id this, 
and this is our glorying that wee are not carnall but Spiritual!. 
They, who think it enough, for the obtaining of perfection 
and falvation, to know, beleeve, and profefle, that in Chrift there 
is as furricicnt matter of fatisfaction for the redeeming of all 
mankind; as there was in the rude made without forme, matter 
enough for the whole vifible World and all creatures therein, 
doe much deceive themfelves: for many who know and beleeve 
all this doc perifti ; and none are Qvcd or perfected by Chrift, 
but onely they who are by the Spirit dwelling in them united 
to Chrift, and regenerated and rcnued after his image. This 
Spirit is the earncft of our inheritance, and witneffeth to us our 
adoption; hee makes us new creatures and a free willing people, 
hee fan&ifieth us to bee an holy Temple for himfelfc to dwell 
in, purgcth out fmfull corruption , mortiricth the deeds of 
the flefh,fo that (in cannot rcigne in our mortall bodies. 

There is one thiug more, which I may not paffe over here in a Dottr* 
filencc, to wit, that this text doth prove plainely, that the 
Spirit of God, the third perfon in the Trinity, is one and the 
fame God with the "Father and the Son, of the fame uncreated 
nature and fubftancc, the almighty Creatoar,and Prefcrvcrof all 
things in heaven and in earth, vifible and inviiible. To Maine 

I a rude 

;o6 Ihe Spirit the fame tt>ith tk Fathir and the Son. 

arude matter without forme and void,and to make it fubfift, is a 
y/orke of power, farre above the power of any thing created; 
and to compafic and comprehend the whole matter and ma 
of the vifible World ; and to affift and clierifh by prefent vertue 
every part thereof at once,is a ftrong argument and plaine proofc 
of divine and infinite power and omnipotency,proper to Jehovah 
the one onely true God: and all this is here teftified of the Spi- 
rit of God in thele words, and tht Spirit of God moved upon the 
face of the waters, that is (as the Hebrew word TOPPE, Mcrache- 
pheth, and here ufed in thcoriginall fignifieth) did Jit upon and 
cherijb that mightie maflc, as anhendotix fit upon and cher- 
im her egges, that they may bee formed into chickens. There- 
fore the Spirit of God is here proved to bee one and the fame 
God with the "Father and the Son, and the almighty Creatour, 
former andprcferver of the whole World, and ail things there- 
in. To which pur pofe the Scriptures aifo fpeakc fully in other 
places, where the heavens and the hoft of them are laid to bee 
made by the Word and Spirit of God, as Pfalme 33.6. and that 
when God fends out his Spirit , things are created,as Pfalme 104. 
30. and that God by his Spirit garnijhed the heavens, lob 26.13. 
and that hec ispretent by his preferring and fuftaining power 
in all places, "Tfalme 1 59.7. which places prove the Spirit of God 
to bee lehovah the Creatour and Former of all tilings ,. and 
the true God, in whom wee -all live, move, and have our 
rg This point, which I have proved and confirmed by many 

•**' other ftrong arguments already, in my difcourfe of the Tri- 
nitie ; as it discovers the defperate malice, irnpudency, and A- 
thcifme of the Remonftrants, the Difciplcs of Socinus, and Ar- 
minitfSyVtho call into queftion the Dcitie of the holy Ghoft 
and his unitie, w T ith the Father and the Son, and his right to bee 
prayed unto and worfhipped with Divine worfhip: fo it is of 
lingular comfort to the faithfull, whofe bodies are Temples of 
the holy Ghoft,in that it aflures them that God is their portion, 
and dwells in them, and they arc begotten of his iced in re- 
generation, and are partakers of the Divine nature, and heaven 
is their inheritance. 

Oftfo creation of Light. 107 

Chap. VI. 

Of tbejjirjl dayes worke. IV^at the light was. JVhat it u, Godfaid, 
Let there be tight . How he called the light , day, and the darkenejfe 
night. Of a day natural/ and civill. That the night was before 
the day. How a day was before the Sunne was. Prerogatives of 
the fir ft day. 


Erf. 3 3 4 3 5 . And Godfaid t Let there be lighted there was light ; Gen. ']£ 
And God faw the light that it was good. And God divided the 
light from the darkneffe. And God called the light day, and the dark^ 
ntffehee called night, and the evening and the morning were the fir ft 

After that darknefle had continued upon the face of the dccp 9 
and the whole matter of this inferiour World had remained 
foil of darknefle for the fpace of one night , God by his power-* 
full Word created Light , the fir ft pcrfed creature and element 
ofthevifible World, and commanded it to /bine out of dtrknefic ; zQqi,*^ 
and this was the morning of' the firit day. In the words wee 
may obferve thefe fqnre things : Yud, the creation of light in 
the 3. verf. Secondly, Gods approbation of it in thefe words, 
God faw the light that it was good. Thirdly, Gods fepa.rc.tion of 
it from the darknefle, verf, 4. Fourthly, Gods nomination or na- 
ming of the light tday^nd the darknejfe night .and fo compounding 
thefe two, light and darknefle , into the firit whole day of the 
World, verf 5. 

In the firit thing, which is the creation c flight, the firft of 
all perfect creatures in this vifiblc World , two things come to 
bee fifted and examined for our right underftanding thereof 
Firit , the thing created, Light , what is thereby here meant. 
Secondly, the manner of creating it, Godfaid, Let light bee, and it 

Concerning the firft , I find divers and feverall opinions of What tfce 
the learned. Saint Auguftins lib. 1. in liter am cap. }. Li^iuwafl 
and Rupertus lib. 1. d'e Trtnit. cap. 10. doe by this light un- 
.der (land the. higheft heavens, and the Angels, which are not a 

I 2 cor- 

io8 Opinions of Fatten concerning this Light, 

corporeall but a fpirituall light ; but tins cannot bee the truth, 
for this light is faid to bee! that which is called the daj> and is 
oppofed to the darkneffe of the night here in this mutable and vi- 
sible World; the {Tuning whereofdoth diftingulfh day from the 
night, which cannot bee laid of the Angels and the higheft hea- 
vens , which were not made out of darkneife , nor out of the 
rude unformed mafTe as this light was, which God commanded 
to Thine out of darknefie as the Apoftle faith, 2 Cor, 4. 6. 

Secondly, others , as Be<U,Lyra> and Lombard, doe by this light 
undetftand a bright cloud carried about, and making a difference 
of day and night, 

Nazianz'ne and Theodoret doe think, that it was the fame 
light, which now is in the Sun, Moone, and Starres,fubfi(ting at 
the firft in one bodie, and afterwards divided into feverall 
parts when God made the Sun, Moone, and Starrcs out of 

Bafil thought that it was a light without a fubjecT. Aquinas, 
that it was the light of the Sun made imperfecta: the iirit; and 
©f this opinion is Pertriw alfo. 

Catharinw held, that it was the Sun it felfe, made fir ft of all; 
which is directly contrary to the expreffe words of the icv 
verf. which arfirme, that the Sun was made the fourth day. 

Junius Joy light,here underftands the element of fire. 

In this variety of opinions, 1 hold it the beft, and furefl way 
of finding out the truth, to fcekeitout of the word ufedinthe 
originall text. The Hebrew word f"V*K, Or) which is here 
trannated Light , (bdidesthe fopicall and fpirituall fenfes, in 
which it is ufed in thofe Scriptures which call God the light 
in vehomii ne darkne([e y and the light and falvation of his people; 
and doe call Gods regenerate people light in the Lord) doth 
more properly fignifie two things : firft, thatnaturall bodie 
orfubftancc, which among all the parts and creatures of the 
vlfible World is mod bright and fhining in it felfc, and gives 
light to others; as forexample,thc Sun, Moone, and Starrcs, arc 
called Lights, Pfalme 136. 7. and the element of fire, is called 
by this name ~HN, Light ,Eztch. 5. 2. Sccondly,it fignifics, and 
that mod frequently in the Scripture,the light,that is,the fliining 
brightneffe of the heavens, and of the Sun, Moone^andStarre?, 


What the Light wm. i oo 

and of the clement of fire burning in a lamp or torch , or other 
combuQiblc matter. Here I doe not Hike the word in this 
latter fenfe, onely for a ihining brightneflc ; for then God had 
created an accident or quality without a iubjecl, which is a thing 
againft nature of things created ; for common reafon and experi- 
ence ihew, that never did any qualitie fubfift of it fclfe with- 
out a fubftancc ; by courie of nature no light can be but in fomc 
created body, as in the heavens, fiie,or aire. But hereby light wee 
are to underitand , of ncccflity , lome notable part of this great 
frame of the vifible World, which God firft framed out of the 
rude mafle, which was without forme and void, before mentio- 
ned;yea that part, which is moil bright,lTiining and rcfplendcnt; 
and doth by light and brightneflc, which is naturall in it, (hinc 
forth and enlighten other things. Now that cannot bee any 
ofthefe lower elements, the water and the earth, for they have 
no fach light in them; and belides, it is manifeft, that they were 
formed out of the grofleft: and moft dark part of the common 
mafle, on the third day, verf, 5?. Neither can it bee the fpaciou? 
region of the aire, which is extended and fprcad abroad farre 
and wide, over all the round globe of the earth and the waters, 
and reachethuo to theetheriall region of the vifible heavens^ 
even to the fphxre of the Moone, and is called the lowed heaven, 
orD'DH "TDyp^thatis, the broad expanfionor firmament 
in the midft of the waters : For that was formed the fecond 
day, as appeares in 6.j.%.verf. It muft needs therefore bee 
the firmament of the vifible heavens, which-is called D'ftttJn 
Wpl, The Urge And farre firetcbed firmament of the midle hea- 
ven, even the fiery or etheriall region, wherein God, on the 
fourth day, formed andfet the great lights of the Sun, Moone, 
and Starres, verf. 1 4. 16. For, firft thofe heavens were framed 
and made of the moil pure, and refined part of the mafle, which 
is the common matter of the vifible World, and arc moll bright 
and filming, full oflight and brightneflc ; and undoubtedly as in 
place and order, they are the next to the higheft hcavens,fo they 
were created next after them to the firft day, and are here called 
by the mine ol Light, becaule allthe light of this vifible World 
is in them, and from them fhirxth into the aire and giveth light 
upon the earth. Secondly, there is no particular mention made 

I 3 by 

1 1 o Sever all opwfis concerning the njifikk Heavens. 

by CAUfes in this Chapter of the framing or thefe heaven$,among 
-sll the works of the iix daye$,except it bee in this word Light} 
ariditismoft incredible mat bee would omit the creation of 
them which are the mod excellent and glorious part of the 
viiible frame of the World, efpeciaily feeing hee doth exactly 
suptf particularly name, and relate the creation of all other parts, 
and the day wherein they were created. 

I am not ignorant, that zAriftotle, and the mod learned na- 
turall Vhilofovhers of his feel:, did hold, that the viiible heavens 
areeternall and unchangable, and of a matter and fubftance dif- 
ferent from the foure elements, fire, aire, water, and earth; and 
were not made of the fame common matter. Alio divers learned 
Chrittians and Schoolemen doe thinke, that thefe heavens were 
created together with thehigheft heavens immediatly of no- 
thing, in the beginning when time firfl began to bee, and are 
mentioned in the firft verfe; and the light, which is here faid 
to bee made, is the element of fire; the naturall place and region 
whereof, the Fhilofopbers held to bee next under the vifiblc hea- 
vens, and above the aire: their reafons are two efpecially; The 
nrft, becaufe there is no other mention of the creation of the 
tine element in all this Chapter. The fecond is, becaufe the 
fire is the moll pure clement, and full of light: But thefe things 
are not of ftrength to overthrow our expofttion. Firft, for the 
opinion of the Philofophers , that the vifible heavens arc immu- 
table and cannot bee ditfblved, it is contradicted by the exprefle 
words of holy Scripture, Pfalm; 102. 26. and 2 Pet, 3, 10. 
Alfo wee find e by experience many changes in thofc heavens; 
as new Star res & Comets appearing for a time & after vanifhing. 
The Sun and Moone/W/?/'// for the fpace of a whole day, Iojb. 
20. and the Sun went backtzn degrees, 2 King, 20. Secondly, 
thevertueand influence which is in the vifible heavens, and is 
from them naturally communicated to the lower elements., 
fheweth plainely that they all are of one common matter. 
Thirdly, that they were not made at once of nothing with the 
higheft heavens, appeares by this, that the Sun, Moone, and 
Stars,which are the chiefeft parts and ornaments in them, were 
created after the firft rude matter, and fecondarily formed out 
of it on the fourth day. 


7be <viftbk Heavens are of a /irk fab/lance. 1 1 1 

* Fourthly, that the vifible heavens are indeed the pure element 
of fire, which is here called Light, and that the creation of the 
light is the creation of them,and of the fine element all in one , 
may eafiiy bee proved -by divers reafbns. Ktft , by the light 
and fervent heat , which flowes from them into things below, 
by meanes w T hcreof they doe beget ririe meteors and lighte- 
ningsintheaire, and fcorching fumes, and burning flames in 
the earth, as dayly experience teacheth. Secondly , by the burning 
and coniuming tires , which defcended from thole heavens in 
the deftru&ion of Sodom , and when the Lord came downe on 
mount Sinah to give the Law , and when Eliah confumed the 
captaines and their fifties, 2 King, i. and was anfwered by 
fire, which confumed his facririce, i King* 18. Thirdly, that 
thefe heavens are of a fierie fubftance , and indeed the puree- 
iement of fire , and that in the diflblution of them, when the 
Lord by his mighty voice (hall rend them and diffolve them 
at the laft day, and mingle them with the inferiour elements; 
they fhall bee all on fire,and in flames and flafhes fhall pafle away 
with a noyfe, and melt the elements with fervent heat,and burne 
the earth with all the works that are therein; the ApofHc doth 
affirmc inplaine words, 2 fVf.3. 1 1. 12. If they were not of 
afirie fubftance made out of the rude mafle, but of an higher 
and fuper-dementary nature created immediatly out of nothing, 
together with the higheft heavens, they could not bee ditfblved 
and fet on fire. Thus you fee thefirft thing opened, viz. what 
is here meant by Light. 

The next thing is the manner of creation ;expre(Ted in thefe Of Go*? 
words, Godfaid, Let there bee light, and there was light. I will not hyingXe: 
here trouble my difcourfe withneedleflequeftions, which are I'gKt be. 
moved by divers ancient Writers, and not cleared concerning 
the manner of Godsfpeech \v\\Z\\HeJaid y Let there bee light 1 
as whether it were a bodily and audible voice, or a fpirituall, 
and the like. Certainly it was no found of voice , nor any 
forme of words or fpecch by which God formed the light: 
It was the ad of his Almighty power, by which he formed, 
and brought into attuall being the light and every other 
thing, even fo as hec had decreed from all eternitie. Now the 
Spirit of God cloth here expreflcthis powerfull agl by the name 

I 4 of 

1 * 2 The manner of the Creation ofLigtt, 

of faying or fpeaking,for 3 . reafons : Fir(t>becaufc as the fpcech 
and word of a wile man iheweth his mindeand declarcthhis 
will, fo by this aft ofpower , by which the light and every other 
thing w r as formed , God did ihcw and declare his eternall 
eounfeil, purpofe and decree concerning the nature and bein°- 
ot them. Secondly, becauie God the Vather by his eternall Word 
the Son, who is one God with himfelfe, did forme and make 
the light and all other things created, as appeares, Ioh. 1.3. and 
Colo/. 1. \6 t and Hebr. 1. 2. Thirdly, to (hew, that the creation 
of the World , and ail things therein, was a worke as eafie to 
God 3 as it is for a man to fpeake a word and to command a thing 
to bee done; and that God by his power omnipotent,and power- 
foil and mighty word and command, can as quickly bring into 
being the greateft things, and pei forme whatfoever hewilleth 
and purpofeth with more cafe , then man can fpeake and fay. 
Let this thing be. This is the true fenfeof the words, wherein 
the manner of creation is expreffed. 
2" The fecond thing after the creation oflight is Gods appro- 

bation of it, in thefe words, And God faw the light that it was 
€ood\ That is, fuchas God purpofed to make the light, fuch it 
was when hee had made it ; there was no dcfecT in the making, 
or in the thing made ; but God did fee and know it perfecT in 
the kind thereof and did approve it to bee good, profitable 
and ufefull,. every way, for thepurpofes which hee inten- 
'3. The third thing is Gods dividing between the light and the 

darkneffe which did over-fpread the face of the deep, and pof- 
feffed all the rude maffe which yet remained without forme 
and void. This dividing between them, was nothing clfcbut 
Gods fetting and placing of the fine and Aiming vifible heaven 
in the fupcriour place above the confuted matter which was full of 
darkneffe, and fettled downe in the inferiour place where now 
the inferiour elements are 
j a The fourth thing is Gods nomination of the light and dark- 

neffe , and compofing the firft day of the evening , that is, the 
fpace wherein the darkneffe remained over all the deep before 
light was created out of it; and of the morning, that is,the fpacc 
wherein light appeared before God fet upon the fecond dayes 


Why the Light cali'dtay y anA theVarhu'Jft,Nght. 1 1 $ 

workc, and made the firmament. This is expreflcd verf, 5. God 
called the Light Day, and the Dcrkncffe he calledNight>& the evening 
and mornir.gwerethefirft- day. Here for our right underftanJing 
of this point, divers doubts and qucftions come to bee touched 
and bricfely anfwered. 

The firft is, how and in what fenfe God is (aid to call the light T • J<2 e ft* 
Day , and the dark* ejfe Night. The true and foil anfwer is this, Anf % 
that God did not oncly call the light Bay, and darknede Night: 
but alfo did ordaineand appoint , that the time of light fhould 
bee the day, and the time of darknede inould bee the night, and 
ttiat they fiiouldbee fo accounted and called. 

- The fecond is, why God called onely the light day , and ^»Sii c f\ 
Mofes calls both the evening and the morning , that is , the 
time of light and darknede one day , or the fir ft day. 

I anfwere, that Gods day,which is mod truly and properly fa Jpf* 
called, is the time oflight,and in it their is no night or darknede. 
For God fpeakes of a natural! day didincT from the night; but 
Mofes fpeakes of a civill day which comprehends in it the. 
ipacc of 24. houres, in which the Sun runncs round about 
the World with the heavens-, which day includes in it a day 
and a night:and here obicrv: that Gods day is all light, and mans 
day is mixt of light and darkneffc. 

Thirdly ,it may asked whether the night 3 or the day went be- 3*<U*! e Jf> 
fore in the firft day of the creation. 

The Anfwer is, that the night or time of darknede was firft; An > * 
and it is likely that darknede did over-lpread the face of the deep 
thefpacc ofa night , that is 12. houres, before God formed the 
light, and feticd the viiible heavens in their place; and that- 
after the light was created, it did dune forth fjr the {pace 
of 12. houres more before God went about to make thefirma- 
menr, which was the fecond dayes work; and fo the firft day of 
the World was of the fame length with all other uvilLor Afcro- 
nomicall dayes, that is, 24 houres ,dividcd equally between light 
and darknede. The words of the text (hew that darkne -Jfe over- 
head all the made of theinferiour World for a time, before the 
light was formed . Alfo in naming the fix dayes of the creation, 
the evening, that is,the time of darknede,is rchearfed firft before 
the morning, which is the time of light, Alfo Gods people 


1 1 4 Every r Per/on in the Trinity is a (reatour. 

began their dayes of the weeke and ofthcyeare with the night, 
and reckoned the Sabbath and other folemne dayes from eve* 
mng to evenings as appeares,Zfz>*Y. 23.32. 
4. Qnefi. fourthly it may bee asked , how the firie or vifible heavens 
could by their light make a day before the Sun was created, 
ieeing the light of the fame heavens, together with the light 
oftheMcDne, and the Starres added thereto, cannot make a 
day, but it is night where the Sun is abfent, and the light of it 
not feene, notwithstanding the light of the heavens, and of the 
Moone and Starres. 
Anf. I anfwere, that the light of the heavens without Sun, Moone, 
and Starres is iurficknt to make a bright day in the place where 
they are , and there it is alwayes day, though by reaibn of the 
fpaciQus regions of the aire , and the great diftance bctwecne 
them and the earth, their light doth not mine to us to make a 
day of light without the beames of the Sun, but it is dark night 
r in that part of the earth where their light onely appeares. Now 
in the firfl: day before the firmament was made, that is,the re- 
gion of the aire purged and refined out of the mafle Uy the fin- 
king and fettling of the earthy and waterifh matter towards 
the center , there was no need of light further then the body of 
the heavens reached, that is to the upper face of the rude mafle, 
not yet formed , but remaining rude and fullofdarknefle; And 
therefore fo farre as the vifible World was brought into forme, 
they did give moft clear day-light: and as ail had before bin over- 
fprcad with darknefle for the fpacc of a night; fo all was now 
overfpread with light for a dayes fpace, and fo the firfl: day of 
the creation was one halfe all night, and another half e all day in 
all the vifible World, even in all parts thereof which were then 
created and brought into perfect forme and being. From this 
text thus opened wee may obferve divers points of inftru- 
<7) El Firft welearnc, that as there are three Perfons in that one 
ThrecPcri ^^ vvmcn created the World by his own infinite power; fo 
fomin t ^ every Perfon isacreatour; and God the Father by his eternall 
Godhead. Word, the Son, did extend and ihew forth his power to the 
framing ofevcry creature , and by his Spirit did give all forme 
and perfection to them, As the word Ehhim, ufed in thefirft 


Nfithim if'ipo/sible to God. 115 

vcrfc, notes mote Pcrfons ; io hcre,and in the verfe before, wee 
fee the Peribns dillinguifhed , and all three working in the 
framing of the World and all the creatures therein. Hrft:,God 
the Father is brought in creating. Secondly, by his Word, that is, 
not by a found of the voice , or a word uttered ; for there wajs 
then no aire to receive iuch a ibund; but by his eternal! Word 
bringing things into being according to his eternall Counfell 
and decree. Thirdly, by his Spirit moving upon the face of the 
waters , and cherilhing the rude and common matter of the 
whole vifible World, yet void and unformed, and preparing it 
for the receiving of the feverall formes of all creatures in the 

Which point excellently confirmes our faith in the true Vfi\ 
Doctrine of the blefled Trinitie, and confutes SabelliHs y Serve- 
r^,the Sociniansmc. A rminUns ,viho denkd the eternall Deity 
of the Son and the holy Ghoft: , and ovcrthrowes their fever2li 
hcrefics and damnable errours . 

Secondly wee hence learne , that all things arc poiTible to 2 . Bodh\ 
God;he can as eafily and quickly by his eternall Word and power All rbmgs 
bring greatelt things to palTe , even bring light out of darkneile, pofllblc to 
and the glorious, pure, fpacious, vifible heavens out of the rude, G,otl . 
Impure and confuted made , which was without forme and 
void ; as a man of nimble tongue and ready lpeech can fpeake a 
word. Which Doctrine other Scriptures doe aboundantiy con- 
firme, which afcribc to God omnipotence, and proclaim: him 
to bee wondcrfoliincjuniell, and excellent in working; and 
tint nothing is too hard or wonderfull for him to doe, as Genef. 
18. 14.7/^28. 29. hb 36. 5. and 42, 2. 

Which lerves to ftirre us up to fearc, admire, and reverence Vfe% 
God, to feek his favour i[nd proteition above all things, and to 
reft confidently on him for defence againft all enemies and 
dangers when wee arc reconciled to him., and have him for 
our God and our portion. 

Thirdly,wc may here obferve,thatGod is wonderful io wife- n t j)o[ir ' 
dome and providence,in that the firft thing created in this vifible o & wotk \ 
World was iight,even thebright and mining heavens;Which,as ierfull in 
above all vifible creatures they ihew the glory and fupcr-celcltial wiftdome 
excellency of God in their naturall frame aad fubftance, io al fo ^ ^ * '" 

give ence * 

\\6 7ht honour of the firfiVaj. 

z : ofaflbodi » CRatort 

::. 7. ' it :. :.::.:- 



fecnc in them, ib ibone as 

7 ;■ : . not notice of God k 
irigbt boot all excofe. 

: : : i , and to difee: n his 

^1 oar perfedhaa and bappinefTc in 
. : r :m. 
■ : ~. : may hence c; vcrsfingolarprcrog- 

of the E which is now ,by tbc rdfarrcftion of Chriil,thc 

txtaoz±e Lo: iay , and the Sabbath of all true Chriftians. That 

fa*« 5 " tm r?gatives, Goddidinthccreatixiforc 

allcoanfeil andpurpafc to make tHs day his holy day 
a ofChriifcr and in the time of A dl under 

Kingdom : - Jrace. I. 7 n A s nrft fruits of all : 
, 2. In it was created the gloriais - : the bei i the 

<l . " : . - - --:::• 

the:- .--feriour rA wh 

-:-:_: . : Z(A \ 

; _ _ - ■ ;::-._:: 

- : - : .'• : : : • I 11 

:or good 

: .r : i, and the 

■ -■ ' 

Of ibi ttmgs created. \\j 

and brings us to ctcrnail raft Id the hqbeft heavens, which v 
created in the beginning of the firft diy. 

a a p. 


Thefecond dajes worhe. Cf the skje and things now created. All 
made by the fontr of Gsd in Chrjjj-. Thenfeof tloe frmamc 
How ailed heaven. All was created wifely and orderly. Vfe. 

Aftd God/aid , Let there bee * Firmament in the midficf the V>rfc 6, 
w tit trs,and let it divide the waters fromthe waters. 7. tyfrdr^* 
God made the Firmament, and divided the warir; 
t*:e Firmament y from the waters which were above the Firmament; 
and it wai fo, 8. *And Gcd called the Firmament heaven . or.: 
e~, r*i:ng and the mrrning were thefecond aay. 

In thele words wee have ^briefehtttorie of thefecond day 
workein the creation of the World: wherein wee are to con- 
: thefe five things : 1. The thing created. :. The creation 
and bringing of it into being. 3. The uic of it. 4 :me 

which God gave unto ir.5. How t 
an evening and a mornmg, which where (fa : 

Hrftjfor the thing created, it isintheonginail text called by Of the 
a general! mtucW^i which may fignirie any thing which is • 
fpread abroad, cr jfrctcljedfarre and wide, according to theetymo- cr€i 
logie of it. For the He. re v rcr J) pij of which it is derive J, 
in all Scriptures whereibever it is nfed, doth fig ific : - :.. 
/presiding any thin; Sc ftretching it oot^tnd laying it wide- 

Open to view,as£.\W. \ 9, \ Numb. 1 6 3 8. and Jer/i o. 9 it figni- 
fies beating oat of gold \ Cilver, or hrsfcimtt thimm I raad plates, 
that is j ip reading them broad by viok : beating, Fxod. 40. 
19 It is ufed to fignirie the fpre ading abroad of the tent over tlx 
Tabernacle, Ffalmex^. 6 and Jfx. 42.5 .and 44 24, It is lUeofc 
to fignifie the ftretching out of the earth aboze the waters farre and 
wide, lob 57. 18. it figtilfies the fpread:r.£ out of tlx skie and of 
The thlnne cloudes; and 2 Sam. 22. 43. it is ufed to ilgnifte 
ipreading abroad as 4 man fpre ads clay by damping it with :./s 
feetj and, by a Mctonymie of the effect, it u nfed to Sgoifie rtam- 

1 8 Opinions about tbejignification of the fborci Firmament. 

ping with the feet as men ftamp clay and fpread it abroad, 
Jlz.tch.6. ii. and 25.6. 

Thefe are the places of Scriptures , in which onely that 
word is ufed. So then this word IPpI, being derived of it, 
muft needs (ignifie a thing which isftretched out like a tent or 
canopie, or f of ead abroad as plates of gold and filvcr are by bea- 
ting, and clay by (tamping. The Greeks Septuagints tranfiate 
this Word every where ftp£*p*, that is, a thing which though 
it bee ht^firetchedout, yet it is iojurely eftablijhed, that it abides 
ftill in the place which God hath appointed for it. And the 
vulgar Latine, with divers later tranflaters , following the 
Greeke Septuagints, tra.iflate it Firmamentum, the firmament, that 
is, a thing firmely let and eftablifhed in a place, which cannot 
f "om thence bee driven cut, and leave the place empty. And al- 
though this word may, according to the notation of it , fignifie 
any thing ftr etched out or fpread abroad , or laid wide open, 
and is once onely ufed to fignifie broad plates of brafle beaten 
out for a covering , and that in the plurall number .iY/*;**. 1 6. 3 3. 
yet in all other places of Scripture it is ufed in the lingular num- 
ber for the skie, which God hath from the beginning ftretched 
out over the globe of the Earth and the Sea, as herein this 
Chapter, and Pfalme 10. 1. and 150. 1. and T>an. 12.3. and 
E^ech* 1. 22. and 10. 1. Now what this skie or firmament is, 
that is a great queftion among the learned. Divers oftheAn- 
cients,as Bafil^Jkmbrofe.Beda^xA others, doe by this firmament 
understand the ftarry heavens, Firft, becaufe it is laid in the 
8.verf: that God called this firmament heaven. Secondly, be- 
caufe it is faid that, when God made the Sun, Moone,& Starres, 
hee fct them in the firmament of heaven, verf. 17. Thirdly, 
becaufe they doe imagine that there is a watery heaven above the 
ftarry heaven , which confifts of water congealed like to 
Criltalhand doth temper the heat of the Sun, Moone, and Stars; 
and out of this heaven they conceive that God poured the wa- 
iters which drowned the old World, becaufe it is laid, Gen. 7.1 1. 
that the windowes of heaven were opened, and God rained on 
the earth. 

But others doe hold, that by the firmament here is meant the 
whole heavens; that is, bjth the firft heavens, the fpacious re- 

What mtant by Firmarrrnr. 119 

gions of the aire; and alfo the middle, that is, the firie and (tarry 
heavens ;and the third,that is,the highcli heavens, lirl^becaule 
it is laid that God called the firmament D*£ti9i Heave*: ; and this 
word lsuledinthe Scriptures to fignifie aU thefe three heavens. 
And as the higheft heaven is called by this name, Pfalme 11.4. 
the LorJltkrone is in heaven, 2x\\Tfalme 148. wjierc it is laid, 
Praife Wm>0 heaven of heavens :So the middle and ftarry heavens, 
as Gen. ?2. 17. where wee read of the Starresof heaven, and 
alfo the airy or lowed heaven is thus called , V*tfi 20. and 26. 
where it is laid, Let thefoveles fie in thu openfirmamwt of heaven % 
and Tfatme 79. 2. and Hof. 2. 18. and many other places, 
where wee read of the fowles of heaven. 

But the bed learned of later times have for the mod part The Me 
held, that by the firmament is here meant that vaft and ipacious "team by 
element and region oi the aire, which is extended and ftretched lhe ^ rma * 
out, not onely round about all the Earth and the Sea; but alio :C * 
reacheth from this globe of the Earth and the Sea, to the ibrry 
heavens even to thcfpheareoftheMoone: and tlv.s is without 
doubt the true fenfc and leaning of the word in this place, 
as appears by divers reafons, Rrrt , the Hebrew name 2 V -C, R* a f* 
(by which C od called this firmament or large re.^ic-r., being *• 
compounded ofD~, which figniries there t or in that place, and 
D>2, which figniries waters) notes out unto us, that this fir- 
mament is the place where waters are engendered in the 
clouds, and which from thence deicend and water the earth, 
and that is the fluid and waterithclerne:i-:the aire. Secondly, 2* 
there is no other firmament befides the aire ftretched out be- 
tween the waters or the Se3 p which are below and theunder- 
moft, and the waters above in the clouds heaven-ward , and 
from thence diftill and water the earth , and did deicend 
in great abcundance, and drowned the old World, when God 
diflblvcd the clouds,& fo opened the. floud -gates and windowes 
of heaven-. The aire is the onely element which divides be- 
tween thefe two watersof the clouds above , and of the Sea 
and Rivers below, Thirdly, the airy region is that in which 
the Sun, Moonc, and Starres doe dune and give Light to the & 
Earth., and in which their beames and li^ht appeare to us on 
earth* The light of the ftarry heavens, and of the Sun, which 


i xo What meant by the Firmament, 

alwaycs (hines in them, even at midnight as well as atnoonc 
day , is not fecne or us as it is in the heavens, but as it is in the 
aire; for,by multiplying their beames in the aire,thc Sun,Moonc, 
and Starres are Teen of us, and give light upon the earth. And 
therefore it is not faid, that God made the Sun, Moonc, and 
Starres in the firmament, orfetthem to have thei»iacc and 
being in it; but gave them to bee lights in it, that is,fet fRm above 
to {hine through it, and , by multiplying their beames in this fir- . 
mament the aire, to give light to the earth, Verfe 1 5 . 
4 Fourthly , the fovvles which rlie in the open face of the 

.aire, avc&idtojliein th: firmament ., which God called heaven, 
Verfe 2 o . 

5. Fifthly, the higheft heaven was created in the beginning in 
the fir ft moment of time together with the Angels. And the 
ftarry heaven is the light created in the fir ft day ; therefore this 
heaven here called rirmanent is the airie region or loweft 

6. Sixthly, in all places of Scripture wherein wee finde this 
word irp"), which is here tranflated firmament, wee may very 
well and with good reafon understand by firmament, the large 
extended region of the aire ; and it cannot be proved by any 
one place that the word fignifies any other then the airie heaven 
cnlightned with the beames of the Sun and the ftarry hea- 

7 # Seventhly, they who here by firmament do underftand tho 

ftarry heavens, are forced by the words of the text (which lay, 
that the firmament is in the midft of the waters, and divides 
the waters above from the waters below) to imagine that there 
are waters above the ftarry heavens , there placed to mitigate 
the heat of the Sun , and the Starres , and that thefe waters 
drowned the old World; which is a ridiculous conceipt,groun- 
ded on palpable miftaking or divers Scriptures, and contrary 
to all reafon. For the places of Scripture which fpeake of wa- 
ters above the heavens, intend no other waters but fuch as are 
in the clouds in the middle region of the aire, and above the 
lowc!} region »f the firmament or airy heaven. Fir ft, the He- 
brew phrafc fj^p-rt lj?a D'Band O'BP tyB,) that is, above 
the firmament , or above the heavens-, fignifies no more but waters 
" " that 

What meant hy Tbater^ove the Heavens! \ i \ 

that are above , heavenward. Secondly , the ScripturesUoe 
plainely expound this phrafe, and in many places (hew , that by 
waters above.the heavens , they doe not meane either the multi- 
tude of heavenly Angck, as Origen dreamed; or any Cryftail 
orbeornaturall waters above the ttarry heavens, as Bafil,Am~ 
brofc, Beda, and others imagined; or the matter offpiricuall znd 
fuperceleiriall fubftances different from the matter .of earthly 
creatures, as Auften thought; but that tbefe waters above, arc 
the waters in the clouds above in the middle region of the aire, 
even raine, and haile, andihow, and fuch waters as flow from 
thence in great aboundance when it pleafcth God to open the 
bottles, windowes , fountaines, and floodgates of heaven, that 
is , the clouds,* for the clouds are called the bottles of heaven > 
Iob%8. 37. and the fountaines of the deep, Prov, 8.2?. and the 
watery roofe of Cods chambers , Pfalme 104. 3. and God is laid 
to bind up his waters in the thickjlonds^andthecUudii not rent 
under them, lob 26. 8. and when Godopeneth the clouds and 
lends downe raine to water the earth ,& to give to it the bleffing 
of fruit fulncffe , hee is faid to open the wmdowes and flood- 
gates ofheaven, Gen. 7. 11. and Utfal, 3. 10. And the low ell 
region of the aire, in which the dew is engendered of vapours 
andmifts diflblved into imall drops , is called heaven; and the 
dew from thence diftilling is called the Dew of * heaven ,Gen t 2j* 
2 8. Pfalme 1 3 3. 3 . and Zach. 1 2. 8. 

So then wee fee that the firmament here called heaven, is 
the wide and broad fpread aire reaching from earth to the (tarry 
heaven, and comparing the globe of Sea and land round about; 
and by the waters above the Armament, the waters in the 
clouds are meant, which are a6ove the lowed region of the 
airy heaven or firmament. And thus much for the opening 
of the firffc thing in my text, to wit, the thing created. 

The lecond thing is the creation of this firmament, and the 
manner of it. It is faid,God made the firmament, that is, framed 
it, as hee had done the light the (tarry heavens, out of the rude 
matter before named , which w r as without forme and void, 
ferfe % . and this hee did by the fame power and after the fame 
manner,as he did the light, faying, Let there be a Firmament, that 
is,by his eternallVVord the Son,by whom he doth exercife all his 

K power, 


Why the Fiwwwnt ftxn made. 

power , and performe all his works according to his eternall 
Counfell, and by whom heeflieweth outwardly his ctcrnail 
purpofean.d will, as a man by his word doth openly profefle 
and declare his mind and purpofe. And thus wee fee the Sonl 
ftiil workcth with the Father and the Spirit id the creation 
of every thing in the World, and without him nothing is made 
and created. 

The third thing is a maine n(e for which this firmament was 
madetoferve; namely to divide the waters from the waters, 
that is, the waters which are below in the Sea^nd Rivers ,and are 
mingled with the earth, from the waters which are above in 
thecioudsj forweefinde by experience, that there is no other 
ihing,which divides between thole waters,6ut onely the lowefi: 
heaven, the airie firmament. There is alio another ufe here- 
after mentioned , Vtrfe 20. that is to convey the light from 
the Sun, Moone,and Starry heavens to the earth. 

The fourth thing is the name by which God called the fir- 
mament, that is,Q\Dfc?, heaven. Indeed, according to the com- 
mon etymologic and notation approved of all the learned, 
this name moli properly expreflfeth the nature of the aire, the 
place of waters and waterifh clouds; and the ftarryand higheft 
heavens are fo called by reafon that they appearetous, in our 
fight, to be one, and the fame common body ; or elfe by a me- 
taphore, becaufc there is a great (imilitude between them and 
the aire, in refped of their purity and brightnefTe; or ( as I have 
formerly noted) this word D>EtP, when it is the proper name of 
the highft heaven,may haveanothcr derivation of D^,which fig- 
nifieth ^^ doubled, or made in the forme of the duall number; 
and fo it is as much as if one fhould fay there ytbercfhst is,there is 
the place of all places,there is the beft being in the heaven of hea- 
vens :and here wee may obfervc, what manifold and wonderfull 
wifedome there is in the names which God hath given to crea- 
tures which hce himfelfe named * 
How a day The fifth and laft thing to bee confidcred in this text, which 
without is a point of greateft difficultic, is, How by the framing and 
ike Sun* continuance of this worke , there came in an evening and a 
morning, which are the fecond day.- The Sun was not yet 
created to fhine and to give dear day light, fuch as wee now 


Holt there could bee a day before the Sum creation. i ij 

have, and therefore how could there bee a day or a morning^ 
And the light, that" is, the bright frame of the firie heavens 
being extended over all the inferiour maffeofthe in feriour ele- 
ments, not yet formed, how could there bee an evening oc 
night, andfoa whole civili day, as the text here fpeakes? Ali 
that the learned have devifed and written for the removing of 
thefe doubts, is this : Some hold , that the light which God 
created fubfifting without a fubjecl, did, for the fpace of 12. 
houres, (hinc and fend forth beames , and make the morning; 
andagaine, for the fpace of 12. houres, was contracted and 
withdrew it felfe, and fo made the night or evening. This 
is the opinion of Bajil, and DamAfcene. Others think that' 
light created the rlrft day, being a bright cloud which moved 
about as the Sun doth, did fhine like fire one while, and fo made 
the day ; and was like a thick cloud of darkncfle for v another 
while , and fo made the night; as the pillar of cloud which lead 
Ifrael ; fo Beda holds. Others thinke it was the light of the 
Sun created imperfect at the firft, and moving about with the 
heavens, did make a difference between day and night equallf. 
But certainly the light which God created being good, that is, 
a perfect creature in his kind, and fo approved of God , as the 
words of the text ihew ; cannot with any reaion bee held to bee 
any impcrfefl thing , which afterwards was altered, or any 
inch mutable and corruptible light as was kindled and quen- 
ched ; for God, feeing, and approving k for good, would not fo 
quickly alter it. 

Wherefore I take the evening or night time of the fecond 
day , to bee the time wherein God by his word and power was 
feparating the aire and purging it, by caufing the thick wate- 
rifn and earthy part to defcend and fettle downewards to- 
wards the center. For all that time, the vaft and fpacious wide 
region of the aire,being not purified, remained dark and duskiili, 
becaufe the light of the firie heaven did not fhine thorough it,and 
that was the evening or night of the fecond dayibuuhe aire being 
made pure & per fed,and fettled in his naturallplace,received the 
light of the heavens into it for the fpace of 12. houres, before 
God began to create the other elements , which were thefirlt 
.\yorks of the third day. And this was a day of light cleare 

K z enough 

Qod created the Wctf in Wtfiomt and Order. 

enough for the creatures then made, though not fo light as when 
the Sun was made; and this evening and morning made tbefe- 
cendday , as the text faith. And thus we fee the true fenfe and 
meaning of the text, and what is the fecond day and the work 
thereof: from whence wee may obferve fome points of Do- 
Dotir t i. Firft wee hence learnc, that God proceeds mod wifely and 
Ali cr ^- orderly in the creation of the World, declaring manifeftly that 
& 7*' Iv fc ec ^ otn nothing in vaine, nor makes any thing before it is life- 
. o <ur y. jr^j an ^ ncceifarily for the communicating of his goodnetfe to his 
creatures; but doth all for the benefit of others , and addes no- 
thing -to himfelfe , neither hath need to receive glory from any 
creature. If God had made the Sun and Starrcs before hec made 
the aire or the earth , men might have imagined that hee had 
made the Sun and lights of heaven not for the ufc of men and 
other earthly creatures; but either becaufe hee bad need of thein 
in the heavens to adde glory to himfelfe; orelfctoremainefor 
a time without ufe and in vaine. But in that hee made not the 
glorious lights at the fir ft before the aire, through which they 
might mine and give light to the earth , Hereby hee fhewcth 
that hee created , all tilings wifely and orderly; the moft need- 
full things in the firft place; and nothing before there was life of 
it ; nothing which remained unprofitable for one houre ; and 
that in creating the Worlds hee neither fought nor needed any 
addition of glory to himfelfe ; but made the glorious Sun and 
lights for to mew and to impart his glory to men, and his good- 
nefle to other creatures. 
Vfi* Let us all fee Gods wifedome and goodnefle, and labour to 
imitate him in them; and as he doth all for our ufe, not his ovvnc 
profit, foletus not feck any thing in the World for ourowne 
vaine ends : but make the fetting forth of his glory, the end of 
all our labours; andftriveto doe his will and pleafure, notour 
ownc; nor the will and commandement of any man, when wee 
perceive it to bee contrary and not according to the will and 
word of God. 
Dottr* *» Secondly, in that the light of the fecond day which mined 
onely in the aire, and through it to the earth and deep, was 
not a cleare but obfearc light in comparifon of the firft day, and 

"7 "' " . the. 

The Aire is the place ofSatans K^nghmu 1 1 y 

the dayes after the Sun,Moone,and fctarres were madc,not much 
brighter then the night of the three lad daycs ; Hereby God 
did forefhew, that the aire and this lowert World is the place of 
Satans Kingdome, wherein hce doth rage and tyrannize with 
great power after his fall, untill hec be call into Hell at the laft 
day; which alio other Scriptures fhew, as Eph. 22. where Satan. 
is called the Prince of the aire, and Revel. 1 6. 1 7. the Kingdome 
of Satan is called the aire, and Ioh. 14, 30. our saviour calls him 
the Prince of this World. 

Wherefore let us not place our felicity here in the things yr < 
of this World , nor hop: for peace and reft in this lowed, airy 
heaven where Satan rulcth and ragetb. Hee who preacheth 
for things here, hce fpeakes into the aire, r (for. 14. p. Hce 
who wraftleth fbr a prize here, hec beateth the aire , and drives 
for uncertainties, 1 Cor. p. 26. Let usiookeup higher to the 
Heaven of heavens, to the Country and City, which is abovc^ 
and where Chrift is, there let our heart bec, Verfe 9. 

j Chap. Vlll. 

The third day es worke. Of Water and Earth } di)tintt elements. Of 
the names of Earth and Sea. Of Herbcs y Plants , and Trees* 
All earthly things ', nothing to God. Wee are Pilgrimes on earth: 
Vfes. God ruleth the moft tumultuous creatures : Vfe. 

ANdGodfaid 9 Let the waters under the Heaven hee gathered Vcrfc 5. 
together unto one place \ and let th: drie land appeared and it was 
fo 9 Verfe 10. And God called the drie land Earth, and the gathering 
together of the Waters called hee Seas y and God far* that it wo* 
good % Verfe 1 1. And God f aid. Let the Earth brtng forth grajfe, 
her be yeelding feed; and the fruit tree yeelding fruit after hh kind, 
whofe feed u in it felfe upon the Earth ; and it was fo , Verfe 1 2. 
And the Earth brought forth grajfe 9 and her be yeeldtng feedafter his 
kindy and the tree yeelding fruity whofe feed was in it felfe after his 
kind\and Godfaw that it was good \ Verfe 13, vind the evening and 
tic nMrmnfy were the third day. 

K j The 

ll6 Of the place oj the Bartb and Waters • 

The third dayes worke, is the creation of the Earth and the 
Seas, and the feparating of them one from another in place,and 
the calling of them by their names ; alfo the creation of the 
Herbes, Plants, and Trees out of the Earth, all which made up a 
third dayes work? . 

Intrn p. verfe, wee have the creation of the two grofleft 
and lo welt elements, the Water and the Earth, laid dow T ne very 
briefely , and withall the feparation of the Water from the 
Earth into one place, and the appearance of the earth above the 

The firft words, (And God/aid,) fhew, that God by his eter- 
nall Word the Son , created thefe inferiour elements, and all 
things in them; and dill the Son works with the Father in all 
the works of creation. 

Thefe next words, (Let the waters under the heaven bee ga- 
thered together unto one place , and let the drie land appe are) feeme 
not to ipeake at all of the creation of the waters or of the earth; 
'but onely of the feparation of the waters into one place, and 
caufing the dry land to appeareby it felfe. Some Expofitors 
gather from thefe words, that the earth, and the waters were 
created before, and that the earth being made perfectly round 
in the lowed: place, and framed of the heavieftand grofleft part 
of the rude matter, which lettied about the center, was all co- 
vered with the waters which were made of the purer part of 
that rudemafle, which remained after the creation of the fpa- 
cious firmament the rurie heaven, and the naturall place of the 
waters was above the earth, betweene it and the aire. I cafily 
beleeve and acknowledge, that the earth, being made of the 
heavieft part of the rude matter, doth occupie and poiTefle the 
loweft place about the middle center of the rou' id World ; and 
that the natnrall place of the water which is a purer and ligh- 
ter element, in which place God firft created it, and gave it 
being, is the place next above the earth compafling it round on 
every fide; and if the element of water were in quantity more 
then the hollow places of the earth could conteine, it would 
overflow all the upper face of the earth: or i f God lliould bring 
the earth into a per feci: round globe without rifings upofhils, 
or hollow valleycs; the waters ©fthe Sea would ftand in the 


Of the motion of the Elements. 1 17 

upper place next above it , between the aire and the earth. For 
wee fee and find by daily experience , tfcat as heavier elements 
doq^elcend downwards when they arc in lighter elements, 
and doe by natural! motion tend to the lower place; as for exam- 
ple drops of raine- water, being ingendered \\\ the aire, delcend 
downward ,and the earth and every part of it, whether a ftone,oc 
lump of clay or clod of earth,will iinke do wne & move towards 
the bottom in a lake of (landing water, and in a veflell full of wa- 
ter. So alfo the lighter and thinner elements doe naturally 
afcend above the heavier, and fcekc the higher place,and cannot 
but by violence bee kept under them , or in the tame place with 
them; for wee fee, that (parks and flames of fire being in the aire, 
will continually afcend upward till they come to the place 
above it; and if aire be clofed up in a bladd:r,and by fome weight 
held downc in the bottom of a pond or fome great veflell of wa- 
ter; if it bee let loofe by opening or burfting the bladder, it will 
prefently flie up and make lpeedy way in bubbles to the top of 
the waters ; and if waters bee either ingendered in the earth 
under the ground , or, byfecret conveyances, bee driven from 
the Sea into the earth, it will continually fpring up till it cometh 
to the top of the earth ; and hence it is, that wee have fo many 
fprings of water riling out of the earth. But I cannot belecve ? 
that the earth and the waters of the Sea were created diftinct 
elements before the third day; becaufe no words in this Hiftorie 
of the creation, doe, before this day, mention any creation ok' 
water and earth as they are elements perfectly formed and di- 
ftincl: one from another. Indeed the rude made, which was 
without forme and void, is called Earth, and thz.Deep , and the 
Waters^ not becaufc it had the forme of thefe , or was any one of 
them; but was onely the matter, of which they were made; and 
becaufe it was like earth,for the groflnefle of it;and like water or 
a deep quagge or muddy lake, for the inftability of it. And al- 
though it is faid, before that God made the airie heaven, to di- 
vide between the waters above in the clouds, and the waters 
below under the aire in the Sea and the Rivers; yet it doth not 
follow that thefe w iters were created before, or that then im- 
mcdiatly it did divide betweene them,but that it was made to 
divide between than afterwards when they were created. Yea 

K 4 ic 


128 Of the creation and fan ition of the earth and waters. 

itis plaine,that there was no rainc in the airemor clouds,nor mitts, 
nor vapours afcending up from the earth, till after" the earth was 
furnifhed with herbes,plants,and trees, Otap. 2. Verfe 5,6. . 
Of Water Wherefore ( omitting to mention divers necdlefle queftions, 
andEarth, and unprofitable opinions raifcd and held by former writers 
diftind e. and expodtors cfrhistext) I will in briefc fhew what I con- 
lcments. c eive, and what I gather out of thefe words. 

I. Firft, I conceive that thefe words, tXndGodfaid, Let wa- 

ters from under heaven bee gathered together > (for fo they run in 
theoriginall) doe implie two things: Firft, that God by his 
creating word brought the waters and the earth into being, and 
made them perfect and diftincl elements one from another; 
and the water being the lighter did at the firftftand above the 
earth, and compafle it round, 8c that is the naturall place of it. 
Secondly, that God immediatly after, when the waters had 
covered the earth almoft for the (pace of a night, and had kept 
it in darknefic from the fight and light of heaven,then I fay,God 
did bring the earth into that forme and ihapc which it now hath.- 
in the round globe of it he made hollow vaileyes, deeper in one 
place then another; and hee raifed up the hils and mountains fo 
much in height above as thofe vaileyes are deep and hollow 
below,* and the earth being a firme and dric element and {tan- 
ding faft in this fafhion; and the waters being of a liquid and 
flowing fubftance , and more heavy then the aire, did (for the 
avoiding of vacuity, which nature abhorreth, and to fill up thofe 
hollow places, which other wife would have remained empty, 
unleffe the aire could have defcended through the water) 
defcend downefrom the hils, and through the vaileyes of the 
earth, untill they came into and filled the great hollow vaileyes, 
where the waters of the Sea remaine, and which is the place 
of the Sea to this day; and fo there is as much water in the Sea, 
as there is drie land appearing above the waters ; and the depth 
of the Sea is equall to the rifing of the Earth,and the mountaines 
above the banks of it, as fome learned men have oblerved. And 
for proofe hereof wee have the plaine word of God. The word 
V)p\ ufed in the originall text, tigriifas gathering together into one 
hollow -place ^ and Tfalme 104. 5, 6,7,8, David fpeaking of 
thefirlt foundation of the earth, faith, that God covend it -mtk 


Of the name of the emb. 1 2 v 

the deep as with a garment , avid the waters flood above thehils: at 
hrs rebuke they fled, at his tkund ring voice they hafted away: the 
his did rife up to their height } and the waters wer.t downc the v al- 
lies, unto the t Use which God founded for them; and there heefet 
them a bound which they cannot pa ffe^nor returne to cover the Earth. 
And the earth was hrlt under the water; and after by Gods 
making of the great hollow vallies, and railing up the earth 
and dric land, caufed it to Hand out of the water, and fo toap- 
peare above the water as if ic did (land in the water, and were 
founded upon the Sea, and efiablijhed upon the flouds y the words 
ofSaintTVrrrfhew, 2 Pet. $.5. compared with this text, and 
the words of Z)/r^V, Pfalme 24. t. Thus much for the opening 
of the firft words , wherein the creation' and fituation or 
the earth and the waters are laid downein the 9. Verfe, 

The next thing is the naming of the waters and the dric of the 
' land . 1 1 is faid, that God called the dric land Earthy and the gat he- name of 
ring together of the waters called he the Seas , and God fan' that it tnc Earth* 
was goody ferfe 10. The names, which God gave to the things 
here created , are full of wiledomc; the driehnd now appea- 
ring firmc above the waters God called iHSV Eret^ok which our 
Engiim name Earth is derived , and hath the f:undofit. In 
the Hebrew, the word may bee derived of the verb SH , which 
fignifteth running fpeedily, or running a race- and f\y, which is 
a negative particle & fignificth not for the earth is rmde to (land 
firme and neither to move from the naturall place ofk,nor to run 
about m the place. The common opinion of the belt learned 
is, that God called the earth 2PN, of >N, which fignificth where, 
being an adverb of place, andfr\which fignificth runmng.hz- 
cauic the heaven and the aire move and run round about it and 
becaufc it ftands firme and is a lure footing for men and other v 
creatures to run upon, and neither iinke,as in waters-noi fall and 
ftick fcft,as in watcnfli bogges, myres,and quickfandsjto which 
Imayaddc another and more divine reafon, to wit, becaufc 
God made the earth and drie land, that man and other creatures, 
which are made for mans ufe might live and move uuonit,and' 
that it might bee the place wherein man fhould run his race 
towards heaven and happineffe; in which hee would not have 
us to iettlc our reft, as if yvec. were to live here for ever, bur 


i j o 7begatkering together of Water stalled Seas , 

to run towards the better Countrie, which is above. 
And of the The gathering together of the waters, God called DW, t\x 
Sea, Sea*. Firft this name is of the plurall number; becaufe, though 

*• there is but one maine ocean Sea , through which men may 
faile to .all parts of the Earthy yet there are many inlets, 
creeks, corners, gulfes, and breakings in, between feverall Coun- 
tries of the earth; as the mediterranean Sea, the red Sea, the 
Perfian Gnlfe, the Gulfe of Venice, the black Sea, the fouth Sea t 
2. and divers others. Secondly, this word is derived either of 
nOH, which (ignifics to rage and to make a noifc and tumult, 
or of D3D , which fignifies to lhake, and to cafe do wne and lay 
proftrate all things before it. And indeed wee finde by expe- 
rience , that the waters of the Sea, being gathered together, and 
detained in the hollow place of the earth,doe,parriy by a natural! 
difpoiltion and inclination to afcend to their naturall place above 
the earth, and partly by windes and tempefts lying violently 
upon them , rage, roare, fwell , and make the mountaines as 
it were to fhake with their rage and noyfe. And when they 
breake through their bankes into the drieland fas fometimes 
it happens J they beare downe all before them; as the flood in 
IVWf'sdayes did over-run, and deftroyed the earth, when God 
brake up the fountaines of the great deep. 

But ho wfoever the earth is made to bee a place of running, 
and of toile, and travell, and "the gathering together of the wa- 
ters into the Seas makes a great noyie and tumult, and raged* 
terribly: yet God faw that this his worke was ; £W;and that both 
the Earth and the Sea flvould bee of great ufe and profit to man 
both forneceflaries of lire, and alfo for magnifying of Gods 
dreadfull power, wifedome and goodneffe in mans eyes, and 
therefore Mofes here faith,God faw that it vtzsgood. 
Of herbes, Another maine thing followeth in this third dayes worke, 
plants, and that is, the creation of graffe, herbes, plants, and trees; Where 
trees. note onely thefe two things : Firft, what were thefe things 
created. Secondly, how they were created and brought into 

The firft is graffe, or grcenc herbe,NEM, which is'; that 
which of it felfe fprings up without fetting, or fowing. The 
iecond 3tSV, herbe, bearing feed, that is, all herbes which are 


Qftbt manner ofcfeatmg Herbs, FUnts.and Trees. 131 

fct or fowne,and incrcafc by mans induftry . The third i*y,that is, 
trees and plants, which are of a woodie lubftance, which beare 
fruit and have their feed, which turns to fruit in themfelves; 
they are not multiplied oncly by lowing of feed, but live all 
the year, and many yeares without fowing, and multiply by 
rootes,fl ips, grafts, and the like. Thde were the things,\vhich 
God is here laid, by his creating Word and power , to bring 
out of thcearth,every one perfect in their kind. 

Secondly , for the manner of creating them; they were not 
created immediatly of nothing, nor of any other element be- 
fides the earth , and then put into the earth there to grow; But 
God by his power full Word, without any help of mans tillage, 
Raine,or Sun, did make them immediatly out of the earth, and 
every one p:rfe<fl in their kind-, grafle and heroes with flowers 
and feeds; and trees with large bodies, branches, leaves, and 
fruits, growing up Suddenly, as it were in a moment, by Gods 
Word and power. And thus much I gather not oncly from 
the words of the text , which run thus, God faid ; Let the Earth 
Irlng forth gr*$e y her bes, and trees: but alfo from the words, Chap. 
2. 5,6. where it is (aid, that God formed every plant when yet 
it was not in the Earth; and every herb> when a* yet it grew not up; 
that is, before they had any Iced , or rootc hidden or fownein 
the earth from whence they might fpring and grow up; 
and alfo without help of raine or dew, or any culture or til- 

Now all thefe things being thus formed by the word of 
God , were approved by God fcr good and perfect in their 
kind. And io the evening , that is, the time of darknefle over 
the earth ( while the waters covered it, and before the drie land 
appeared above the waters, which was about twelve hourcs, a 
nights fpace Jand the morning (that is, the time of light after 
the drie land appeared, and the light of the firie heavens fhined 
upon it through the aire, which as yet was mod pure and clearc 
without clouds, mitts or vapours, which time of light was 
other twelve hourcs,) madeup a third day. 

Thus we fee, that in the three firft daies before the creation of 
theSun, Moon, and Starres,the night was a time of darknes, and 
the day a time of light in all that part of the World whejf night 


1 3 1 Ihe times of Light and Darkneffe make the third dap 

and day are faid to have been, and in refpecT: of which part 
of the World they are called evening, and morning;as for exam- 
ple, After that the light,the flrie heavens were created, and made 
out of the rude maffc, full of darkneffe, there was no more night 
or darkneffe but all light in the heavens ever (ince (for they are 
a day and light to themfelvcs) and that which is night and day, 
with us, is all alike with them, even cieare day frght. So like-* 
wife after the creation of the fight , all was darkneffe in the reft 
of the rude mafic which was not yet formed; and the time that 
it lay in darkneffe before the airy heaven was perfectly puriried 
and made , is called the evening or night: but after that the fir* 
mamenfj that is, the fpacious element of the aire, was created 
and brought into per feci being «nd puritie , it received into 
it the light of the tirie heavens which fhined through it 5 and the 
time of that (Inning into the aire is called the morning or day 
light; and this daylight (hines liill in the highefi: region of the 
aire, above the afcent of the clouds; and there is no more night 
of darkneffe in that region, but as clcarc light as that ofthefe- 
cond and third day; onely in the reft of the rude maffe there did 
remaine darknefle, untiil God created out of it at once the two 
lo weft elements, the waters and the earth; and the time while 
the waters covered the earth; and kept the light of heaven, from 
it,is called the evening or night of the third day; but when the 
drie land , and the hiis and mountaines of the earth were railed 
up above the waters, and the great vaft hollow valley, which 
is the place of the Sea and receptacle of the waters, was made 
in it, then the light of the heavens did iliine through the aire 
unto the upper face of the earth and of the waters, and fo con- 
tinued until! the heroes, plants, and trees weremademo clouds, 
ormifts, or vapours made die lower region of the aire darke; 
and this was the time of morning or day light on earth the third 
day. Thus much for the opening of the third dayes work of 
creation, and how the times of light and darkneffe, that is the 
evening and morning,did makeup the third day. 

From this dayes work, and from the things created, and the 
manner of creation, divers things may bee observed for our in- 
D$8r* it Firft, wee fee that the two lovveft elements, Earth and Sea, 


All earthly things Vanity in refpeft o/Lod l j > 

though they appcarc to bee great and huge vafl: things, yet to AiUaftMy 
God, working by his eternall Word, the making and feparating ****& no - 
ofthcui was but a peece of adayes work, and all the grade, ^'"* ro 
hcrbes, piants^tti trees, which are innumerable and full of all- 
admirable vaHBPtficy wore but another pcece of a dayes worke; 
they were not finely made and brought into being, butalfoto 
their per feci: growth, full of {lowers , feed and fruite in a little 
time, as it were in a moment: Hence we.may learne, that all this 
World here below, wherein the fonnesof men live together, 
with all creatures which fe. vc for their ufc; it is as nothing In the: 
hand of God, and of fmali moment % All th: hcrbes, plants, ^nd 
trees , which Solomon with all his wifedome could fcarccly 
come to know, were with the Earth, Sea, and all Waters, made 
perfect in one day. This is that which the Lord proclaimed • 
by the Prophet,^. 40. 1 5, 1 7, where it is faid, that all nations 
are as a drop of a bucket , and are counted as the/mall dufl of the 
balance before him; All nations are before him as nothing^and they 
are counted to him lejfe then nothing and vanity. 

Which Doctrine ferves to admonifhtis to defpifc all earthly Vfil 
riches and poiTciTions in companion of God, who is the portion 
of the godly and faithfully alio it ferves to confound and put to 
fhame Acroud carnall worldlings, who glory and boaft ma 
littlenotnmg; and to make glad, and fill with joy Godspeopie, 
who have a true right and intereft in God by their fpirituall 
union and communion, which they have with Chrift by enc 
Spirit, even the holy Ghoft, dwelling in him as the head,and in 
them as members of the fame mylHcall body, 

Secondly, from the name of the earth, we learne, that this Dotly 2 
World is a race and pilgrimage, and a place of travell, and Wccfiran- 
warfarc, and here is not the reft of man, neither is here his abi- gefshere, 
ding place. This the Scriptures proclaime every where. Jacob & . in a P 1 ' 1 * 
the Father of!frael,who had the land of Canaan promifed to him & riIlu ^' 
and his feed for an inheritance for ever; hee counted his life as 
a pilgrimage on earth , and faith in his old age, Few and evill have 
my dayes been, Gen. 47. p. And 7) avid faith, Pfalme 119. 19. 
I am i jfogifger upon earth, and Pfalm? 39. 12. 1 am a (t ranger 
and fe j our Her with then, as all my Fathers were, Job calls mans 
life a few dyes and full of trouble, wbichflseth as a ftttdoyv^and 


1 4 Mms life on earth and pilgrimage. 

continneth not, lob 14. 1, 2. Saint fWcalsita reftelefle race, 
like that of men who rmmc for a prize , 1 C?r. 9- 24. 26. and 
H<?£. 12, 1,. Wee are here like Noah's dove, which being fent 
out of the Arke found no reft for the foale affatt footc till (kec 
returned thither againe. Here wee have n^^unmng Cine, 
Hebr. 1 3 1 ^.neither it here our reft> Mich, 2 . 1 o. till our Souks re- 
turne to God who gave them wee fhall alwayes be in a pil* 
grimage and never find quiet reft. 
Vfe i 6 This Doclrine is of good ufe to keep and rcftraine us from 
dreaming of fetled reft here on earth, and from feeking to build 
our nefts fureiri the tops of earthly rocks for many generations, 
and to ftirre us up to put on refolution and courage to labour, 
and travel!, and ftrivc, and run as men doe in a race, and for ma- 
fteries, while wee live on earth : For our life is fhort and fiee^ 
away as a fhadow, and the art and divine skill of gaining heaven* 
and getting the Crowne of glory, doth require much ftudie, 
f vveating;toilc, and iuduftrie; and wee cannot attaine to it, but by 
hearing, reading, ftudying, and meditating in Gods Word day 
and night, 
YJe 2, Secondly, it difcovcrs worldlings to bee dreaming and doa- 
ting fboies , who put truft and confidence in things of this 
World , and build great houfes, purchafe lands, ancyjrge reve- 
nues, and think that their houfes fhall continue forever,: the 
Prophet juftly comparcth fuch men to a dream*r> who being 
liungrie doth dreamc that hee eateth, but when hee awaketh 
his foule is empty;& in his thirft he dreameth that he is drinking, 
but when he awaketh hee is faint, and his foule hath appetite, 
Jfa. 29. 8. This is the cafe of fooliih and brutifh worldings, 
who fee how the forme and faftiion of the World paffeth away, 
and yet feeing will not fee; but ftill dreame of fetled reft and 
dwelling on earth. 
*Dottr. 2. Thirdly ,though the Seas are fuch as the name fignifieth which 
G Q dru I c ^ God gave to them, that is, troubelous and tumultuous, and doe 
the moll dreadfully rage and roar; yet feeing, God is above them as their 
tumultuous Lord and Creatour , and when hee made them fuch faw that 
aeatures. t h ev werc g OOC [ anc i u fcfull and profitable for man, this teacheth, 
that God ruleth over the moft tumultuous creatures of the 
World 5 andmakcth the moft outrageous roarers work for the 

2 good 

h time of trouble relie upon Cjod, 1 5 j 

good of his people. "Firft, bee makes them fcrve to fticw the 
power ,drcad and tcrrour of him their creatour, that all may (care 
and (land in awe of him : for if the creatures be fo dreadfull and 
terrible , much more God the Creatour, who gave them their 
being. And as God makes them workc feare, fo alio admira- 
tion in men; io David llieweth, Pfalme 46. and Pfalme 107.74, 
Second ly,hee makes them worke tor the good of his people, and 
for the fatety of his Church; by deftcoying and devouring their 
wicked enemies, periecutors, and oppreflbrs; as wee fee in the 
red Sea drowning Pharaoh and his hoft ; and as wee have ieene 
in the year 88. when the Sea, wind and ftormes Scattered and 
devoured the Armadoofour bloudy enemies, who came en- 
raged with fune, and furnilhed with all weapons ofcruelty, and 
inltruments of death, to defkoy our Land and the Church of 
God in it. 

The confideration whereof ferves to make us cafl: our felves 
upon God in all times of trouble , and to comfort our {elves 
in him, knowing that ashee is the Lord mighty above all, and 
a terrour to the moft terrible, and hath in his hand power to 
lave us from all troubles : io hee is gracious and willing to fave 
us; And though hce fometimes fufters the fwelling waves to 
rife, and the tempeftuous ftormes and Seas to threaten , and put 
us in feare and danger, yet it is not in wrath but in wife- 
dome, becaufe for the prefent hee fees them to bee good for 



C H A ?. IX • 

The fourth dayes worke. Of the lights, fab ft ant ial I bodies: The 
place of them: Their Vfe; For ftgnes > feafons y dajes i and yeares. 
Of the SttriyMoone^and Starres. No inftruments ufed in the crea- 
tion. Note \the great ypifedome of Cod in the order of creation, 
ThU World not made to bee the place of our immutable perfection , 
Vfes of each ofthefe* 

ANdCodfatdy Let there bee Lights in the firmament of tie y^ 
heaven, to divide the daj from the night: and let them bee fat 

I * $ the fpectallufis of the Lights* 

Raws, and for feafons, and for dayes , and for ye ares. I y. And let 
them bee for lights in the firmament of heaven , to give light upon 
' the Earth; and it was fo. 16. <And God made two great lights, the 
qreater light to rule the day, and the lejfc light to rule the night", 
he made alfo the Starres .17. And Godfet than in the firmament ef 
leaven , to give light upon the Earth. 1 8. And to rule over the day 
and the ftight, and to divide the light from the darknejfe; and Godfaw 
that it was good* 19. And the evening and the morning were the 
. fourtjciy. 

Thefe words contairie a briefe Hiftorie of the fourth dayes 
works in the creation: in which wee mayobfervcj Firft, Gods 
power full commanding the worke to bee done by his eternall 
Word, in the 14. and 15. ferfes. Secondly, his bringing of the 
work* to paffe by that eternall Word, in the 16, 17, 18. Verfts. 
Thirdly, Gods approbation of the worke, and fo perfecting that 

Firft, wee fee God (till proceeds in the worke of creation 
by his power full Word, and laith 3 Z<tf there be Lights. The things 
which hce commands to bee done are two, 

Firft, that there fhall bee lights in the firmament of heaven, 
that is,thc Sun, Moone, jind Starres, which arc the lights created 
out of the firft element, even that light which was made the firft 
day ,that is, the bod y of the vifible firie heavens. ♦ 

The fecond, that they fhallbeefor fpeciall ufe: 1. To divide 

the day from the night. 2. To bee for fignes, feafons y dayes , and 

ye ares. 5. To bee for lights in the firmament of heaven to give light 

upon the Earth. 

Of thefe That thefe lights are not bare lights without a fubjecl, but 

lights. that bright (Tuning fubftantiall bodies , which have light in them- 

^ h ~y arc . felves, and fend forth bcames of light into other pure elements 

bodic" and clearetranfparent bodies, no man can deny, for the Hebrew 

word here in my text is, DT/NQ , which fignifies lamps, torches, 

or other things which fhine forth and give light; and the words 

following, Verfc \6. fliew plaincly , that thefe lights are the 

Sun, Moone, and Starres, which rule the day and the night by 

th : light which they give to the earth. 

The greateit doubt here is alx)ut the place where God com- 

£it e fi: minded them to bee, to wit, the firmament of heaven. For if 

"" - - - - wc 

If fat meant by the Firmament of Heaven. 1*7 

wee take the word firmament of heaven for the fpaciouj re- 
gion of the aire, as wee have expounded it before, yerfi 6,7,8. 
then men will conceive that the Sun,Moone, and Starrcs, have The place 
their place in the airie region, and not in the fine region of the oi ihcui. 
\ifiole heavens; which is a thing contrary to reaion and expe- 
rience, and to the common judgement of all the learned, and to 
the holy Scriptures. 

For clcaiing oi this doubt wee hive twoanfwers ready zt^„r Wm * 
hand, cither of which may fatisfic. Therirft,thatasthe word 
O'ED, heaven, fignifics not onely the airy region, wherein the, Verfeio. and above which there are waters in 
the clouds, as appeares Yerfe 7. but alfo the higheft heaven, Vcrfi 
1. and the rlrie heavens, which arc called the ftorrj heaven. 
Ccn. 15. S- an d the gornifoed heaven, lob 16. 13. and which 
are the heavens next unto the higheft, and in companion of 
which the higheft is called the heaven of heavens, 1 Kings 8. 
27. and the third heaven, 2 Cor. 12.1. So alfo the Hebrew 
word iTf'"^ which is here tranflatcd firmament , and fignifies 
a broad fpreading, or a thing which is broad fpread and ftrocched 
outfarre and wide may very well here in this place bee ufed 
to fignine the firic region of theftarry heaven, iprcad abroad 
farre more large and wide , the 1 the airy region, and then this 
is the meaning, that God commanded lights to bee, and made 
lights, and fet them in the firie region or firmament which is 
above the airy firmament; in which fenfe the word firmament is 
ufed, 'Tfalm; 19. 1 . and Dan. 1 2. 3 . 

Secondly,ifany diould notbeefatisfied with this firft anfwere^ A «fw. z. 1 
which is clearc and futficient, but (hould flili hold^hat the word 
firmament is here ufed to fignifie the airy heaven , as in the 7. 
and 2o # Verfes: Then this may fervc for a fecond anfwere, that 
God commanded lights to be, that is,thc Sun,Moone,and S tarres, 
to have a being, and created them out of the firie heavens, in 
which they have their place of being: but hce gave them bright 
light for this end and purpofe, that they might fhine through 
the region of the aire, and might multiplic their beames in it, 
and fo bee therein for lights to the earth. The words of the 
text in the originall doc not exprcflcly affirmc, that God made 
them of the matter of the airy region the firmament, or that hee 

L there 

?3& 7 he SunjMcone/^Starrts^Vew^^el/g^i. 

there placed them: but orrely that he cave tfam to be lights^nd to 
fhine though theatre upon the earth :& through the bodie & fub- 
ftance of Sun ? Moone,and Stars,be fet and piaccd in the (tarry hea- 
ven or firmament ; yet they are lights in the airy firmament, and 
through it give light to the earth. And this I prove by adc- 
monftration gathered from the text it felfe: lor where the 
Snn,and Moone, and Starres, are given to divide betyreene day and 
nighty and to bee for fcafons^ dayes andyeares, and to rule over the 
day and over the night y there God gave them to bee for lights. 
This is molt ccrtaine and manifeft;for thc5*» doth no other way 
rule the t\ayf\ox the LMoone the night, but onely by their light & by 
appearing one while & not another in the kverall hemifpharres 
of heaven to the earth below: Now they divide the day from the 
night, and make difference of y2*/0*r, dayes and ye arcs onely in 
the loweft heavens and in theearth : for above, in the ftarry hea- 
ven,the Sun, Moone, and Starres docfliineall alike continually i. 
there is one pcrpctuall day of light aud no night or darkeneffe 
from the beginning to the end of the World: It is the funs^- 
f earing to one fide of the earth for a time, once in 24. houres, 
-which makes the day* and the abfence and not appearing of it 
for the reft of the 24. houres to that fide of the earth , which 
makes the night there; and both day and night make a civilt day, 
and feven fuch dayes a fVee^ and four weekes a A/loneth, and 
1 2. moncths a TVrf^and the feafbns of Summer, VVinter,Spring, 
and Autumne, have place onely on earth, and in the loweft airie 
hcaven,not in the ftarry heaven. Therefore Cod gave them^and 
fet them to be lights , that is, to give light in the aire and to the 

And thus the doubt is fully cleared; and the firft thing opened* 
to wit, Gods commanding lights to bee in the firmament of hea- 
ven > 

The lift of The fecond thing commanded is the nfe of thofe Lights. 

skem, The firft ufe is, to divide the day from the night, that is, the time 

oflight from the time ofdarknefie. For clearing of which point 
wee arc to confider , Firft, what is here properly meant by day 
and night , and how the lights divide them one from another. 
Secondly ,how there could be a divifion bctwccnc day and * ; ght 9 
tiforetheje Lights $\z Sun. Mcone,and Starres were made, lirft 

What meant by Day and Night. 139 

by day we are here to under (land not the fpace of the Sun, Moone, 
and Starrcs, comparting the earth, which is the fpace of 24. 
houres; foi" that day confifts of an evening and a morning, and 
comprehends in it one night; and fome call it znatur all, and 
10 me a civilly and fome an agronomical I day- but here by 4*j 
wee are to undcritand the time while the Surj,the greatelt light, 
Amines and gives light upon the face of the earth : And by nighv 
the time while the Mooneand Surres doe onely appearc and 
give their dimme light upon the earth, which fome call an<*r- 
tificUll Aftdcivill day and night, but others doe more properly 
call it a natural I daj, and a n at ur all night , The day in thisienfo 
hath no night in it, and the night in this fenfe is no part of the 
4fy;but thefe two, being the one the time of darkuedeor dimme 
Iiglit,&the other the time of clcarelight,u:e fo'oppofite.that they 
cannot both bee at once in one and the fame part of the World, 
Now as the viiHe World contiftsof divers maine parts or ele- 
ments; and the motions of the Sun, Moonc,and Starres arc mod 
variable among thcmfelves; fo the day and night taken in this 
proper fenfe arc molt variable. 

Virft, the ^47, as it is a time cf light, doth in refpecT: of fome 
pairs of the World comprehend in it the whole time from the 
firft creation of the Sun and of the (tarry heaveas, the making 
of which brought in the firft morning or day-light; as for exam- 
ple^ vcr fince the firie heavens were made and created a bright 
ihining fubftance, they have retained their light continually, and 
fo there hath beenea continual day in them, and no night nor 
darkneffe; although the light of them, by reafon of thevaftdi- 
ftance, doth not make day here on earth. Alfo ever fincethc 
Sun was created, it fhineth moft clcare in the firie or ftarry hea- 
ven from EafttoWeft, and from the North to the South-Pole; 
when the Sun fcts in the Welt from our fight, it fhineth bright 
in the face of the fall Moone, which is then riling in the Ealfc 
part of heaven, or elfethe Moone would bee darke andenclyp- 
fed* All the fhadow which the earth makes in the heavens, by 
comming betweenc the Sun and that part of the heaven which 
is rqoft-oppoiite, is very little, ncarc about the compaffo of ths 
body of the Moone, as in every great eclypfe of the Moone 
may cafily bee feenc and diiccrned. Likewife that light which 

L 2 was 

140 Oftheufe of Lights. 

was the day light of the fecond day, continueth (till in the fupe- 
riour region of the aire, and in the loweft regions alio when 
there are no clouds, milts, or vapours : And the light of the 
Sun alfo aopeares continually in the moft'part of the higheft 
regions of the aire,cvcn under our Hcmifpktre 3 znd in our Horizon, 
when the Sun is furtheft from our light. And as there is al- 
wayes day light iVi the middle heavens, fo there is akvayes night 
and darkneffe in the midfrof the earth, and through all the body 
ofit from the upper face to the center, which is the very middle 
and heart of it. 

Secondly ? in thofe places of the World which are directly 
under the Nortel and South poles, the day, that is, the time of 
ihc Suns being in thcirfight, is jfuft halfe a year; and the night 
alfo,that is,the time of theSuns abience from their fight a is another 
halfc year. 

Thirdly, under the eqmmlUall line, which cuts the heavens 
equally in the middle betweene the North and South poles, 
the day and night are akvayes cqisall each one 12. houres, 
becaule trie Snn , and Moone, and Starres doe appeare fo long^ 
and are hid juft fo long againe. .And thus dayes and nights 
varie according to the fevcrall parts of the World, and divers 
dimats of the earth. And ever fince that God did make the 
lights in heaven,the Sun,Moonc,and Starres; they have made the 
divifion betweene the darknefle which wee call wgfo, and the 
light which wee call day, as God here appointed. For the trmc 
while the Sun (bines and rules, by giving greateH: light in any 
part of the World , that h called the day light; and the time white 
the Sun is out of fight , and the Moone and Starres onely fliine 
anlrule, that is called the night, becaufeit is a time of dimmc 
light, which is darknefle in companion of the Sun light, as 
appeares in the words of the i6 % Verfe. 
£. The fecond thing, which comes to bee confidered in the ffrft 

ufc of thefe lights, is the divifion and diftinftion betweene day 
and night before this fourth dajesworke % when thefe lights were 
made for this ufe. 

For clearing of this point, wee are to call to minde fome- 
things which I have opened before, and withall adde fbmc 
£?W things more, which will make the truth manifefh Firft we 


Ko dMfion of Day and Nigk in Heaven. i 4 1 

arc to know and perfwade ourfelves, that thcrcis no difference 
or divifion bet weens day and night, bat onely in this inferiour 
vifibie jVorld y which wee fee with bodily eyes : For in the hea- 
ven of heavens , which is above the vifibie World , there is 
no darknetfc, neither can bee at any time; but there is the in- 
heritance of the Saints in light , and the light thereof is fpiritua/l 
and to us fufernaturalL And in Hell, whercibevcr that is t there 
is nothing but bUc knefe ofdarknefte for eve r, iTct.z. if.Inde 
13. Secondly, the time of day-light , which is called the 
mornings and the time of night and of darknefTc, which is called 
the evening, in the three firft dayes did much differ from the eve- 
ning and morning, that is, the time of darknefle and light, in 
the reft of the dayes after that the Sun, Moonc, and Starres were 
made. For the evening, that is, the time of darkneife or night, 
in the firft day was onely the time while all this inferiors 
World remained in that rude informed made- without forme 
and void, which was all over- fprcad with dar^nefe y znd had no 
light in it: And the morning, that is, the time of light and of 
day, was the time after that God formed the lyht, that is the 
firic or ftarry heavens; for they were in themf elves full of light, 
and had cleare day in them without the Sun, before the light 
of them was united in the Sun, Moone,and Starres : I fay from 
the forming of them, untill God began to create the fpacious 
mr'u firmament , it was clcare day in fo much of the vifibie 
World as was perfectly tormed , that \s y in the firie heavens, 
which are called light j and that was twelve houres at theleaft. 
But when God began to create out of the rude maffe full of 
darknefle the iowcll heavens, the aire, which is a fpacious re- 
gion, while the earthy and waterifh parts were fetling down- 
ward, and the aire was a purging and growing into purity- 
untill it became pure and clearc , there was a time of darknefle 
and dimneffe in it; which I conceive to bee the fpace of a night 
about twelve houres : And the time after that it was made pure 
and received into it the light of the heavens fhining clearly 
ink , was the morning or time of day-light iurricient for fo 
much of the World as was then created, which was twelve 
houres more, and made up the fecond day. 
Then God began to create the water , and the arte U*d> and 

L 3 while 

14* Of the (jeationof Clouds,Mift s,<wrf Vapours. 

while the earth was fstling downward to the center, and the 
waters, being made of the thinner and lighter part or the mafle 
which remained, did cover t\iz face of the earth which was 
created round in the middle of them.this was the fpace of twelve 
hourcs, and it was a time of darknefle upon the earth which lay 
hid and covered with all the waters which are now in the Seas 
-and Rivers, and this was the night oft he third day upon earth. 
But after that God made the great and hollow vallies, which 
are now the receptacles of the waters , and made the hiis and 
drie land ftand up and appeare above the waters, being gathered 
into that hollow place; there was a time of day- light for 
the light of the heavens, which then had in them all that light 
which is now gathered and united in the bodies of the Sun, 
Moone, and Starres, did ftiine upon the face of the earth for the 
fpace of twelve houres; in which God made the gralTc, and the 
berbes bearing feeed s and the trees of all kinds bearing fruitsjand 
this was the third day. 

Now after this day ended, God created clouds, and mifts, and 
vapours; which,afcending up into the middle region of the aire, 
did make a time of darkneiVc, and a night upon the face of the 
Earth and the Sea ; and this was the evening or night of the 
fourth day. But when after twelve houres God had made 
the lights in the firmament, the Sun 3 Moone, and Starrcs, then 
<camc in the mornings that is, the time of light; in which the Sun 
fliining bright upon the earth made the fourth day; and ever 
(ince that fourth day, the divifion betweene the duty and night is by 
means of the Sun, Moone, and Starres. For ail the while that 
the Sun appeares and fhines upon the upper face of the earth, 
that is the 'day-time in that place ; and while the Sun is abfent, 
and the light thereof is not fcen.and there is no light except 
of the Moone and the Starres 3 that is the time of darkneffc and 
cf the night. 

This is the firftufe of tlicfe lights exprcfTed in my text, even 
to divide betweene the day and betwecne the night. 

The fecond ufc for which God made thefe lights and ap- 
pointed them, is to bee forjignes) andfor/cafens, and for dajes, 
and for y cares . 
Firft. they are loxfigncs to men, both of things fupematurall^ 


Lights created for di/iinBm offes/onsjimes&c. 1 4 3 

that is, to fhew the glory , the wifedome and the power of Go 1 
and his admirable love to man, in making fuch great, and glo- 
rious fhining lights for his ufejand alfo they are iignes of things 
naturally as of faire, foule, and feaionable weather, and filch like; 
for the P/*f'd^arifing,arefignes ok' fyveet fiowers> which make 
the earth to ipring, 70*38. 31. The dogge-Starrc arifing, is a 
{i^nc of fattening heat; the Moone alfo by her change, and full, 
and middle quarters, is a fignc of high and low tydcs,and flow- 
inqs of the Sea ; and the divers colours of it , ihew diver* 
changes of weather. 

Secondly, they are for frafms. For the Suns declining to the 
South imc % makes the fhortelt dayes to them who live North- 
ward from the equinoctiall, and the Autumne and Winter fea-- 
fon; but when it comethback tothccquinocliall, it makes the 
fpringfeafon; and whenitcomethtothe northerne Tropic^ it 
brings in the hot Summer, and declining againe to the equino- 
clialf, it brings in Autumne and the harvett feafon. 

Thirdly, they ferve kbrd/tjes andycarcs. For the motion of the 
Sun, Moone, and Starres, round about the heavens in 24. houres, 
rnakcth a day in the large fenfe, that is, a civill day; And the ap- 
pearance and mining of the Sun upon the face of the earth,mak?s 
a day of light, that is, a natural! day; and the fetting and abfence 
of the Sun make the night. 

The motion of the Moone in her proper courfc thorough 
the twelve fignes oftheZW/*^,from change to change ,and from 
full to full, makes a monetk of foure weeks; And the proper 
motion of the Sun thorough the fame twelve ftgnes> makes a 
yearc of twelve diftincl folary moneths; And the Moone by her 
foure quarters , makes four weeks every one of feven dayes: 
And the concurrence of the Sun, Moone, and Starres, returning 
to their feverali places, make fct times for civi 11 and Ecclefiajli- 
call ufe, as for feafts of Eaftcr, Pentecoft, and the like, which arc 
appointed by God and his Church to bee obferved yearly for 
Gods honour and for remembrances of fome great works of 
mercy performed by God and by Chrift, for mans deliverance 
and falvation. 

Thelaaandmaineufeofaliis, to give light upon Earth; for, 
by giving of light and ihining in, and thorough the aire, they 

L 4 «auic 


144 ^ h&ts mzd€ to divide the Day from Night. 

caufe heat, and moyfture, and drienefle; and by their feverall 
degrees, afpccTs, and reflexions of beames and light,they yeeld 
their influence and chenfli and workeupon things below; they 
alfo make all things vifible to men and other creatures ,and by 
their light wee come to fee and difcerne all things here vifible; 
without which fight and visibility , no man can pcrforme the 
works for which God created and placed him on earth. 

And fo much for opening the rirft maine thing in my texf^ 
to wit, Gods commanding lights to bee in the firmament of hea- 
ven for the ipeaail uies here named, laid downeinthe 14. and 

The fecond maine thing, is his bringing of the worke to 
pafie by his powerful I ivord;, and making it to bee in all refpc&s 
according to his couniell.will and word. This is laid downc, 
firft fummariiy , in the laft claufe of the 1 5 . Verfe, in thefe words, 
tndit wasfo-, that is, as Gcd faid a id commanded, fo it was done 
prefently- Secondly, it is more largely defenbed in the next 
Words, Verfe 1 6,17, 1 8. And God mad? two great lights \tbt grea~ 
ter to rule the daj,thelejje to rule the nighty hee made alfo the Starres. 
And G oi fet them in the firmament to give light upon the Earth, 
and to divide light anddarkneffe. 

Firft,of whatsoever God fai t Lct it be,it was made, & for the 
fame ufe as here we read: For as he {aid , Let there be lights, and let 
them be to divide the day from the nightjfo he made lights, and 
gave them in the firmament of heaven to divide day from night 
and to fervc for the ufes which hee appointed. 

Secondly, it is here laid, that God himfeife made thofe lights; 
no Angels, or others befides himlelfc were commanded to 
makcthein,nor had any hand in creating them. 

Thirdly, th? lights, which were before generally mentioned, 
arc here more Specially and particularly rehcarfed and expretfed, 
and the feverall o trices of them all. Two of them are faid to 
bee great lights, one greater, that is, the Sun to rule the day; the 
other leffer <, that is, the Mo one to have dominion in the night ; 
the reft of the lights are faid to bee the Starres . 
Of the Firfl:,for the Sun, thzt is called the greateft light, and that mod 

Swl * truly and properly; both for the body and fubltance of it, and 

alfo for the bright wffe and aboundance of the light which is m 

Vf the Sun and Moone. 1^5 

it: lor the mod skilfull Mathematicians- have obfervcd and 
demonltrated, that the very body of the Sun doth exceed the 
whole earth in bigncflc 166, times; and our owneeyes arc wi:- 
nefies of the greatnefle of the light in it, farrc exceeding ail 
bodily lights,and dazling our weakc fight. 

Secondly, the Moone \s aifo called a great light (though lerTer Of rfie 
then the Sun;) not for the bignefle ofthebodieofit, butbe- ^ ocnc ' 
caufc it is the lowefl of all the Planet s y and nearcftunto the earth, 
and therefore appcares biggeft ofall next unto the Sun, and gives 
to the earth a greater light then any of the Starres, which arc 
farre greater in fubftance , and brighter in light. For the 
mod skilfull Mathematicians have found by their art, that it 
is 39. times lefler then the earth, and the leatt of all the Starres. 
except Mercnrj , which is the Planet next above it : And 
thofe Starres which are faidto bee of the firfl Magnitude ^ are 
iome of them obierved to bee 18. times bigger then t! ic earth. 
And although the Moone, being the lowcit and neareft 6T 
ail the heavenly lights unto the earth, and therefore mors 
dimme in it felfe, and of a more impurebodie and fubftance, as 
appeares by the cloudy fpecks in it, mining very little o'fit felfe, 
may in that refpecl: bee called one of the leaft lights : yet beeaute 
it borrows light from th Sun y ihining in the face of it as in a 
looking glade , and becaufe it is 18. times lower then the Sun» 
and nearer to us then the earth is; lower then it, as Mathemati- 
cians have obferved, and foit is nearer to the earth then the 
Sun almoft 18. hundred thoufand miles ; therefore in our eyes 
it appeares the greatefr. of all the lights next to the Sun: And 
Mofeshttt fpeaking according to the capacity of the vulgar, 
and our outward fenies, and the fenfible effects of light which 
the Moone gives to the earth, cals it one of the two great lights* 
And as hee gives to the Sun the office and prerogative of ruling 
the day , becaufe the fight and prefence of the Sun makes the 
day light, and fmoothers and obfeures all other lights in the 
day time: io hee gives to the Moone the office o£ ruling %kt night* 
becauie when it appeares in the night , it giveth more light 
to us here on earth then all the other Starres. 

Thus wee fee, that as God fiU, fo every thing which was 
made in the four th day came to pajffcj God himfclfe made every 


i $6 Gdd u/ed no inftrwnents in the (jeation. 

thing by his cternall Word, according to his ovvnc ctcrnall Coun- 
(efl, minde, and will. And therefore no marvell though hee 
gives approbation to this dayes workealfo, which is the third 
maine thing in the text, exprefled in thefe words, And Godfaw 
that it was good. And ib trie Sun, having ihined for the fpace 
of twelve houres, till it had palled through onz Hemifphwe or 
halfe of heaven; that time rir morning of light, together with 
the evening or time of darkneffc going before it, and caufed by 
clouds, milh and vapours over-fnado wing the Earth, is called 
the fourth day. 

Now this Hiftory of the fourth dayes worke, as I have ex-* 
pounded it, affords us fome points of mftruction. 
£) c r tr _ x. f irft> i n that herbes, gra(Te,plants, and trees, were made per- 
Noinftru. foci: in their kinde before any Raine, or Dew, or Sun, Moone, 
meats uicd and Starres were created; Hence wee may learne,that God ufed 
inthecrea- n owftrHmznts y nor hclpe of any creatures in the creation of any 
thing; but made and formed every creature himflfe hy hi* eter- 
nal! Word and Spirit , who are with him one and the lame Ieho- 
vah, infinite, almighty and omnipotent. For further proofcr 
whereof, there are many teftimonics in the holy Scriptures, as 
I fa. 40. 21.22. and 66.2. where the Lord appropriated to 
himfelfe, and to his owne hand, the creating and making of heaven 
and earth, and lob. 1. 3. and Colof. 1. 16. where all things are 
laid to bee created by the etermtl Word the Son\ and alio by the 
Spirit , Vfalme 33.6. 
yr e This Doftrine admonifheth us to give all the glory of the 
wiledomc, power, and goodneffe, fhewed in the creation, to 
God alone; and to acknowledge that all things created , even the 
whole World and all things thevcin^are the Lords; alfbtomake 
us admire his rich bountic,& to render all thanks to his holyMa- 
jefty for all the profit, benefit, and comforts,which wee receive 
from any of Gods creatures. 
Docir. 2. Secondly, wee may hence lcarnc and obferve, the wifedome 
Great' and wife pr evidence of God, in making every thing in due feafon, 
wifedome and nothing before there was need of it for the creatures, which 
ot God in were next in order to bee made; for hee did not create the lights 
thcCrca- f Sun, Moonc, and Starres, together with the (tarry heavens, 
which is the place of them, untill hee was about to crjate living 


Ihis World not thepiact of mms immutable perfection. 1 47 

things which couli not well bee, nor move according to their 
kinde, without fuch lights finning in the earth and in the wa- 
ters- . r 
Which wife providence of God, is a pattcrncand direction V/t* 

to us to doe ail things in order: in the firit place, thingsjnecef- 
faric and ufefull for the well-being, and bringing to pafie of 
things which are afterwards to bee done; and nothing which 
may "bee and remaine without ufe and profit. As God would 
not make the Sun,Moonc, andStarres, together with the fir ft 
light, the firie heavens, on the firft day, becaufe then there was 
no ufe nor necellitie of them; but deferred the creation of them 
until! the fourth day, when there was ufe and nccetfity to make 
a cleare day-light; and living creatures endued with life, ienfe, 
and fight were to bee made in the two next dayes following, 
whole life without fuch cleare day light would have beene but 
like the (hadow ofdeath; Soletusbeecarefullthento provide 
things nccelYary and ufefull, when wee fee and perceive that wee 
fhallhaveprefent ufe of them, and not bee like toolifa prodi- 
gall and fantafticali builders, who build (lately houfes like pa- 
laces with large barnes, ftables,and ftals, when neither they nor 
theirs are in any way orpoflibilityto fiimifh them with come, 
horfes orcattell, or to make ufe of them for fit and neceffary 

Thirdly, though the glory of God doth more appearc in Do^r,^ 
light of day then, in darknefle of night; and it was and is in Gods 
power, to make more great lights and divers Sunnes in feverall 
places of the heaven, to mine in all the World at once, and to 
make a perpcmall day on earth : yet hee made them fo, that on 
the earth, in this lower and inferiour World, there mould bee as 
much night as day,and darknefle as light; whereby hee teach eth 
us even from the creation^ that this earthly World was not made 
to bee the place of mans immutable perfection and bleflcdneflc; 
but a place of changes and alterations; wh?rein, by re.ifon of 
darkneffe, the Prince ofdarkneffc may rule, rage and tyrannifc 
by himfclfe and his wicked inftruments; and drive us to feekc 
a better relt,and an mcotruptibte and nude filed inheritance refer ved in x p 
hr***; in the place of perpetuall light. The whole booke of 
the wife fawkr is an ampfc teftimony of this truth; and a large 

com men- 

1 4 8 r Per feci felicity not to h found in Earth, 

commentary upon this Do&rine ; for it wholy tends to make 
men loath this inferiour World under the Sun, wherein there 
is nothing but changes , and vanity of vanities, and all is va- 
yr ? Wherefore let us not feeke for immutability nor unchangable 
peace and profperity here on earth, left wee bee found as fbolifh 
as thole builders who build and fet up goodly houfes on a fandy 
foundation, which may eafily bee beaten downe , and ruinei 
with every wind, wave, and temped. They who fettle their 
reft on earth , and here iceke perfect felicity and immutable 
?<>*• 4- bieflednefle- they truft under the fhadow and ihelterofa^r^, 
which may grow up in one night, and in the next night wi- 
ther away, and periih, and bring much griefe and forrow to 
them, which will vex them, and drive them like Jonah to in> 
patiency and anger againft God their Creatour. Let us looke 
up to heaven where is light without darknefTe, and an ever- 
lading day without any night $ and bend all our courfe to that 
countric above, and long for everlafting light and glory, which 
the blclTcd Saints and Angels there enjoy in the prefence of 
God, and at his right hand, where are plea/ares for evermore. 

Chap. X. 

Ths fifth dayes works* Offifhes and fowles: All made in perfeB 
wife dome : Vfes . Two notable properties of fijhes : t'^eWfenfitive 
foule, and matter. The matter of birds. Of other flying things. 
Of whales. Of the fruit f nine ffe of fifties. Gods infinite power 
jioyned with infinite wifedome : Vfts. All is made by Qrrift* *»d 
I kewife befiowed on m ; Vfe. Cods great providence for mankinds: 


r »©. A Nd God fold. Let the Waters bring for jihoundantlj the mo- 
JL\ ving creature which hath life : *And let the fowle fiie above 
the earth in the open firmament of heave*. 21. ±And God created 
great whales >& every living creature that moveth>wbich the waters 
wrought forth aboundantly after their kindt 9 andtverj winged fowl* 


(jod bath created all things in Tbijedonu. \ 4 9 

after bis kind?, and God far* that it was good. 22. And Godblef- 
fedthem , faying, Bee fruit full and multiply, and fill the waters in 
the Sea, aiala fcw/emtlt'plie in tht Earth, 23. And the evening 
and the morning were the fifth day. 

In thef: words wee have the Hiftory of the fifth d ayes, workc, 
which was the creation of all living creatures whuh live and 
move in the two moift elements, th: water and the aire, to wit, 
fijhesznd moving creatures which live and move in the waters; 
and all kinds of fiwles which fiie in the open region of the aire, 
which is here called the open firmament of heaven. Firft, wee 
have Gods powerful! Word and commandement given for the 
^bringing of them into being, in the 20. Verje. Secondly, wee 
have Gods creation cithern and bringing them into being by 
his mighty Word; together with his approbation of them in the 
21. Verje. Thirdly , Gods bleffmg of them with the bkffing 
oi fruitful* :jft andmcreafe, Verfe 11. Laftly, tbctt**tf wherein 
all things were done, to wit, in the fpace and compaifc of the 
fifth day J'erfe 2j. 

Fir it, as in all other works Godfaid, Let them b(e- } & here bee God do& 
ftill proceeds to create every thing by his eternall ' W W.-So much *MongoodJ 
this phrafe ftgnirieth, as I have before ihewel. it alio intimates ****** 
thus much unto us, that God did not fiiddenly and unadvifediy 
create any of the(c things , but according to his eternall Counfeli, 
as hee in h's infinite wiicdome had purpofed and determined in 
riimlelfe from all eternity. For wee finde by experience among 
mCR,that when any workman doth fay before hand of the worke 
which hee goeth about; Thus I will make it,*nd Thxs let it bee, it 
is a cleare evidence that hee doth it with advice, as hee huh 
framed it in his mind* and determined it by his will; and there 
foveMofes here ufed this forme ofipeech, that God [aid firfi % 
Let things bee, an^thea hee created them;tO teach us, that God had 
from all eternity framed them in his decree, and determined 
them in his Counfell and Will to bee fuch as hee made them in 
the creation. 

V "hence wee may gather this Doftjrine*: That God hath crea- T)ofh- t 
ted all things in wifedome , and never doth any worker afljty, without 
co#r>fellorconjideraticn; but orders and brines to paffe every, 
fia ibc hath fur p fed , with ptrfeft knowledge and underftandLy. 


150 Gods wifedome mmtift/led in alibi* Tborks. 

This is that which the Prophet David doth preach and pro- 
cl.iime with admiration, Vflme 104. 34. faying, O how mani- 
fold are thy worlds ! in wifedome aftd haft thou made them all. And 
his wife S'on Solomon > Proverb. 3. 19, 20. faith, the Lord by wife- 
dome hath found: d the earthy bj under ft anding hath bee eftablijhed 
the htavzns, by h:s knowledge th* depths are broken np^ and the clouds 
dropdowne dew. And Ier. 10. 12. and 51. 15. The Prophet 
a (Brines, that God hath made the earth by his power, and hath 
eliabliihed the World by his wifedome , and itrctched out the 
heavens by this discretion. Yea the adions of revenge upon ene- 
mies, which men doe for the moft part rafhly, and run in to 
diem head-long without difcretion, God doth in wifedome, 
andunderilanding,and according to his wife Counfell , as holy 
lob tcftifieth, lob 2 6 12. laying, He divide th the Sea with his 
mwer, and by his under ft anding fmiteth through the proud. And, 
ijia Word , that God hath made all things wifely and wi.h 
good underftanding , ib that in every creature his wifedome 
- and counfeil appeares,wce may plaincly fee by dayly experience, 
and by that which lob faith, chap. 1 2. 7, 8, 9. to wit, that if wee 
ask* the be aft s, they will teach ; andthefowles of the aire ,thcyjh all tell 
un or tfweefpeake to the earth jt Jhall inftrutl tu\ or to the fifbes of 
the Sea jbsy jhall declare unto nsyeho knoweth not in all thefe things 
that the hand of the Lord hath wrought this? that is, wee may fee, 
and read Gods wifedome in all his works; for, as it folio wes, 
Verfe i^.fVith him is wifedome and ftrength, he hath counfeil and 
#»^y?W/*£: and thefe hec fheweth manifeftly in all his works 
and doings. 
YJe \. Hrft, this Doctrine ferves for direction to all men in all their 
Bee fol- works and doings, how to doc all things according to the per- 
lowcrs cf feci patcrne and true rule of all well-doing , The rule of all mans 
God a$ actions oudittobec the will of God.who created him and cav3 



him his whole being; and the perfect paterne whom the Sons 
of God ought to follow in all their works,is, God who formed 
them after his owne image; fo that the perfection of man confifts 
in his conformity to God; and the more or lefle hee refembles God 
jnall his waves, the more or leffe perfect hceis, and the nearer 
or further from perfection and true happineffe. Now here this 
Poctrincteacheth, that God hath created all things in wife- 


Man mufl imitate §cd in all Us Wyes arid ~&orks, i 5 ! 

dome, and doth all his workes according to his determinate 
counfell, and with perfect undcrftanding, and nothing rafhly 
without conuderation. Wherefore, as wee dclirc to order our 
waves aright, and wall*: in the right and ready patbes which 
lead unto perfection ; and as wee have a minde to doe all our 
works (o as that they may bee profitable and comfortable to 
our felves and others : fo let us imitate Gcd in all our wayes and 
works,and never doc any thing rafhly without confultmg with 
his word; want of this marrcs all: when men follow their 
ovvne lulls and head-ftrong will and affections, and confultnot 
with Gods Word; then they follow their ovvne wayes, and for- 
fake the wayes of God ; then they doc their owne works* not tne 
works of God ; and thofc wayes and works of their owne will, 
procure all evils and mifchiefes unto them, according to that of 
the Prophet, ler, 4 18. thy wayes and doings have procured thefe 
things unto J bee; this is thy ivkkcdmfie becanfc it is bitter % becattfe 
itreacheth unto thine heart. Whercas,on the contrary, they that 
walke after Gods wayes, and take his counfell along with thein 
in all their doings, and doe nothing rafhly, but fo as God by his 
Word puts into their heart ; they llull bee holy and wife in their 
degree , as God is wife and holy; and by holineflc (hall come to 
fee God, and the reward and end of their doings fhall bee glory, 
honour,immortality,and eternall \ifc,Rom. 2.7, 

Secondly, feeing God hath made all things in wifedome, and Vfe ?> 
according to his eternall Counfell; this ferves to ftirre us up Wow '° 
fo to behold and confider all things created by God, as that wee JJJJ^ 
may fee and difecrne his wifedome in their very frame; and 
if wee doe not fee and difecrne the image of Gods wife- 
dome and goodneflc in them all , and a good uic of them 
all; let us blame our owne blindnefle and ignorance, and 
not vilific , or dif-eftcemc any worke or any creature ot 
God : But if wee rmde any creature which fcemes unprofita- 
ble, or hurtfuli altogether, and fcrving for no good life; 
let us know, that it is mans fin which hath mad e° the crea- 
tures fxbjetl to vanity > and hatefull and hurtfuli to men; And yet R Q m g,i * 
in the meane time Gods wifedome app:arcs in ordering and 
dtfpofing to a good u(c, even by the enmity, hurtfolncfTe, loath- 
i>me p:\fonand filthinefle which is in them, to chaftife and 


1 5 1 Of tk creation o/Fi flies* 

correct his owne people , and to put them in remembrance of 
their finfulneffe and corruption, that they may fbrfake and mor- 
tific it by repentance, or to punifh the impenitent, and execute 
ju\\ vengance on the wicked in the day and time of bis vifita- 
tioih And upon thefe confederations, let us all, fo often as wee 
fee or remember the unprofitablineffe, loath fomneflc and poifon 
which is inibmc creatures, bee ftirred up to repent of our finnes 
which have brought them under this corruption for a fcourgc 
o^ourdif-obediencc; and let us firmely beleeve, that God in 
wifedome ufcth them to puniili the wicked and to correct his 
people, and hec will make us fee in all his wifedome (kitting 
clearly at the laft. 

But now. from the Word of God, I proceed to that which 
hec fet hirnielfe to doc by his cternall Word , according to his 
will and purpofc ; this is inthefe words, Let the waters hwr 
forth aboundantlj every moving creature that bath life, and let the 
fryde flic above the Earth. The things which here God {cts him- 
felfe to create are of two forts: Firft, all creatures which live 
and have their being in the clement of water, all fiftes and other 
creatures i which live in the Sea, Rivers, Lakes, and ail other wa- 
ters. Secondly, all fowles, birds, and fljing things which flic above 
the Earth in the open region of the aire. 

Of Mrs. ^ ^ *' ort arC a ^ ca ^ ec * ty tn ** g encra M namc P"^ Avhich is 

Thifr two nCrc tranflated , the moving creature, and m the Hebrew fignirlcth 

notable a creature which is moft notable for thefc two properties: 

properties. Firft, that it is a living crcature,which moves>not by going upon 

I. feetonely, or by flying with wings; but by creeping or Jliding, 

and moving forwards, as wee fee fifties doc in the water, and 

creeping things doc in and upon the earth. Secondly ,that it breeds 

and brings forth young in great abouudance, more then any other 

creatures doc ; as wee fee the fillies, which by the multitude of 

fpawne would incrcafe beyond all meafure and number,if by one 

jneanes or other the Ipawne were not devoured and coniumed. 

For the Hebrew vcrbc SHU* , of which the wording , which 

is here tranflated the moving creature, is derived; is ufed as in my 

text, foin other Scriptures frequently, firft to GgniRc creeping, 

or moving forward without feet, as Gen. 7. 2i # and Lcvit. 11,19. 

and fcconily alfo to bring forth abundantly as here, and alio, 

Exod t 

Fotph V>ere created on the fifth day. 1 53 

Exod. 1.7. where the children of Iirael are hid to increafe a- 

But let wee ihould thinkc that this moving creature was 
{uch as did not move it fclfe, but was moved by fome outward 
caufe^s things without life arc, it is here called TVT\ ttte}, that is 
tUvinijStKl') and this ihewes that all riiTics and moving crea- 
tures in the Sea and Waters have* fenfitive Soul And life in them 
created by God, which hath no being, neither can fublilt but 
oncly in and with the body, iu which God creates it. This is 
the defcriptiom of all creatures which live and move id the 

Now ro.n the matter of which they were made; The text 
herefecmrs to ex-preflcit tp bee tk waters - y Let the voters bnr,? 
forth: Which words ihew, as alio the words of the next veric, 
That all creatures living and moving in the waters were made 
of water , as the learned generally hold, or at leaft of fome wa- 
tcriih and (limy fuoftance in the Sea and in other waters , for 
the waters brought them forth in aboundance. 

The fecond fort of creatures jwhich God fet himfclfe to create Of Birds; 
on this fifth day, is thcfowle whuh filet h above the earth in the 
open firmament §f heaven. Our Englilh tranllation following the 
Septuagints , the Caldie Paraphrafe , and the vulgar Latine, 
fecmes to favour an old errour and gtoffe opinion, to wit, 
that fowles were created and. made of the element of water; 
Tor thus they render in our tongue the words of the text, Let 
the waters bring forth aboundantly the moving creature , and the 
fowle which my fite above the Earth; whereas the words in the 
originalL Hebrew text arc, «p".y* eyiyi, that is, and Let the fowle 
(lie upon or above the Earth. Wherefore wee aloft not con- 
ceive, that God faid, Let the waters bring forth the fowle, as 
our tranllation runnes : for that is contrary to the expreffe 
words of the text, Chay* 2. 19* where it is faid, that Cod formed 
out of the ground every be afi and every fowle p and that the earth 
was the matter of which they were made. 

The Hebrew namely,. which isheretranflated/?W^,figni- 
fiethin generali every living things which by helpe of wings flicth 
above the earth in the aire, fo that not onely birds,but alfo bees, 
wafpes, hornets, and all other winged things may here bceua- 

. M dcrftood*. 

I ", 4 QoJ by bis power full *%>crd ejfifted whatever he Ibiikd. 

derftood. And whereas fowks which' were made of the earth 
are here laid to file above the earth in the open firmament of heaven } 
or upon tnzUcecf the firmament} here wee fee plainely that the 
iiimament which God made on the fecond day and called it 
h?*vtn x is the "fpacious region of the aire; in the open face and 
lower part whereof fowles doe fiie, and which in the Scriptures 
>s called DW, heaven, as well as the ftarry and the higheft 
heaven are :. And wee truly call it the fir ft heaven ,becaufe it is 
n eareft to us h :rc on earth . ' 

The fecond thrng which I obferved in the Hiftory of this 
ttayes workers Gods creating and bringing into being the things 
which hee commanded to bee ; this is in the 21. w. And 
God created great Whales , and every moving creature , and evrry 
winged fowle .- Jn thefc words hee ihewcth, that what God fee 
fumielfe to create by his powerful), word, that hee as power- 
fully effected and brought into being. Firfr, every mov ing crea- 
ture, which liveth and movcth in the waters, according to their 
ieverall kinds, from the great? whales, which are the great huge 
devouring dragons oftheSea y as the Hebrew name DU^n, here 
ufed doth fignifie, unto the leaft fhrimp or creeping thing which 
lnoveth in the Waters. And all thofe God made and created 
out of the wJtersy as the text here faith, which the waters brought 
forth in aboundance. And here obferve that the things which 
the waters brought forth are f aid to bcQ created by God: which 
fheweSj that th^ water brought them forth, not as one living 
thing is bred and brought forth by another, by fome^vertue, and 
power, and feed which is in it; but oncly the water was the <r/V- 
ment in which God created them all inftantly, or at mofl the 
matter out of which God formed them by his infinite power; 
andfo they all, and every kind of them , have their whole being 
from God. Secondly, as God faid y that is purpofed and willed, 
andfethnnfelteto create fowles flying abovethe earth: fo it is 
here feid aifo that hcecratf^them, even every winged fowle 
after his kinde , that is, every creature which rlieth with wings, 
and all the ieverall kinds of them. And in the creating of ail 
thefc, there was no errour nor dcfecT; but every living ci*e;.ture, 
filh and fowle of every fort and kinde, were in every refpeA an- 
fwerabieto theldea & pattern* which was in the minde^purpofe, 


Q oigave the hltfmg qf fruit fuivtfit to ttij. it creatures. i 5 5 

decree, "and will of God: as' God purpofed and willed every 
thing to bee ,1b it was m every refpccl, and fo the Lord faw, and 
approved it to bee; as the laft words of the verfe ihew, And God 
fare that it wasgeod. 

The third thing is Gods bUJfiag of the creatures midewirh 
jrHttfxlncjfe for increalc and multiplication, in the %%. Verfc. 
Where wee may note two fpeciali things; 

Eirft.i that as .God made and created all thefe things by his 
word ; fo Ikc by the fame word gave them thebleffing of fr.uit- 
ftilneilb,that is, hcegavethcmanaturall power and inclination 
to breed and bring. forth miny others, every -one of his own* 
kind , even to the replenishing of the Sea and the waters, aid 
to. the multiplication of fowles in the earth. And this blef- 
fing God gave them by faying % BefrmfMandmultipH?\ which 
words imply, that by his etccnaii Word the Son, iiee bleffed 

Secondly, wee may here note, that the fruitmlncfifc of thefe 
creatures, and the increase cf them, was atthefiriHn the crea- 
tion and ftat<e of i:.!iiocency, not a pain-fill travcil and lai>3ir 9 
nor a punifhmtnr ; but a bhfjinfa a pleafureand delight to the 
creatures thjemfeives, andaipeciall token and pledge of Gods 
love and favour to man* for whofe ufe they were -made, and 
who was the next day to bee created. 

-Now, God having thus created and 'brought into being alt 
kinds of creatures which live and move in the waters, and ail 
fbwles and hying things which hvsand fl:e above the Earth in 
the airt -, and having blcjjed them with power, ftrength, and 
defire of procreation, this dayes worke was finished, and the 
evening and the morning were -the fifth day, as it folio wet!) ii* 
the i^Ferfe. And this is the laft thing in this dayes worke* 
even the time in which God made the creatures before named, 
that is, the fifth day, I need not here fhew how the evening and 
morning werediiUnguifhcd, for now the Sun faying moved 
round about the heavens, and having now paffed through the 
^orizjm in which it was made the fecond time,ma Je up another 
whole day. And thus I have opened the whole Hiftory of this 
dayes worke j from which wee may obferve divers inftru- 

M a Fir ft, 

5 6 (jcdi power mamfejUdin the Citation of Whales. 

T>o&r. i. Yirft, wee may hence learne to know and difcernc theinfi- 
Godsin- nite power and ornnipotency of God joyned with infinite wife- 
ft n itepow- c j omc aru | knowledge, who in .one day made the great whales 
withmfi - °^ 1G Sca > anc * t0 §^ tner with them all creatures, which nil broad 
tti'te wife* anc ^ wide ^ cas » an( * ^fowles and winged creatures, which flic in 
dome/ the aire. In the booKc of lob, chap. 41. God himfelfe doth de- 
monstrate his .owne power and ornnipotency, by the creation 
of the. grcAt Whale the Leviathan of the Sea, which hec there dc- 
icribes"to bee an huge, ftrong, and dreadfull creature, the very- 
fight of which is able to caft one downe, Verfe 9 . and none is /# 
fierce , as that hee dare ft irre him up, Verfe JO. Hts breath kindleth 
coales , avd a flame goeth out ofhU mouth , Verfe 21. When hee rat- 
fkth'Up himfelfe- the mighty are ajfraid , Verfe 25. Hee efteemeth 
iron at ■ ftraw, and brajfe as rotten wood % Verfe 27 . tAndWj maketh 
the deep to bode like * pot. And as for the multitude and variety 
of other living creatures in the waters, and of fowles and 
winged creatures which flic in the aire above the earth, they 
are more then any fraile ' man can learne to know all the d ayes 
Wfeaksm. of his life; and yctinovedaj God made all thefe by his power- 
credible full word. I need noradde any thing out of hiftories concer- 
greatfteiTe. n j n g t ^ e ^ U g e g rea tnefle of Whales, which have beene fcene 
fome of 600. foote long, fome of the length of fbure acres of 
ground, fome like mountaines, and fome like Hands, as divers 
Writers report; that which God himfelfe hath faid of the great 
Whale is fufficient to make us fee in him the mighty power of 
God the creatour. 
yfi Ib Let us therefore hereby bee admonifhed to feare tins God, 
to tremble with awefull reverence of his Majcfty • to beware 
of RrWine, or faring our felves againfthim, or any under his 
fliadow ', Rrtd protection; to bee afiraid of committing finnes 
whifch may -revoke htm to wrath againft us : And, if hec^e 
yeithfis, to aflure our felves and to bee confident that none mail 
prevaile againfi us y but hee will bring all our enemies to cori- 
ffy 2« Scvordlv, in that God is ft) infinite in wifedome and kno w- 
-•''• i £ r . h y»>ed with ornnipotency, and can make fo many kinds 
af-cfcatures at once, and all of them mod perfect in their kinde: 
let us know, that/ if we bee in want, it is the beft way to flee 
VV: to 

i ihg$ #o# £W *'* ^ fc/ongktfor by Chrift. i jj 7 

tfrhiiSL l£wefc heifatfft with enemies, and a thou&nd dangers, 
^ceneedenotfeare', hec can fee and know and pravenf&iri 
a n . tudc ofbiiifittcffc can draw his mindcor syefi 

Pg ;(cethall things at once, fo nee can irjamome^it 

brag inoperable things to paffe. 

Secondly, as God made all things by his eternal ;Vord the jy Chr> i\ 
Son* ft) ki , by, and through the Son hec ceftowes all his favours All m»ac 
and blelfings- For here wee fee, that as*/ histVordhcQmzde, ^ ;>e- 
fpby bis Word hee btefiedtka rirft living creatures which hee ** ovveii oa 
made; and other Scriptures prove this plainely, tor his pr'oauie ^^J ■ 
is that -ail nations and ftimliesef the earth fit all bee blefied in 
htm t7**. 12. 3. and 18. 18. and 22. 18. and 28.14. And tjie 
Apoftletcitiftetb, Efbef.i. 3. rW Ged blejfeth us with all fpiri- 
tuall blejfings in heavenly things in Chrift. 

The consideration whereof ferves to ftirre us up to feekc / 
all bleflings irom God the Father by the Son and in his .name, 
md to afcribe ana give all glory ,praiie and thanks for all blei- 
iin^s to God m him, and to re Joyce in his Mine, acknowledging 
that all hope or good which wcctfiavc from God, is from God 
as hee is become our Father in his Son Chrift. 

Thirdly , in that God created io many kinds of Filhcs in the DoUr. 2. 
Sea, and Fo wles in the aire to fcrve man, and £/<fjfc^them with Gods gte* 
frmtfnlnejft for mans ufc, before man vpo* made: Hence wee learnc providence 
how caretull and provident Go^l is for mankinde, providing £° rraa11 * 
things needfull before-hand, to welcome him into the World, c ' 
and there to give him gracious and bountifull entertain- 

'iich o.ugh'. to provoke and (Hrre usnp,to bee en the o- yfe 
tteriide, for our part, carefull and diligent ta provide before- 
I all-things which may tend to the glory of God, and may 
furnifn us £.idntusto glorifie his holy Majefty; And alib.fft, 
reprove and convince of hatefull ingratitude all people J,/ jd * 
alter many provocations by io many bkflings have no provi- 
dence nor care to uic mcanes, which hereafter may promote the 
Gofpcll lor the glory of Chrift, and the advancement of hi* 
'.vingdotne : Alio all them who with the prefent fight of 
evill times are-fcj difcouraged anddejecled, that, as men with- 
out hope or expectation of good hereafter, they utterly neglect 

M 3 tt 

158 Vf thefixtb dayes f)>orfo. 

to provide for the Future glory of God, and of Chrift in his 
Church, advanced among their children and pofterity in fuccee- 
ding ages. 

Chap, XI. 

Jif fikth dajes wezkz. . Of Cattel/, Beafiy, and creeping things, 
tjkil made of Gcd,by Chnfi the Word, Therefore abxfe . them nst. 
Chrift the Lord of all. All kinds of living creatures ^ nude of 
God: even the meanefi, and worfl: Vfes. Ml ready mah for man, 
before himfelfs wo* mads: Vfe, Mans food in innocencj , what: 

Verfe 14* A JXd God fed , Lei the Earth bring forth the living creature 
JTX after hu kind, Catiell and creeping things and Beafi of "he 
Earth after his kind, and it was fo . 2 5 . And God made the Beafi of 
the Earth after his kj*de 5 and Cat tell after their kind, and every 
thing that creepeth upon the Earth after his kjind, and God fan 
that %t was good. 26. And God f aid, Let us make man in enr 
image , after our lileeneffe : and let ti>&n rule over the f(h of the 
Sea, aadthefowle of theatre, and over the £att ell and overall the 
Earth , and over evrrj creeping thing that creepeth upon the 
Earth, # 

In the lafl part of this Chapter in thefe words and thofc 

which follow to the end of the Chapter, wee have the fixth 

dayes wor ke of the creation briefely and fummarily laid do wne 

by wayofhiftory* 

^ \ Firftj OvUfes here fhewes, that by the fame power, and after 

n tft£ feme manner as God created all other things in this vifible 

WwM^fo hce made and brought into being*he creatures which 

l*v« and< move in and upon the earth. For hee laid, Let the 

earth bring forth the living creature, and it wasfo. And hee faid, 

Jiti us make man y and fo he created man. Verfe 26. 27. Hee made 

all things by his eternall Word , and according to the lis a and 

patterne, which hee had in his counfcll and decree. 

Secondly, He fitft names the three forts of the living crea- 

~~ 1 tures 

OfQdtteUjbtAfls and attptn* th'm\%. 159 

tares which God framed out of the earth betides mankind e; 
to wit, 1. Catull thatiskine, rheep, goates, and other crea- 
tures which are commonly bred , and kept tame for mans fpc- 
ciali uk. 2. ereeptug things fuch as Serpents, and Wormesofthc 
earth. 3. Beafis of the Earthy ail iorts of. wild beafis, which 
live wild in the woods and deferts, as Lyons, wolves, foxes, 
and the like. Allthefc God made by his mighty Word, every 
fort, and kinde according to his purpofc and the couniell of his 
will; fo that, wh:n hee iooked upon them being made, heeiaw 
them to bee as hec would have them , and approved the crea- 
tion of them for good. Afterwards hee relates the creation 
of mankind in Adamzn&Evahy how they were created after 
the image of God brmfdfc and in his Ukentffc maU ami female 9 
and what prerogatives God gave to them , together with the 
Veiling of fruitfulnelte andincrcafe, Verfe 26,27,28. 

Thirdly, hec me wes what God gave to man fer food in the ~; 
ifote of innocency , even every herbe bearing feedy and every tres 
bearing. frmt> Verfe 2#. and what hee gave for meat to the 
beads and fowles and all other earthly creatures, even the green* 
hzrbc oreraffe of the Earth, Verfe 3 o. 

- . Vcucihly, hee ilicweth, that all creatures being thus framed, . 

and the whole World and every part thereof being thus brought ^* 
into being, and ordered by God, they all in generall, and every 
particular didappearc oetfect and good in Gods eyes, and were 
approved of him for good, and fo the evening and the morning 
were the fixthday. 

I will firft begin with the living creatures, which God crea- ofliWw 
ted out of the earth before he made. man,- and then will Ipro-a C atuz;£ 
ceed to the creation of mankind inourfirft parents, and to the 
image of God in which they were created. 

In the creation of all living creatures, which live and move 
inanduponthe earth, wee mayobfsrve divers things for our 

fir ft , that God continued to create all things , from the nrft n n 
tothelaft, by his ctcrnall and omnipotent Word ; all Beads, ^u^" 
Cattell, creeping things, and all other creatures in the World, ofGod.ty 
as well as man, and to all creatures have God tor their rrukec Cfeift, 
and were all framed by the fame hand and power, this truth 

M 4 U 

\ 6 o Alt crwtures made by the band andpoTPtr of §od. 

is mo ft pkincly herein this Hiftory laid downc and affirmed 
by Aiofes ; For. 2s in all the former dayes work?, fo herealfo in 
the works of the ia{b day, in making all living creatures on 
earth, he ufet! • tne i^mc phrzic T .Gffdfaid i Let them k , and it -was 
Si And in the. creation of man, he laid, Let u* make man. in our 
*0Mtgr;thatis s by his eternall Word, and according to the pat- 
tern in hit owne minde , and in thecounfell of his will, fo hee 
nii them : So that without further testimony of Scripture 
tfft&SioJbm b plaineand manifeft; but yet the Spirit doth 
-give fail and frequent tei'limenies to this truth by the mouth 
ilrt"j.djk thc?rophets,& the Apoitlcs & Evangelifts, ?/*/(**? 
3% i> 2. and 33. <L and 104. 2j.and 148. 5. Ifa. 40.26, and 
4S.7jE, 18. and Job. 1. 3. and Colof. 1. 16. and Hebr. i* 2. 
which places all -things .which can bee named in the uni- 
ycrfail World, are afhrined the handy worke of God, 
xrentedby his Word and Spirit , the heavens with all thehofiof 
thm y the earth and the ftdnefie thereef^ the Sea and all creatures 
therein , things vifible a^d things invijibky how mnmfold/o ever they 
Vfe. 1. Which Do<3xincferves,Srft, toadmonifo us to rcipecTand 
Abufc n©t cftccdc, a ii creatures which have being , as the workxnanfhip 
sots*"" °£God, made and framed by the fame hand which formed usj 
and to take heed, and beware that wee doe not in any cafe abuie 
any of Gods creatures to fin and vanity, to feed our owne vaine 
appetite,. to tatisfie our finfulldefires and pleasures, and - to fervc 
our corrupt fleflily lufts. If any creature of Gcd bee at enmity 
with us, and hurtfull and pernicious to us, it is for our. owne 
iins, becaufe fo wee have broken the peace, and are at enmity 
with God by our finfull rebellion; therefore the creatures made 
for our ufc,are become. our enemies ,and they by our tranfgrefficm 
arc madefubjed to vanity and corruption, under which they 
groanc together with us. And therefore though it is lawfull 
for man in his owne defence, and for his owne fafety to de- 
stroy Serpent.s'kurtfull beads and noyfome creatures; yet to doc 
it with cruelty, and with plcafure, delight, and rejoycingin 
their deftrudiom , and without fenfc of our owne fins and re* 
morfe for them , is a kind of fcorne and contempt of the work- 
manfhip of God our Crea&cur, and of the worke of his hand 


Supply for all \wmtt to bsfoH«ht for of God in Qnift. 1 6 1 

wb : c h mide u^Sc an in/.iry which reflects on hu Maj efty: And 
wee hereby give juft occation to God, and as it were invite, 
and provoke him to judge us by ourowne mouth, and to pro- 
ceed a^ainft us according to the example of our owne doing?, 
> mete out to us by the fame mekfurc as wee have done to 
his crcatures,the living works of his hands. 

Secondly, feeing all creatures were created by God and py c 2 , 
framed by his eternall Word the Sov, who in fulnefT-e of time C! ; 
was made rlenS for us, that hee in our fleih might re Je;me and 
reconcile us to God ; this makes it ckare and manifeft, that the 
Lord Chrift (not onely as hee is the eternal! Son of Goid bydt 
nail veneration , and lb heireof all things in heaven and earthy 
but alio as hee is the power full Word, by which all things were 
made, and without whom no kind of thing in heaven or d 
was made J is the Lordof all things, and the proper right ani 
intcreftpf them all is in him; and the Father gives us the 
free ufe of no creature but by the Son; neither can wee have any 
true right to anything but in and by the Son, nor en/Qyany 
thing as a blejfwg but by the Spirit lent from the Father by the 
Son to dwell in us, and to worke in us true union and ipirituall 
communipn with drift. , and grace to ufe the creatures v. ith 
comfort after an holy maimer. Wherefore, if wee want any 
thin'* or dee defire the ufe of any creature, wee muftfeeke it 
from^ God the Father in his Son leius Chrift, and that by do 
inward motion of his Spirit, inwardly moving and guiding 
our hearts, and allour deiires, and affections, and prayers: wee 
muft follow and obey that heavenly and wholeiome cumfell. 
of Chrift, lob. 15. 1 6. and 16. 23. Even aske the Y atke? wLit— 
foever we have need of in his Sous name, and we fballrecexjt it-, and 
we muft (till remember,that in and through Chrift ondy we hays 
accejfe unto God the Father by one Spirit, Ephf 2. 18. But as 
for them who lit in darkneffe and in the (hadow ol death, and 
know not Chrift, ncr ever heard of him; and them alio who 
having beard of Chrift doe hate and reject him and refute to 
beleeve in him, yea blafpheme his holy name, and perforate Chri- 
ftian religion, as Turkes and Iewcs doe, and other rebellious 
. infidels ; and them who with Ann* and other Hereticks deny 
Chrift to bee the Son of God by cternaJu generation one h ke% ik 
■ - • — ■ vuitfj 

1 6 1 All creatures moving upon Earth created tlefixtb day. 

with the Father, and the eternall Word by whom all things 
were made, they can never receive from God as a favour or 
bleilxng any thing created nor the uie of any creature; they may 
enter by a wrong doore into pofleflion of many worldly things, 
as Lands, Riches, Cattell, and other of Gods good creatures in 
aboundaace; but howfoever they have got poifeffion other- 
wife then by feeking them of GodinChrift, and by acknow- 
ledging of their right to them in him, they are ufurpersand 
have no true right unto them before God; and at laftinthc 
great day of account, they fhall anfwer for their ufurpation, 
and {"hall receive the re ward of theeves , robbers, and ufurpers 
of Gods creatures without any pretence or claime of right laid 
to them in I ejus Chrift. 
23 eblr. 2. Secondly , wee may here obferve, this gencrall name of every 
All kinds living creature after his kind , and the fubordinate names of 
of living p atte i^ creeping things, and i?*v?j?/ of the earth, which God is 
m^dc'oV * Krc *~ a *°* t0 ma ^ c after their l^nde 9 doe comprehend under them 
God. every fbeciail kinde of creature which liveth in and upon die 
earth, from the great Behemoth the Elephant, unto the kail 
worme or creeping thing whatfocver is or canbeefeene and 
knowne of the Sons of men. From whence this Doctrine 
arifeth, that every kind of living creatures which liveth or mo 
veth on earth, was created by God on the fixth day of the crea- 
tion, and is workmanftiip of God, formed in wifedome by 
his mighty hand and power. As this Do&rine is moft clearly 
laid do wne in the text, and proved by the proofes of the former 
Even the E>°&rinc: fo by other Scriptures. lob intimates this much chip. 
meaneftof 17. 1 4- V/hcrchec calls corruption hv Father % *n& the worme his 
4hefri* Mother twd Sifter ; for hereby hee acknowlcdgeth , that the 
wormes and other creatures , which are now engendered of 
corruption; were in the bcginningGods creatures as well as man: 
and man by (inning is fubjecT: to be turned into the fame corrup- 
tion of which they are engendered, and fo they are his Sifters; 
and as hee is made of that corrupt flefh of his Fathers, which 
after their death is turned to corruption, of which wormes 
arc bred, fo corruption is called his Father, and wormes his 
Mother and Sifters. V*v*i alio I'fdme 148. 10, by his fpeech 
diredcdtothePr^.^c?/jf^//E?, mi to all Bcafts } Cattell and 


■■ I ■ — — — "— — -» 

Serpents hurtfulntfje cans' d by turns fvu 1 6 5 

keeping things and to all f ether ed f on les, and by his calling upon 
chem toprsifitheLirdtt their Creatour, for his creating of them, 
and giving them their being., doth fticw plaincly,that God made 
all kinds of them, and gave to them a good being at thefirft, 
for which they are bound to praife him in their kind. 

But here lb-me perhaps will move a doubt; whether hurt- Ob. 
full, venemous, and pernicious creatures, fuch 3s fell Dragons, And the 
cruell afpes, vipers and other poiionfuli Serpents were madc"' 0l ' ft: 
at the ftrft by God ; and whether mixed creatures of mungrell ovr * 
kinds as Mules , which are engendered of Allcs, and Mares; 
Lcopards,which arc of the Libbard and Lione(le;the Linx,which 
is of a Wolfe and a Hind ; bee Gods vvorkmanfhip. There 
ieemes to bee good reafon of this doubt, becaufc creatures which 
are venemous and hurtfull as Dragons, Vipers, and luch like, arc 
for the punifhment of mans fin, and therefore could have no 
being in the (tare of innocency before mans fall. 

To this doubt I anfwer: Firft, that as fin, corruption, and ^ n r w 
malice were not created in man by God at the firft, but entered * { 
hi by mans fall, and were breathed into our firft parents by the 
Divell, when he by the Serpent feduced them ;fo like wife poiibn, 
venime,and hurtfulnefle were not made in the creatures ; but 
did enter in by mans fall; And then they\vhich were nude for 
mans ufc and plcafureat the firft, became corrupt by his cor- 
ruption, and pernicious and hurtfull to him for a juft punifh- 
ment of his iin. What creature can bee more venemeus, or 
more at enmity with mankind then the Serpent? And yet the 
text iTieweth plainely, that the Serpent was made by God be- 
fore mans fall, and btingarnorefubtle beaft then any other which 
Gcd had made, was uied by the Divell as an inft rumen t to 
tempt the Woman to eate of the forbidden fruit 5 Gen. 3, And 
there upon God hath put enmtj betwecne him ?nd the Wo- 
man, betweene his feed and her feed, Verfe 15 . So then it is - 
cleare, that the creatures which are now mod hurtfull and vene- 
mous , and curfes , plagues, and cruell inftrumc&ts , to punifh 
men, were created harmeleflc and ferviceabie to man at the 
firft, and by the Divell, and mans fin are become hurtfull and 
hatefull enemies. Secondly , for creatures which are mxt of 
trfo kind's , as Muks and Leopolds , and all luch ljj<e,they are no 2 * 

1 6 4 Monfiers are mturn errour^not Qods handi Tforkc, 

one kind of living creatures made by God at the fir ft; for God 
made every creature after his kind, and noae mixt of two kindes, 
as the plaine Words of the text fhew : The firft generation of 
filch mungrell creatures came from corruption of nature, and 
is a part of that conf liiion which entered into the World by 
the Divell and fin; and hence fpring menders, and ftrangc de- 
formed fhapes, which are not of Gods framing in the creation; 
for God made every creature after his swne kind , and very 
gooddxiA comely; butthefe are two kinds mixed, ugly, loath- 
ibme, and deformed. 
Object, If any Object, that all things have their fubfhnce "and being 
from God, for he is Iel$evah % the author and giver of all being; 
and therefore thefe creatures becaufe they have a being, mutt 
Anfw. ^ceds bee his handy-worke. To this I anfwere, that the fob- 
fiance of' 1 which mungrels and monitersarc made, and the natu- 
rail power by which one kind of creature begets them of ano- 
ther, are of God, and fo farre they may bee laid to hive their 
being of God; but the mixing of two feeds and fubftancesof 
divers kindes in one, and the confufion, and deformity of mixt 
bodies and fhapes from thence proceeding, that is of the BivcJJ, 
and of the corruption, ill difpofition, and perverfc appetite and 
affection of the creatures which mix themfeives together for 
the generating of them. And therefore in no cafe ought any 
man, fo much as in his thought, to charge God with the crea- 
tion of monfters and mungrell creatures, which arcerroursof 
nature, corrupted by the malice of the Divcll and mans fin. The 
(irft mungrels of this kind mentioned in Scripture arcfaidto 
bee Mules ■, invented by Anah, one of the cor fed brood of Canaan, 
who caufed he-AtTes to couple with Marcs while he kept his 
Fathers AfTes in the WildernefTe , Gen, 3 6. 24. And that fuch 
mixing of creatures of divers kinds is a perverting of the order, 
and breaking of the law of nature, and rnoft hatcfull and abo- 
minable in the eyes of 'God, appeares by his owne Word and 
commandciwent in the law ; where hee forbids his people to 
flowreitb an Ox, & awA'ffe together ;& ail mingling of feeds y Deut n 
22. 10. & by the curfes denounced in the law againft unnaturall 
InJisyLlcftt. 27.21. and by the dread full curfes and wrath of God, 
which ate recorded to have fallen upon fuch doings^and to have 


The DiVtU labours to deface Gods ktmcii- worh. 1 6 5 

bccnc re vctledfrom heaven, for fuch ungodlincife and fiithineffe, 
fl*« 1. 18. 24. 

Now, this Doclrine thus proved, and all doubts removed, Vfc r? 
ferves, firLt to teach us to put a difference betweenethecrea- DiUia^uiri 
tures made by God , and the pervcrfe difooimon of them brought of cce - 1 - 
inbythe Divell and fin ; betwecne Gods handy worke, which *""' ™* 
is alwayes in it fclfc good, and the worke of the Dwell, which libera. 7 
is but a poiion breathed into a good creature, and the confafion 
and putting of Gods good worke and creature out of frame. 
Dra CT ons, Serpents, and all venemousand hurtfullbeafts, as they 
are living things, which have life and breath and lubftance in 
thcm,areGods worke, and fo farrc are good; but as they are cor- 
rupted, dif-ordered, and confounded by the Divell, and the true 
r.aturali temper of them changed, fo they are hurtfull and full 
of -enmity againft man, and this is not Gods handy-worke; 
onely hee by his wifedome and goodnelfe permtts,over-rulcs, 
and turns this cvill to fomc good at laft. And here wee may 
behold as in a glafle our owneface and frame, and may difcerne 
what wee have of the gift of God, and what hecworkes inns ;• 
and what wee have of our felves, and from the malice of the 
Divell. Our whole fubftancc, Soule and body with all powers,, 
and faculties of Soule, asreafon^underftanding, will,memory and 
the like ; and all outward bodily fenfes and abilities , as life, 
ftrength,and motion, are Gods worke ; wee have all thefe of 
his gift , and all power to excrcifc them*, but as for that finfiill 
corruption, diftemper and perverfenefTc of our nature, by which 
our underftanding is darkened, and cannot fee clearly that which 
is good; our will averfe from good, and prone to cvill; our ap- 
petite changed from defiringthat wbichis according to Gods 9 
will, and bent to the contrary ; our affections forward to em- 
brace cvill and wicked things, and to hate good things and 
godly actions; all this is of the Divell intruding himfclfc into 
Gods worke, and righting againft God with his owne wea- 
pons; And the frowardncfie, perverfcneiTe and ill difpofition 
of man, by which hee makes himfelfc worthy of Gods jufl 
hatred, is from his witting and willing yeclding of his Soule 
and Body to bee weapons of wickedneffe, to ierve Satan and 
his owne finfolllufts. Wherefore, though God is our Crea- 


1 66 Mmfincaufe of the creatures evilL 

tour, yet.iet not us make God the author: of our fin and malice, 
nor lay any fault or blame on him; Let us not thinke, that be- 
caufewee are his creatures, therefore hee hath realon to bearc 
with us,and to fpare us,and not to punifh our of7enccs;for in that 
wee who received our being from him arc falien from our in* 
t«grity in which hee made us, and are turned to fight againft 
him with his owne weapons, and toabufcthe power and abi- 
lities which hee hath given and continueth unto us, even to 
provoke him, and to ieiye Satan his great enemy; furely wee 
have no caufe, nor any juft coloor to prefume of Gods mercy 
and indulgence upon this ground that wee are Gods creatures; 
for that is a juli caufe that God fhould more hate us and punifh 
us, as rebels rifen upagainft him out of his owne family, and 
turning his handy- worke in defiance againft him, and fecking 
to fmite him with his owne fword. 
V/e 2, Secondly, this Dodrinefervestoadmonifnus of our iinnes 
In the end evill deiervings, and of our fliameftill apoftacy, and rebel- 
creature* lion againft God, and falling away after the Divcll,Gods enemy ». 
evsilfeeihy f often as wee fee thevenomc, poifon, and evill difpofition 
&w»eiin> anc j cnrn ity of any beafts or creeping things, or of any other 
creature which God hath made* For God fas this Doctrine 
iheweth ) made all thoie creatures every one after his kindc, 
and whatfoever hee made was good; the evill therefore is not 
of him, but of mansfin; mansyeelding and- giving way to the 
Divels temptations brought in all this evill and confufion. 
And therefore if wee hate, (hunnc, feare and abhorre devouring 
Lions, Wolves, andTygers, fell Dragons, and cruell Afpes, 
and Vipers; Let us much more hate, feare, (hunne and abhorrc 
fin, which was and is the caufe of all; and if wee could mortifie 
our fins , and bee fully fancHiried and renued, all poifbn and en- 
mity fhould ceafc to bee in the creatures ;they ihould bee at peace 
with us, and /hould bee reftored to the liberty of the Sorts of Cod $ 
Jfa. 11.6*^65.25. Rom. 8. 
Oottr, 3. J Thirdly, wee here obferve in this Hulory,that God, before 
Gods great nec would create man and bring him into being, did provide 
xmrnyin fof' him a Kingdome. wherein man might raignc and rule , and 
' L °vvc)i n for multitude of fubjefts which arc the honour of a King, and all 
nan\e- other things which might feryc for his ufc and profit, or for 

orehand. his 

Gods bounty to mm mmtfefied'm the creature*. 1 67 

his delight and pleafurc : Hee created the herbes and trees to 
yecldhim meet, as appcares Verfe 2&. which were made the 
"third day, Verfe it, Hee created all 'kinds or fi/bes and moving 
creatures in the Sea and the Waters, and all thz fowls* which flic 
above the earth in the open firmament of heaven * and all/: ving 
thinos of all forts, Cattell, creeping things, and ail beaft* of all 
kinds, every one good, lit and ready to ferve and obey man 
as their Lord; Whence wee maylcarne, that God from the 
beginning hath beene wonderful! bountifull to mankind, and 
mod provident, providing all things which the whole World 
could afford for the profit, pleafurc, honour and preferment of 
man. This is that which David did plaindy fee, consider and 
t:all to minde with admiration, and open proclaiming of Gods 
glorious goodneffe and bounty, Pfalme 8.4. faying, Lord what 
is man, t hat thou art fo mindful 7 of bimlznd 31. i<?. How great- is 
thy goodneffe which thou haft laid up in fiord? and pfalme 107. 
S. &c. Where hee cries out foure feverall times, O that men 
•would prafe the Lord for bis goodneffe^ and declare the wonders that 
bee doth for men. 

This ferves to ftirre up-all men to acknowledge Gods bounty Vfi* 
with all thankefolneffe, to bee carcfull to ferve God, and provi- 
dent to provide all meanes which enable us to promote his 
glory; to btt rich in works of piety, and aboundant in works of 
rarity; and to bee alhamed of our unthankfuitteffe md rebellion 
againft this God, by diftrufting his goodnefle, and belecving 
Satans Lyes ; and of our niggardl'mcffe towards God in refuting 
to ferve and honour him, and to relieve and comfort his Saint? 
with our wealth and riches. No evidence can bee greater to 
convince man of monltrous ingratitude, then this rich bounty 
of God to man, and this providence for man {hewed in the 
creation. All creatures made for his ufeare witnefTes of Gods 
bounty and of mans unthankful neffe. 

The fourth thing is, That, in theftate of innocency,neithcr DeSr.a}^ 
man did feed upon the rle{fi or body of any living creature, Ma.isfaoi 
nor one living creature upon another; but mans food which ifl inn °~ 
God allotted to him in the creation, was oncly herbes yeelding ccnC * 
feed \and fruits of trees, Verfe 20. And graffeyjas the food of all " 
other living creatures, bcafts, birds, and creeping things, Vcr r s 


wha r * 

1 6 8 The creatures mutmil cmcordin thtfiate ofmnccmcy. 

30. Though ever fince the confafion of the World and corrup- 
tion of creatures by mans fall, many beads are become ravenous, 
and devour other living creatures, and feed upon their fleih; as 
Lyons, Bears , and fuch like : Yet in the creation and ftatc of 
innocency, they did like oxen feed on greene grafle, and on fuch 
like fodder; as the words of the Prophet doe intimate, Ifa. 

yfa This difcovers the true ftate of innocency, wherein all crea- 
tures lived together o in love and concord among themfelves; 
and in obedience to man; no bird did raven, nor bead: devoure, 
none did offer violence to the body, life or blood of another; 
there was no fear-enor hatred, no hunting nor abhorring one 
of another, no lamentable clamour or crie to bee heard, by rea- 
son of one perfecting, tearing, and opprelTing another : TI13 
"Wolfe and the Lamb, the Leopard and the Kid, the Cow and 
the- Beare, the Lion and the Calfe and Fading, did all lye downs 
and feed together , there was no hurt nor deftruftion upon all 
the earth. And blefled (hall the times bee, when God fhall re- 
ftore the creatures againe from this bondage and corruption to 
the glorious liberty of the SonsofGod&hzc hath fore- told by the 
holy Prophet Ifaiab, £haf. 1 1. 6. 

Chap. XII, 

#/ the creation $fmdn fpecially. Of the confutation held in mdkinf 
htm. Three reafens for it. Man the chief eft of ere Mures. Of 
the name ^ Adam: Vfedtwo wayes. Woman capable of grace and 
glory y afwell a* man : Vfes. (.Man ypat made by God alone : 3. 
Vfes. His body made in wenderfull wifedome: becaufe of dufti 
Vfe. Man at befi a duftis fab fiance \ which teacheth humility and 
ihankf nine ^c. Opinions of the creation ofmansfonle. Rofuper- 
natural l gifts in it ; Vfes, 

HIthejto , I have infifled on the ireation of other living, 
creatures, which God made on this fixth day. Now I 
proceed to the creation of mankind^ which was the laft worke 

Of the creation of mankind. \ 69 

_ — — — — ■ ' m 

cf the creation which God wrought , and by which hee made 
the whole frame of the World perfecl: and complete, and every 
way fully furnifhed. This lalt worke is defcribed by Mofes* 
rirft generally, briefely and iummarily, in the 26. Verfe, and 
from thence to the end of this firffc Chapter : And iecondly* 
the creation of the Woman is more particularly related, Chap, 
z. from the 1 8 . Verfe to the end of that Chapter, 

Verfe 26. And God/aid, Let us mak? man in our owne image , Creation 
and after onrlikewffe, cjre. 27. So God created man in his owne ?* t f 2n ". 
image, &c 28. And God bleffed them and f aid > Befrmtfrllatd^^^ 
multiplier and rcplenijh the earthy &c. 

In this Kiitory of the creation oi' mankind?. Wee may obferve 
thefe fpeciaii things, which are moft notable and worthy to bee; 

Hrfti Gods confutation about the creation of mankind in j 
the i6J'erfe;And GcdfaidyLet us wake man in our image. 

Secondly, Gods creating of mankind according to his owne ? 2 * 
eternall Counfell; which is laid do wne fummarily and more ge- 
nerally ,thatGW made them, 1 in his owne image } 2 male and female, 
Verfe 27. 

This creation of mankind is more plainely and particularly 
laid downe in the next Chapter; where ykf<?y<f s relates, Firfr,how/ 
God made the man of the dufl of the ground , and breathed into his 
nifthrtls the breath of life, and Man became a living foule, Verfe y. 

Secondly, how God made the female, the Woman , to bee an 
helpe meet for man , and that of a Rib taken out of the mans fide in 
adcepfleep, Verfe 21.22. &c. Thirdly that they were both naked, 
and were not afiamed, Verfe 35. Thefe things are to bee noted 
m the creation of mankind. 

The third .thing is the bleffwg, wherewith God blefTed them 3, 
joyntly together ,the Man and the Woman; and it comprehends 
ink two things ; Firft, the blcfling of fnutfulndle, that they 
ihculd multiply and replenifh the earth with mankind. Se- 
condly , the. honour, dominion and prerogative which God 
gave to them to fab due the earthy and to have dominion over all 
other lit i»i creature?*, this is expreiTcd^C^. i« 28 . 

The four this the meat and bodily food which God nfligned 4.. 
to man in the creation, Verfe 29-but with limitation & reltraint 

N from 

1 7 o In the creation of Mankind &od calls a comceti. 

from the fruit of 'one tree , Chap, 2. 16,17. As for other crea- 
tures , which live on the earth, hee aftigned the greenc herbe or 
grafie to them for food, Verfe 30. 
5 # The fifth thing, is the place of mans habitation, thcgardenof 

I den, the earthly paradife, which is dcfcribed, Chap. 2. 8,9,0^. 
6» The laft thing is Gods viewing oi all things, which hee had 

made, after the creation of the Man and the Woman, and his 
placing of them in paradife, which was the accomplishment 
of the creation and the laft \v*brke; and his approbation of every 
creature for very good and perfect in his kind 5 this is expreffed in 
the 51. Verfe, 
Of the The firit thing is Gods confutation concerning the crea- 

confialta- tion of mankind, wherein wee are to confider thele particulars; 
non in ma- \jvhe it is that faith, Let us make. 2. With whom hee doth thus 
Ling man, corr f u i t and conferre. 3. what is the thing confnlted about, even 
the making of man in their owns image , and after their likenejfe, 
to hee Lord over all other creatures, the fifties of the Sea, the 
fowles of the aire, and all living things on earth. 

In the creation of all other things God faid onely, Let them 
hee, and fo they were made \ but in the creation of mankind hee 
calls a councell as being now about a greater worke, and faith, 
Let us make Man* whichisa fpeciall point not lightly to bee 
patted over without due confidcratioin Firft, hee who thus 
felts* CCn ' enters int0 confultation isfaidto bee Elohim, that is, God the 
Greatour , who is more perfons then one or two, even three 
Terfonsinoneefience (as the Hebrew word, being plurall doth 
imply). And hee who here faith, Let us make man , and in the 
next verfe is faid to create man in hi* owne image, hee is the fame 
God which created the heavens, and the earth, Verfe 1. and the 
light, and the firmament, and all other things mentioned before 
in this Chapter. 
With They with whom hee conferres, are not the Angels as fome 

whom, have vaincly imagined ; nor the foure elements which God 
here calls together, that hee may frame Mans body of them being 
compounded and tempered together, as others have dreamed. 
Tor the text fhewes plaincly divers ftrong reafons to the con- 
trary: Firft, it is fa id, that God created man not by the miniftc ry 
of. Angel? or the elements, but by ht<s 9wnefelfe } a8ii follower 


(jodcon/ulted about Mans cteationcnnd Tshy. iyi 

in the next Verfe> and Chap. *. 7. Secondly , God created mara 
in his owne image , not in the image cf Angels or elements- and 
therefore it is mod ridiculous to imagine that Gcd ibake'to 
them, Of of making man in their image. Thirdly, it is rtiewed 
that man was made to rule over the ear th^and the fowl es of the air e t 
andthefijhes of the Seapnd therefore it is abiurd to thinkethat the 
earth, or any elements were fellow*- makers of man together 
with God, And laftly, it is both fbolilli and impious to thinke^ 
thatGod who made heaven,carth,&the heavenly hott,the Angels, 
af nothing, mould call upon others to helpe him, and to [hare 
with him in the honour of mans creation , feeing hee doth fo 
often in Scripture challenge this honour of creating all things 
to himfelfe, and profeiTeth that hee will not give this glory to ano- 
ther ; Here therefore God the Creatour is brought in by Mofcs> 
as it were confulting within himfelfe, even the eternall Father 
with the eternall Word the Son ( who is called the Mgbtmjf* 
of his glory , and the exprejfe image of his Perfon, by whom hee made 
rk^r/^ofwhic'n[manis a part,£fe&\i.2 Jand with the eternall 
Spirit. And here hee brings in God confulting about mans crea- 
tion to bee Lord over other creatures, for 3 . fpeciall reafons,and 
to teach us three things , which are reafons of confutations 
among men, when they are about a worke. 

Thefirft is to fhevv, not that God needed any advice or helps > It was for 
but that the worke which hee was about was a fpeciall worke, 3* reafons. 
even the making of man, the chic fe ft of all viftble creature s\ one *• 
that fhouid bee Lord over all the reft % being made in Gods orvne 
image , indued with reafon , under ftanding,wifedome, and liberty 
of will. 

The fecond , to ftiew that man was to bee made a creature in 
whom God fhouid have occafion given to fiicw himfelfe a 
mighty and wife Creatour and Governour, a juft Iudge and re- 
venger of wickednetfe and fin , which doe provoke him to 
wrath and revenge; a mercifull Redeemer and Saviour of finners 
Induced; and an holy fan&irier of them by his Spirit. It wee 
confider man as a creature which might fall, and have Gods 
image defaced in him, and by his many provoking fins might 
give God cauie to repent that hee had made him % as is faid,GW*. '». 
then there appeares ibme reafon why God fhouid as it \ 

N 2 coo. 


ijz G$eafbns why G od conjulted about Mans creation. 

confult whether bee fhould make him, or no. Alfo, if wee corv 
fider that man being fallen, and brought under the bondage and 
{lavery of death and theDivcll, and under eternal! 1 condemna- 
tion, could not pofliblybee redeemed but by the Son of God un- 
dertaking to become man, and to fufTer and fatisfie in mans na- 
ture; and that man cannot bee made partaker of Chrifts benefits 
for redemption, without the holy Ghoft, the eternall fpiritof God 
infilled into man,and deicendingto dwell in man as in an earthly 
tabernacle: There will appeare to us great caufc of consultation, 
that God the Father fhould confult with the Son, and the Spi- 
rit; and this confulting about mans creation doth intimate all 
thefe "things : But in that this confutation is with a refolution 
if all things confidered) to make man with a joynt confent\ this 
•fhewes that God feref/n* how mans fall and corruption, and 
all the evils which by it were to come into the World fhow- 
fbever, to our undcrftanding and in our reafon, they may fecme 
Juft impediments to hinder God from creating mankind) yet 
fnight by his wifedome bee turned to the greater advancement 
of his glory, and might give him occailon to fhew all his good- 
r.effc, wifedome, power, perfect purity and holinetfe in hating 
fin ; his infinite juftice in the deduction and damnation of 
wicked reprobates, and in exacting a fall fatisfaclion fer the (in3 
of them that arefaved; his infinite mercy, love-, and free grace 
in giving his Son to redeemc and fave his elccT from fin,death, 
and hell; and his unfpeakeable bounty in giving his Spirit to 
lan&ifie them, to unite them to Chrift, and to conformethem 
to his image, and fo to bring them to the full fruition of himfclfe 
in glory. God in confulting within himfelfe, and thereupon 
refolving to create mankind , and faying* Let us make man^ 
and then immediatly creating him (as the text fheweth) did in 
the creation of man fhew before-hand, that in mankind hce 
would manifeft and make knowne all his goodneffe, mors then 
in all other creatures. 

The third reafon of Gods confutation, is, to manifeft more 
plainely in mans creation then in any other creature, the my fiery 
of the b/effed Trinity , that in the one infinite eternall God the 
Crcatour there are more, even three Perfons of one and the 
fame undivided natute and fubftance, For fuch confutations 


In me (}od are three Terfcns. 175 

and refolutions, as arc expretfed in this forme of words, Let 
ns make man in our image, and after our lik£nejfe , doc nccciTarily 
imply chat there arc more Perform then one confenting, and con- 
curring * n tnc worke. And that thefe three Perionsarcailbut 
*ne And the fame God , it is manifeft by the words following, 
which fpeakc of thefe Perlbns asof<?**£W; for it is faid, that 
God created man in bis owne image , and not they created man in 
their image. 

Thus much for the intent and meaning of the Spirit of God 
in tbcfe words , Let us make man in our image, andafti r our like 
ncfic. From which words thus expounded, wee learne, 

Firft, that the creation of mankind was a fpcciall worke of £)0#r. i« 
God, and that man is by nature the chicfeft and mod excellent Man the 
of all creatures, which God made in all the vifible World; chicfeftof 
which point the holy Pfalmift openly proclaimed; faying, /a** creatBrcs " 
fearcfullj and wonderfully made, marvellous are tbej works , Pfalme 

139* Ht. 

Secondly, Gods confutation (heweth, that in the creation BoUr. z> 
hce confidercd mans fall, and did forcfee not oncly that man 
in his nature and kind is a creature fubjeel: to fuch evils as might 
make it a matter queftionable, whether it were fit for God to 
create him or not: but alfo the great good which comes by his 
creation and fail, and that man is a fit objeft, wherein God may 
make manifeft his wifedome, power, and all his goodneflc 
more then ia any other creature, and in that refpe& moll: wor- 
thy to bee made by the counfell, joynt confent, and concurrence 
of all the three Perfons in the Trinity. 

Thirdly, here wc may obiervc, that in one God the almighty DoScr. f. 
Crcatour, there arc more Perfons then one manifefted by Mops 
in the Hiftory of the creation. And therefore the Doctrine 
of the Trinity is no new and lately deviled opinion iincc 
Chrift , but a mod ancient truth revealed from the firft founda- 
tion of the World. 

Thefe Dodrincs I here oncly name, which will come to be 
handled more fitly in the next thing which folio wes, to wit, 
Gods creating of mankind according to this his couniell and 
refolution ; which acl: ofcreationislaid downc firft more ge- 
nerally and conmfedly'in the 27. Verfi. And more diftinctly 

N 3 and 

1 74 Of the fisnification of the Word Adam. 

and particularly by Way of recapitulation in the next Chap- 

FirH:, it is here laid, that as God upon confutation r^/W, 
fo hee created man in his owne image, and male and female crea- 
ted hee them: wherein wee may obferve two things generally 
laid downej Firft, that God created man in his owne image , 
Secondly, that hee created them male and female. 

I will not here enter into a difcourfe concerning the imags 
*/<j^,and the fpeciall things wherein it doth confift; that fhall 
laave ,a mere fit place hereafter , when I (hall come to dc- 
fcribe the excellent ftate of man in his innocency before his 

The thing which here comes fpecially to bee confidcred is 
Of th« the true meaning of the Hebrew word Adam, which is tranfla- 
na-na* A ted man in this prefent text. This word is in the Scriptures 
dam, ufe<J ^^ two ^jjyes ) pj r ^ as ^frofer name of the firit man, even 
jwowaycs, our ^ f ^ p at ' ncr ^ am . t ^ us wce mu Q. underftand the word 
- Chap. 2i. where it is laid, that Geddidcafi tAdamintoadeep 
fiecpe> and Verfe 2a. brought the Woman to Adam when hee 
had jaaadc her of his R.ib ; and ckaf*-$.. i. and many other 
places, where Adam is diftinguifhed &om £z^& his wife, andjis 
called the man, 
** Secondly, it is ufed as a common narmok mankinde, and in- 

cludes in it both male and female, Man and Woman, as Pfalme 
344 .-^iJttmis like to vanitj , and Gen. ?. 2. where it is laid, 
that God called the Man and Woman , and all mankind in them ? 
both male and female by this name %yfdam % 

Here in this text, this word Adam is ufed in this latter fenfc 
as the common name of mankinde, comprehending in it both 
male and female ; as appcares by the words following, Male and 
female created hee them ; that is, this Adam whom God created 
in his owne image was male and female, of both fexes, Man and 
Woman, who are both but one kind of creatm-e. Whereby it is 
manifeft , that here is laid downe in gcnerall the creation of 
all mankind in our firft Parents AdamzsA his wife Evah; and 
that they both were created in the image of God; and that the 
difference of their fexes, and the creation of the Woman after 
the Man,.*/* Rii> taken out of mans fide, doc not make any 


Woman <u capable afubittt of grace as Man. \ 7 5 

difference of their nature, and kind; but both arc of on0 kind, and 
both made in the image of God and after his iikcnefle : And 
Women as well as Men arc capable of the fame grace, and fit 
to i»ce heircs of the lame glory in Heaven, where there is no 
difference of male am fc male , but all (hall bee like to the Angels, 
not marrying nor given in marriage : as all members of the lame 
Chrift, and partakers of the fame fpirituall grace here ; lo all 
fellow-citizens of jjthc heavenly Citic there , raigning with 
Girill in glory, as our Saviour himfclfe afrirmeth in the Gofpell. 

Hence thcu wee learnc , That the Woman as well as the Man Doftr. 
was made in the image of God, and is by nature as fit a fubj ecT:, Woman as 
and as capable as man of grace and glory. Which point is con- C2 P ible of 
firmed by divers Scriptures; as by the words of our Saviour, 8" ccan d 
Matth 12.30. where hce faith.that Women and Men in the Re- ^ y a * 
furrection arc at the Angels of God in the I aft Refurretlion, not 
marrying nor given in marriage; And 2 £V. 6. 18. 1 will bee 
a Father unto jot*, and the fhall yee my Sons and Daughters faith 
the Lord almighty; and Gal. 3. 28. Mais and female are all one 
in Chrift;md 1 Tim. 2.15. the Apoftle arhrii>es,that Woman may 
bee, and /ball be faved by continuing in faith, charitie, and holi- 
ncflc with fobriety; and 1 Pet. 3.7. mention is made of holy 
W&7w#,andWivcs arc faid to be heires together with thiirHatbands 
of the grace of life. To which tcfti monies the examples of many 
holy, godly and faithfull Women , mentioned in the Scriptures, 
may be added; as our firft Mother Evah, who, through faith in 
the promifc, obtained the title of the Mother of life , Gen. 3 . and 
the virgin Marie the Mother oftheblefled ie;d is c&lhdblejfed 
in all nations; Sarah, Rebecca, Hannah, Deborah, R nth, Dor cat, 
Mor'n Afagdalene, and many Others . 

But, 1 Cor.n.y. Man is called the image and glory of God, object, 
the Woman the glory of the Man. 

The Apoftle doth not here (peakc of the image of God as Anfe 
it conlilU in perfeel nprightnejfe and indowments of nature; or 
inholineffe and fupernaturall gifts of grace; for fothe image of 
God is one and the fame in both, and common to the Woman 
with the Man, and they both have cquall dominion and Lord- 
fhip over the creatures given in the creation : But here hce 
fpeakcsof Man as hee was full created before the Woman, an* 

N 4 the 

1 7 6 Womansjubteftwn excludes her not from fatthj&c. 

the Woman as fhec was made to bee a meet helpe fir Man , and 
as it were his fecondfelfe here on earth, and of a Rib * which is a 
part of mans fubftance, and in all things like man of the fame na- 
ture andkinde^ and in thefc refpects man hath a priority , and a 
kinde of power and authority over the Woman in outward things*, 
which concerns Ecclejiafticall and Cvvill ordtr; and mans glory 
even the image of his authority appeares in the Womans fuh~ 
^#/o»tohim ever fince the fall, upon which God made her 
defire iubjedt to man; and tooke from her power over man, and 
the cxercife of pubiike offices in the Church and common 
wealth: And thi&fubjettio* doth not exclude her from faith, 
fkarity, and holineffe with febriety , or any other part of Gods 
image needfull toialvation, as the Apoftlc teftirieth, r Tim. 2. 
15. In a word, common fenfe and rcafon teach us, that, if the 
Woman be made in the image of the Man, and the Man is made 
tnGeds image, then Women mult needs beare Gods image and 
ftkenejfe : But the truth is , God being (till the fame, both in the 
creation of the Man and of the Woman , and creating both by 
the fame wiftdome and power; hee needed not to take Adam 
for his patcrne whereby to make the Woman, but made her in 
his owne image as bee did man, and Co in ail things like to man, 
the different fexe onely excepted. 
ffe s. This ferves to admonifh and (lirreup women to bee careful!, 
diligent and induftrious fb to beare themfelvcs as they that are 
made after Gods image, & fo to order their lives & conversion 
as they who expect the glory of heaven, and muft, by palling 
through the fhte of grace here, and by conforming themfelvcs 
to Chrift both in his death by mortification, and in his life by 
iandification, come to the fulnefTe of glory in Heaven, and bee 
made conformable and like to Chrift in his glorious bod v, and 
coheir es of God with him. 
J'fe 2. Secondly, it ferves to reprove the wicked and profane men 
of the World, whofe wickcdncflc is tranfeendent , and their 
profanenefle mod horrible and impious, in that bafc efteeme 
which they have of the female fexe, and the vile account which 
they make of woman-kind, who thinke andfpaeke of women 
that they have no foules, nor any part in Gods image, and are 
utterly uncapablc either of grace in this World, or glory in the 


Man formed of the Dufl of the ground. 1 77 

World to come. Like and cquailunto which, iti their profane 
impiety, arc common {trumpets and whoriih women, the fhame 
and ftaine or woman-kipd, who proltitutc them (elves to all 
filthinefle , and (o livens if they were made onely to fcrvc 
the lults of unrcafonable men of bruitifh luft. 

I proceed to the more (pcciall things , which arc more di- 
stinctly laid downe concerning the creation of mankind; where 
I will firft infill upon the creation of the male and female,and 
the matter of which they were made, and ofthe manner and 
order in which God formed them : Which that wee may di- 
ftinctly underftand , wee mud looke forward to the 7. Verfe 
ofthe 2. Chapter, where the creation of mankind is more par- 
ticularly rehearfcd in thefe words , and the Lord God formed, 
man of the duft of the ground, and breathed into hii noflhrtls the 
■breath of life, and man became a living fonle. In the Hebrew text^ 
the man is here called Adam , not as by his proper name, but as it 
is the cowmen name of all mankind; for, lb much the article 
which is prefixed before it doth thew ; and therefore as the 
Greekc, fo- alio our Englifa Tranflators. doe tranflatc this word 
not Adam, but Man; God formed man of the duft ; For in the firft 
creation, the man comprehended in him all mankind, even the 
Woman who then was a Rib in his fide, and afcerward was 
taken out and formed into a Woman. 

The matter of which God formed Adamis faid to bee the 
duft of the ground; and here he ufcth another word not ufed be- 
fore in the creation of other things, that is, the word formed; 
for hec doth not fay, that God made or created, but formed max ^ 
and true it is , that whole man was not made ofduft, but onely 
the fubftance of his bodie;and therefore it is faid,th»tGod/ir»;fi 
man (to wit, in refped of his body, ) of the duft of the ground, 
that is, hce framed and fafhioned it of duft, as a potter formes 
a pot of clay, and brought it into that forme and fhape which 
all perfect bodies of mankind dcebcarcuntill this day; And this 
is the firft beginning ofthe being both ofthe Mai/and alio of 
the Woman, who was created here a Rib at the firft in Mans 
fide, and afterwards taken out, and made into a Woman. 

Firft,in that lehovah Ehhim, the Lord God, is here faid to 
forms man } that is, to frame ruY body ofdult, and to bring it into 


i 7 8 (jod mxdt ufe of no creatum in Mans creation. 

Both, the forme and Qiape which it bcares in all mankind : Hereby 
;Min was w ee arc taught, that God did neither confult with Angels about 
nude by mans creation, nor aflame them, or any other creatures into the 
oodaion^ feilowlllipofthisworke . but God himfclfc alone who is Iebo- 
vah, one God in effencc and fubftancc, and yet Etobim, that is 
m#re Perfons,cvcn three Perfons,in that one undivided cflcncc, 
oid forme the very body of man, and brought it into that forme 
and temper , that it might bee a fit lubject of the foule, wfeich is 
a ipirituall fubftancc. And this all other Scriptures confirmc, 
which attribute the creation of mankind to God alone; asDewr. 
4. 32. and lfa % 4 s. 1 2. with many other places, where the crea- 
tion of man upon earth is alcribed unto God onely, and where 
holy and faithfuli men, fpeaking as they were moved by the 
holy Ghoft, confeflc themfelves tbeworke of Gods hands , as/#4 
,10. 3. and God their maker and former ', lob 36. 3. and MaUc. 
2jo, and God the potter a*.d themfelves his formed yvorke y If** 
64 8. 
yr € This Doctrine well weighed is of excellent ufe : Firft to 

make us afiribe all our excellency and all our well being to God, 
that wed may give him the glory of them, and that wee may 
beare our fclves before God as before our creatour, and may ever 
remember, that whatfoever fervice wee are able to performe 
cither with our foules or bodies, it is w holy due to God, and 
none other but oncly in him and by commandement and war- 
rant ftbm his holy and infallible Word* Seeing God alone hath 
created us and given us all our being, even the forme and fhape 
of our bodies, wee muft not thinke it enough to keepe our ielves 
to God, and to fervc him infpirit onely , but wee muft ferve and 
worihip him with our bodies alfo , and with all parts and mem- 
bers of our bodies. Although God many times makes men 
tnftrHTKentsandmca&cs to convey bcaith,lifc,being,and well being 
to" us; as naturall Parents, to bring us into being and life, and to 
nourilh and bring us up; and as Kings, and Rulers, and wife Ma- 
gistrates to bee 'Saviours of our bodily lives from death and 
other dangers, and to procure fafety , peace and well being to 
us; and in this refpetf andforthefe cauies wee doe owe love, 
honour, and fervice to them in, and under God: yet kino cafe 
may wee in things which tend not to the honour, but difhonour 

(}od rather theft Mm is to be obqeJ, 1 7 9 

of God, and arc contrary to his Word and Will, and otfenfive 
tohisMajcfty, ©bey, ferve and honour them. Infiichcafcs, let 
us fay as the Apoftles did to the high Priefts and Rulers of the 
I ewes , IVt ought to obey God rather then men; and whether it be 
right and lawfull to obey yen more then God ptdgg yee y Aft. 4. ip 4 
and 5. 29. All Potentates, Kings and Rulers, becaufe they arc 
men and have no power but from God, muft not looke that any 
fhould ferve and obey them rather then God, or in things which 
they command contrary to Gods comnundements; Yea they 
mult remember that they arc Gods creatures and handi-workc, 
and ought to employ all their power and authority to the ho- 
nour of God . If other wife they abufe the talents, which God 
hath lent them; let them know, that God will one day call them 
to a reckoning, and give them the reward ofevill , unfaithful!,, 
and unprofitable fcrvants , even etcrnall deftru&ion and tor- 
ment inHeil, where (hall be howling,and wayling,and gnafhing 
of teeth. 

Secondly, this ferves to (hew, that whofoever offers wrong Vfi aj 
and injury to any of -mankind 'by cutting, mangling, or any way Dinger of 
defacing their image , and deforming their bodies * by at- tijetn *** 
Aiding or.fome way corrupting their foules; or by taking away m ° n * 
their lives and naturali being , without fpcciall warrant and mM>fc 
command ement from God; they are notoricully injurious to 
God himfclfe; they fcorne, defpife, rnif-aie and deface Gods 
Workmanfhip; they provoke God to wrath and jealoufie, and 
hec furely will bee avenged on fuch doings* And here wee 
have matter, as of dread and terrour to all cruel! Tyrants and 
unmerciful! men; ib of hope and comfort to all who fuffer in- 
jury and wrong at their hands: As thefirft fort have juft caule 
to feare and tremble fo often as they thinkc on God the avenger 
of fuch wroug ; fo the other have caufe to hope that God will 
not wholy forfake them , being the workc of his owns 
hands, nor leave them to the will and luft of the wicked, his 
enemies; but will in his good time fave them, and lend them de- 

Thirdly, this discovers the abomination and filthincfle of a!! fji$i 
Idolaters, who being the workmanfhip of God, the Lord and The hnof 
Wife creator of all things, doe moftbafely bow downe toima- idoI ^" s - 


i 80 Cods infinite powi r in en a of Dufi, 

ges,and altars; and debafe themfclves to worlhfp humane in- 
ventions, and the worke of mens hands, which are dumbe 1- 
dols of wood , and (tone, and lying vanities. Itisjuftwith 
God to call out and cxpofe all fuch people to ignominy, Irume, 
and confufion in this world, and, m the vvorld to come, into 
that place of darknefle, where the Divell and all fuch as fbrlake 
God, and rebcll againft the light which from the creation Aiincs 
to them, lliall be punifhed with evcrlafting deftrudlion from 
the face and prefence of God , and from the glory of his 

Secondly, in that God ishercfaidto forme man of the dufi 
of the ground^ not of clay well tempered and wrought, but of dujl t 
which of it fclfe is mod: unfit to be compacted and made into 
a ftedfalt iliape;and which is counted io bale, and fo light, 
that every blaft of wind drives it av\' ay; and in Scripture theba- 
feft things are refembled to it ; Hence wee may iearnc two 

Firftjthat God in the creation,even of mans body, fhewed 
Dour. i^i s infinite power and wifedome in bringing dult ot the earth, 
tllwoi w ^ cn is ^ e bai& thing of all , into the forme and fhape of 
duft & wjs roans body, which is the moft excellent of all vifiblc bodies, 
wondroul- and a fit houfe and temple not onely of a reaibnabic living 
ly made, foule, but alio of Gods holy fpirit ; ( as other Scriptures plain- 
ly afhrmc.)This point appeares fo plainly in the Text , that I 
need not fpend time in further confirmation of it ; the word 
TBV , formed , here firft ufed , implies an excellent forme , and 
the upright face of man ; Hzre therefore I will addc,for illuftra- 
tion fake, the words of Dav id, which are very pertinent to this 
purpofe, Pfal. 1 ;p. 14,1 5,16. whcre,fpeaking of Gods forming 
and fafhioning him in the wombe of the living fubftancc, even 
the feed, blood, and flefhof his parents ,iaith he,/ will pray fe thee, 
for I am feartfuHj and wonderfully made* Marvelous are thy work?* , 
and that my joule knoweth right well'. My fubftance was not hid from 
thee, when I was made infecret, and curiott fly wrought in the loweft 
parts of the earth : Thine eyes did fee my fubftance, yet being im- 
pcrfcFt . andi* thy booke were all my members written, which in con- 
tinuance were fafhioned, when as yet tlxre was none of them. Here 
we fee with what fcarc, adr^kation and aftoniOamsnt Dav'd 


gods TboYknwifbif) in Mam creation admirable. 1 8 1 

conU'i crs mans frame,and the curious workmanfhip of his body* 
when God forms it in the mothers womb by lively inftruments, 
and of a lively matter and fubftance : How much more may we 
conclude, that Gods creating of Adams body, which w?s the 
rnoft curious naturall body that ever was made , is mod ad- 
rrjirable,and delerves mere reverence, feare, and aftonifhment at 
our hands, being made without initruments out of the bafefl: 
matter and fubftance even duft of the earth / Surely in this God 
fnewed wifedomeand power beyond all admiration. 

The Vfeofthis doctrine is to ftirreus up, fo often as we yr e Io 
thinke of our creation in Adam, to laud and praife Gcds wife- 
dome and power, to feare and reverence God, and to admire 
lus curious workmanfhip. And although the matter of which 
God framed mans body was the bafefl: of all , even duft of the 
ground ; yet let us not thinke ever a whit more meanly of our 
creation ; but fo much more admire Gods workmanfhip in our 
bodies. For, to make a curious workcin gold, (ilver, or of fome 
beautifull, precious, and plyable mettall, is not rare, nor fo ex- 
cellent : but to frame of the bzfeft matter, the duft of the ground ; 
the chicfeft worke, and even the Matter-piece of all works 
in the vifible world, that is r the body of Adam in the irate of iri- 
nocency ; this is worthy, of ail admiration, and is a juft motiv-e 
and provocation to ftirre us up to praife, and to extoll with 
admiration the wifedome and power of God ; efpecially, if wee 
confider the rnoft excellent forme of mans body and upright 
itaturc, together with the head, comely face, hands, and other 
members every way fitted and compofed to bee inftruments 
of a reafonable fouic,and to rule and keepe in order and fub* 
jection all living creatures. 

Secondly, in that the duft of the ground, the bafefl: part of the Qoftr,!, 
earth, is the matter out of which mansbody,the beautifull Pa- Man at 
lace and Temple of his Soul,was formed in the excellent fhte beftadu. 
ofinnocency ; Hence wee learne, that man is by nature, and in flyfub- 
bis beft naturall being giv^en to him in the creation, but a duft) , ftancc - 
tartby fuhftattce in refpett ofhisbody\ and,in refpeft of his- Soul, 
an inhabitant of an hoafe of clay, the foundation whereof is in 
the du^>. 

But fome perhaps , will object againft the Colleton of Qljcfr. 


1 8 1 Mm in bis beft natural! bein^but a ctufly/ubftante* 

rfiis Doctrine, from the bafe and frailc matter of which mans 
body was formed; and will thus argue, That the ftate and con- 
dition of creatures is not to bee efteemed by the matter of which 
they were made , but by the forme and being which God gave 
to them; as for example, the Angels, together with the higheffc 
heaven, were created immediatl] of nothing, as well as the rude 
unformed maffe which is called earth , and^ yet they are moft 
glorious Ipirits , and the rude maffe is not to* bee compared to 
them; Yea man was created according to his inferiour part the 
body, of duft, which is a created fubftance better then nothings 
of which the Angels were made; and yet the Angels in nature tar 
exceil man : Therefore mans creation of duft doth not prove 
him to bee lb fraile a creature, feeing God gave himiuch aa 
excellent forme. 
Anfw. To this I anfwer, that to bee created immediatly of nothing 
x , is in it felfe a more excellent worke, and fhewes greater power, 
then to bee made of a mtane mferiour matter: For when things 
are faid to bee created oi-nothing^ the meaning is not, that thev 
are made of nothing as of '^matter ; but that they are made of 
no matter at all, but have their whole being from God> and his in- 
finite power, and fo may bee, if God will, moft excellent: But 
when man is faid to be formed of duft y the meaning is, that duft 
isapartofhisfubftance even the matter of which heeconfifts, 
and that his body according to the matter is a dufty, earthy 
fubftance; and his Soul, though a fpirituall fubftance created of 
nothing, yet,dwelling in that body,is an inhabitant of an earthly 
?• Tabernacle and hoiife of clay founded in the duft. Secondly, 
though the frame of mans b ody is in it felfe moft excellent, and 
furpaffethall bodily formes, and his Soul is a fpirituallfubftance 
endowed withreafon ; yet allthefe were of mutable excellency 
in the beft naturall cftateofinnocency, and could not continue 
in that excellency but by dependance upon God, and cleaving 
fafttohim; and by his hand and power fuftaining them con- 
tinually, which by promife hee was not bound to doe in that 
cftate. And therefore wee may truly gather from the matter 
of which God formed mans body , that hee was in his beft na* 
turall being, in refpeft of his body, but a dufty fubftance, fuch 
as might returne to duft, by falling off from God by fin, and 

Mm in his bcji n durall being fraik and mutable. 1 8 5 

difobcdiencc ; yea undoubtedly as God in framing man his 
chicfeft vifible creature of duft , intended to {lie w his wife- 
dome and power, and to glorifie Ins goodnefl'e: lo alfo hee 
teacheth man thereby his ownenaturall frailty and mutability, 
how unable hee is of himfclfeto abide in honour and excellency. 
And this hee fhewcs molt plainely, Gen, 5. 19. where hee faith 
to man, alluding to his creation, T>uft thou art , and to dttfi thou 
{halt return? \ Wee have alfo an excellent argument to thispur- 
pofe, Ub 14. 18,19. and 15.15. where the Lord is faid to 
charge his Angels with folly , and to lay no truft inhisfervants y 
and the heavens are not cleare in his fight \ how much lejfe can hee 
fandfteadfaftneffe in men, who drvellin houfes of clay ^vhich have their 
foundation m tht duft ? that is, feeing the heavenly fpirits are 
not immutably pure in Gods fight , but fomc of the Angels 
hath God charged with folly, to wit, fuch as did fall, and to the 
reft hee hath added fupcrnaturall light of his Spirit, and fo hath 
made them Saints immutably holy, much lefle is man immutably 
pure and fte&faft by nature, whofe better part the Soul is by 
creation mede to dwell in an houfe of clay, a body made of duft. 
To this purpofe ferve thofe Scriptures of the Prophets and 
Apoftles, which compare man in his firft creation to clay in the 
handof the potter Jer.iS. 9.8c Rom.9. 21. & which affirme that the 
firft Adam w.u of the Earth earthy \ 1 Cor. 15, 47. that is , in his 
hrlt creation hee was of an earthy and dufty fublfancc. Vfe- 1 

firft, this fcrvesby difcovering unto man his frailty and mn- For hlir 
tability in his beft naturall being, to humble every man in his !^ n j" f ld i 
owne eyes, and to make him lowly, arid to withdraw his heart Jj^ U ■ 
from pride and all high conceipts of any worth in himfelfe, 
and to teach us all to afcribe all the wchan gable purity which 
wee finde in oar felves , and all our fteadfaftneffe to the free grace 
of God in Chrifiy and not to any power of our owne free will, 
or to the excellency of our naturall frame and being. Jf man 
in his firft creation and beft naturall being was but of earth and 
daft, an earthy and dufty creature;and, before that death entered 
into the World , while hee had yet power of free will to obey 
God, and to depend on him, was mutable and might fall jnto 
fin, and difebediencc , and by fin might bring and did bring 
death upon himfeHc and all his pofterity: how much more now 



184 Of the creation of m&>> Joule. 

in the date of nature corrupted is every Son of man, a very majfe 
cf corruption and frailty, yea vanity and abominable filthineiie, 
who Avinketb iniquity like water as it is written, lob i<>. 16. 
Wherefore, Let no man glory in any naturall power or preroga* 
tive, nor hope to ftand by his owne ftrength, much leffc to merit 
orpurchafe by any works of nature or power of freewill, the 
ieaft grace fupcrnaturali, which tends to bring him to heavenly 
happineife and glory unchangeable: For man , as heeisJfc/3 and 
blwd , that is, an earthly creature, cannot poflibly come to 
Vfe 2* inherite the Kingdome of God, I Cor. 15. 50. 
Agaiiift Secondly., this difcovcrs the madnefTe and defperate blind - 

Pelagians ne {f e of Pelagians and Papifts,who teach, that a man by the right 
^L 1 ^* uieofhis naturall power and free-will may procure fpirituall 
grace from God, and even the Spirit of regeneration, and faith 
working by love, by which hee may merit and purchafe to him- 
fclfe eternall life , and heavenly glory and felicity, as a juft and 
condigne reward of his works. If Angels cannot bee made 
fieadfafi and trufty without fupcrnaturali light adtfed to them; 
much leffe can earthy man, who by fin is become filthy and abo- 
minable , worke out his owne lalvation by meriting and pur* 
chafing the heavenly reward. Oh let us ail hate and abhorre 
all fuch conceipts , which wholly tend to the fiuirrating and 
evacuating of Chrifts merits and fatisfa&ion, and to make them 
feeme vaine and needlefFe. Be not deceived , God is not tnocktdi 
they who fo w fuch tares , and feed like fwine on the huskes of 
their owne works, and on things which nature teacketh, they 
are enemiesrto the grace- of God, which is given onely in 
Iefus Chrift,and togctherwith him by communion of his Spirit. 
The crca, After the creation of mans Body of duft, immediatly fol- 
tion of lowes the creation of his Soule; which is to bee underftood 
mans j n thefe words : And breathed into hit no fibrils the breath of 

c * life, and man was a living Soule; For no fooner was mans body 
brought into frame,but God breathed into him the breath of life ;that 
is,caufed him to breathe with the breath of life, eventhofevi- 
tall fpirits which are the band of union by which the Soule is 
united to the body; and in the firft inltant wherein he created 
the vitali fpirits, he alfo created the fpiritual fubftance ofhisSoule 
in his body immediatly of nothing by his omnipotent hand. 


Gods image in which Mm ivai created \ naturall onely. 1 8 j 

Some are opinion, that mans Soule was firft created a Spirit, Opinions. 
fobfifting by it felfc before his body was formed j and when j, 
the body was formed a tit fubjed: for it, then inltandy God 
infuled it into the body, and by it did give life and breath to the 


Some thinke , that the body was formed , and the Soule 2* 
in the lamcinftant created together with it, as Vamafeene lib. fide, cap. 12. ^Aquinas, and others : And Qrill thinks, that 
Gods breathing into mans face the breath of Lire, was tile infu- 
fion of the holy Ghoft into man; and that man in the creation 
had the holy Spirit given to dwell in him, and was fantfli- 
fied and endowed with fupernaturall grace andholincfle. 

Some thinke , that Gods breathing into mans nofthrils was *; 
his infpiring into man a rcafonable Soule, as a part of himfclfe: 
fo Rabbj Mofes Maymmides. 

But by breathing into mans face , I doe not understand any 4? 
materiall breathing or blaft, but that God, in caufing breath of 
fife to breathe through mans nofthrils , did withali create the 
Settle in the body % and by meanes of this reafonablc Saulc crea- 
ted in the body, and united to the body by vitall fpirits and 
breath, man became a living Soule, that is, a living reafonablc 
creature, living onely a perfect naturall,not an holy fpirituall life. 
The Apoftlc expounds thefc words in this Senfe, 1 Cor. 15. 
and doth make this a maine difference betweene the firft man 
Adam> and Chrift the fecond Adam, that the firft Adam was 
onely a naturall Man endowed with a naturall living Soule; 
but to be a quickping Spirit , that is, to bee fanftificd by the holy 
Ghoft, and endowed with fpirituall life, is proper to Chrift 
in his creation, for in him the Spirit dwelt from his firft con- 

Hence weelearne, That the image of God in which mans j) $ [h-lnel 
was created, was onely naturall and did confift in naturall No fuper- 
fifts y which naturally flow from his reafonable Soule, and not naturall 
in any fupernaturall gifts of "the holy Ghoft; as true holineiTe,S iftsintnc 
and the like: The words of Saint <P*ul laft before named doc^ 16 ^ 
fully prove this. I will here onely addc one ftrong Reafon am * 
and invincible argument to prove it fully. 

And that is drawne from the mutability of man in the crca- jR W /i„; 

9 tion, 4 

1 86 On$ imtge in which mm "tow createdjnatwallonefy. 

m i — — _______ —————— —————— .». 

tion, and f rom his fall, by which Gods image was defaced in 
him. For it is moft certains, that hee who hath in him that 
image of God which confifts in true holineffe, and in fpirituall and 
fupernaturall gifts ^ tee is not mutable nor fubjeftto fail away, 
becaufe he: hath the holy Ghoft dwelling in him, who is greater 
then he that dwels in the JVorl^ i hh,^ that is, then the Divell 
who worketh powerfully in the children of difobedicnce. 
For all true holincffe , and ail fpirituall graces are the proper 
worke of the holy Gboft dwelling in man, as all the Scriptures 
teftifie. But Adam in innocency and honour lodged not therein 
one nighty Vfalme 49. 12. The Divell at the firft onfetgavebim 
the foile in his greatest ftrength of nature and bed: eft ate ; which 
Divell with all his temptations and all the powers of dark- 
nefle and fpirituall wickedneffes, the little ones of Chrifts flocke 
doe overcome by the power of the holy Ghoft and his graces, 
which they have in their frail e earthen veflels. Therefore the 
image of God in which man was created, was naturall onc- 

Vfe 1 ^s difcovers Gods good neffe, free grace, and bounty be- 
Our cftatc y^nd all meafure, and all conceipt and comprehenfion of hu- 
becter by mane reafon, in that it tliewcs how God, by mans fall, malice 
regencra- and corruption Which made him a (lave of Hell and Death, 
iion,then fc^ ta ke occafion to bee more kind and bountiful! toman, and 
by crea-, to ^ cw more j ove anc j g OOC | ne fle to him , by repairing the 
ruines of his fall, and renuing him after a better image then that 
which hce gave him in the creation, and making him better 
after his (in and fall , then hee was before in the ftatc of inno- 
cency, when hce had of himfelfe do inclination to any fin or 
cvill, and bringing him to grace fpirituall in Chrift, and to an 
image which cannot bee defaced and to a ftatc firme and un- 
changable: when wee rightly confidef'thefe things, wee have 
no caufe to murmur at Gods voluntary fuffering of man to fall 
from his eftate, which was perfect and pure naturall ; but ra- 
ther to rejoyce in God, and to bleffc his name, and to magnifie 
toisgoodneffe, for turning his fell to our higher rifingand exal- 
tation, and lifting us up by Chrift from hell and mifery, to hea- 
venly glory which never fedcth, and to a ftate fpirituall and 
fepernaturall not fub jeel: to change and alteratioDo 


Ihe Saints regenerate cannot fall away findy, \ 87 

Secondly, this Do&rine overthrowes the foundation and yfi 2. 
falfe ground , upon which Papifts, and Pelagians doe build, and No Apo'- 
feeke to eftabliili their falfe and erroneous opinion concerning fta f» € ©f 
the apoftafie of the Saints regenerate, and their falling from Saiafs - 
fupernaturali grace and lofing the Spirit of regeneration; which 
errour they feeke to eftablifh by this argument, Becaufe Adam 
in innocency had the holy Ghoft ilied on him, and was endued 
with fpirituall and fupernaturall gifts of holinefle., from which 
hee did fall by fin and tranfgreflion. But here wee fee there is 
no fuch matter ; Adams image was onely naturall uprightneffe; 
notfpirituall , fupernaturall , and true hotweffe. Hee was but a 
perfe^r naturall Man , and a living Soule ; Chrift, the fecond 
AiUm^ onely is called the qnickning Spirit, becaufe through him 
onely God fheds the holy Ghoft on men; and hence it is, that 
though Adam did fall away from his eftate , which was onely 
naturally yet the Saints regenerate and called to the ftate of 
grace in Chrift, can never fall away totally nor finally into apo- 
ftacy, becaufe they have the feed of 'God , even the holy Ghoft 
dwelling and abiding in them. 

Chap* XII L 

Of the wonytns creation in particular. How without her all was n$t 
good.Wvman not made to be a few ant .Of giving names to the crea" 
tures. No creature but woman a mat companion for man, Vfes. 
Of the rib whereof woman was made. Of Adams deepejleepe:Five 
Joints thence collettcd. Of Gods bringing Eve to Adam; and 
two Points thence. Of Adams accepting Eve for his wife, and 
calling her bone, &c. with divers points thence \Oj their nak^d- 
nejfe : demon Sir atingtbe perfection of the creation, 

G £#.2.18,19,20, 21. And the Lord faid , It u not good that the 
man jhould be alone J will make an helpe meet for him. And eve- 
ry beafl^and everj fowle God brought to *Adam> to fee what he* 
would call them,&c. And *ddam gave nanus to them all : but for 
Adam there iwM not found anhtlpcmettjor him* And the Lord 
' ■ O a Cod 

1 8 8 §odfore/aV> it Km not good for Man to be alone. 

God caufedadeepefleep to fall upon ts4dam y andhe flept\and he toeke 
one of his ribs and made it a Woman, and brought her to the t 
Man, &c. 

Thcfc words, and the reft which follow in this Chapter, con- 
taine a particular defcription of the creation of the Woman, 
which before was touched generally and fummarily, flap. I. 
37. in thefe words, Male and female created hee them. In this 
Hiftory of the Womans creation, wee may obferve three fpe- 
ciall things : Firft, the preparation to it, or the antecedents im- 
mediatly going before it. Secondly , the creation it ielfe. 
Thirdly , the confequents which followed upon it. 

In the preparation , wee may obferve three diftincT: things: 
Firft, Gods counfell and refolution for mans well being,?**/* 1 8: 
Secondly, Gods fitting of the LMan a work? to view the crea- 
tures, and toexercifehisreafon and naturall wifcdomc in na- 
ming them,?**/* 19. Thirdly ,thz inequality VjhichtAdam found 
in the creatures and the unfitness of them for his coavcrfation, 

firft-. Mofes brings in the Lord God confulting with him- 
fclfe, and according to his eternall Counieil concluding that it 
was not good for Man to bee alone , and refolding that nee will 
make an helpc meet for. him: For thefe words, And Q*d[aid y 
are not to be underftood of anyfound of words uttered by God; 
but of Gods eternall Counfell, purpofe , and fbrc-know ledge 
now beginning to manifeftit felfe by outward action and exe- 
cution, as a mans mind is manifeflcd by his fpeech. The things, 
which God foreknew inhis counfell, andpurpofed,aretwo: 
Firft,that it was not good for man to bee alone. Secondly, that hee 
All good, would make an he Ipe meet for him. Hence it may ieeme ftrangc 

^oo/tT which God faith > tbat an y thin 8 wllicn ne had madc ^ ould n °t be 
nottc^bce &°°^ : ^ er ^ n0t ^ ce ma ^ C rnan ** one * n d fingle at the firft? 

aIone:how. And did not hee make every thing good, efpecially man created 
inhis owne image? Was not the image of God, in which hee 
created man,fully and perfectly good? 

To this doubt I anlwer, that the Man was created good and 
perfect after the likenefle of God, and there was no defect i» 
his beingandjHbftance: But yet, as all other crcaturcs,though they 
were made gecd$ and there was no evill in themj yet they were 


Mam Exaltation intended in his oreatioru 1 8 

uotfotwdas man\ fo maa,though as hec was created in the image 
of God, was good, yea in good nefle farre excelled other earthly 
crtatures; yet hee was not lb good, but that hec might bee made 
more {rood, and created in an image of God more excellent then 
that wherein hee was firft made, even in the holy image of the 
heavenly Adam Chrift , which farre excels and is immutable: 
Yea, wee finde by experience that many things which are good 
in themfelvesy are*<not good for dUpurpofrs; fire is good in it ielfe, 
and for many tiles ; but not to bee eaten; and lb many other crea- 
tures are good, as the flclh of beafts for mans meat, but not with- 
out bread and fait, nor raw: So man was created good and fit 
ro rule all other living creatures, even coniidcrcd alone inhim- 
felfe; but it was not good for the bringing of all Gods purpofes 
to paiTe that man fhoutd bee alone; it was farre better that a 
Woman fhould bee created meet for him, for the procreation 
of mankind, for the incrcafe of Gods Church, and for the in- 
carnation Qf Chrift, and the bringing forth of him the (rkjfed 
feedofthe&o'man, in whom God reveales all his goodneflc and 
good pleafure. Here then wee may learne two points of in- 
ftru&ion. ' ' _ . 

Firft, that as God from ail eternity in his etcrnallcouncell^'^*". •* 
immutably purWed, fo in the fipft creation of man hee (hewed, J" Ckrift" 
that hee intended all things which hee hath brought to paffem^;'^. 
and by the' incarnation of Chrift, and in the gathering together tended 
of his elecVChurch by Chrift, and that hee had in his pur pofe then the 
the cxaitatioti.t>i man to an higher and better eftate then that« ca » 0I V 
in which hee firft created him. For it is mod cieare and ma- 
nifeft, that Adam, being created in the image of God, inallup- 
rightnefle and perfection of nature; and having ail the vifiblc 
World to view, and to contemplate upon Gods wifedome and 
workmanfhip therein, and all the creatures to rule over, and 
all things neceffary for worldly delight , needed no more fox 
natural! and earthly felicity: But yet for all this God faid, it was 
not good that man fbouldbee alone ; that is, it was not good for 
that which God intended, that is, for the obtaining of etcrnall 
felicity in and by Chrift, and for the full manifeftation of God* 
goodncfleand gicryin and upon mankind. This is that truth, 
which is fo often teftified by our Saviour and his Apoftles* 

O J where 

i p o Nothing happens to the cmtm not foreknowne to God. 

where they tell hs , that God prepared a Kingdom* for hU eleft 
from the beginning of the World; and that as an ele ft number was 
chwicn in Chrift before the foundation of the World; fo Chrifts in- 
carnation* death, fetisf action and mediation were ordained be* 
fore all worlds, as Matth. a ? . 34. and Eph, 1 . 4. 
VJ C i* Firft, this fheweth againft all Atheilis, Pagans,and Hereticks 
that nothing comes to pafle by chance, nothing without the 
rbrcfight and foreknowledge of God : but hec law before hec 
crea ted the Wcrld what fhouid befall every creature, and with- 
out his will permit ting, his no evil! comes to paffe,& without wil 
ordaining, and his hand working, no good can come to any 
creature; all things arc according to his foreknowledge, and 
thcreis no place for idlefuppofttions ofvainemen. 
fc e 2 t Secondly, as the wicked- may here for their terrour take no- 
tice,that all their evil deeds are forefeeneand foreknowne ofGod, 
and hec hath juft vengance laid up in ftore for tljgm: So the 
godly may comfort themfelves againft alt Calumnies, Slanders* 
and falfe witnefles- all are knowne to God, and hec will in the 
end make the truth knowne,and bring their caufe to light. 
■0fe$. Thirdly, wee are hereby ftirrcd up to all diligence in Gods 
fcrvice, and that betimes, feeing God hath fo long before hand 
ordained and prepared all good things for us : All our time 
fpent in praifc and thanks before him, is nothing to the "time 
wherein hec hath (hewed love to us, in preparing good for us 
before and from the beginning of the World. 
D&r. 1, Secondly , in that it is faid, of man created in Gods image 
in full perfection of nature, that it-was not good 9 that bee Jbould 
bee alone\ Hence wee learne, that the image of God , and the 
ftate wherein man was firft created, is not abfolutely the beft 
which man can have; but that in Chrift there is abetter image, 
and a, more excellent ft ate and condition provided for him, 
which is bell of ail. This is folly proved, 1 Cor. 15. where 
the Apoftlc (hewes , that the image of the heavenly Adamis 
farrc above the image of the earthly, and that the Kingdome 
which is prepared in Chrift for the clevis fuch asflefi and blend, 
that is , naturall man cannot inherite e 
Yfe % Tfiisihcwcs, that wee gainc more by Chrift, then wee loft 
in Adam\ and God by mans fell, is become wore bountifull to 


Woman an belpe and furtherance to havsray happkes. i y i 

mankind: And wee who in Chrift have our hope, have no More 
caufe to repine at L>ods decreeing, willing and furferiHg of mans 8 a ' ne ^ » 
fill, nor to bee impatient under the afflictions which thereby t hcn Joft 
come upon us; feeing the end of all is glory and bliffe, and a ^ Ad*m« 
crowne too high and precious for Adam in the ftate of in- 

Thefecond thing in Gods councelland purpofc is, thathce 
will make an belpe meet for man. Here againe it may fee me 
Ilrange , that %y$dam Lhould need an helpe in the (late of inno- 
cency; for helpe is required when a man is in need, and wants 
necefTaries for avoiding evill or gaining iome good ; which 
Adam, being created in Gods image and having all the World 
at will, fecmed not to want. But to this I anlwere, that by an 
helpe here, wee are to underftand not an helpe to refill: any evill, 
or to gaine fome naturall good which hec wanted; but an helpe 
for obtaining an higher and more blejfed eftate, even the fvpernatti- 
rall and heavenly e'llate of grace and glory in Chrift, thejeed of the 
Woman : Whence wee may learne, 

That the Woman was created not to bee a fervant toman, D % r ; He 
to ierve his naturall necejfity; for hee needed no fuch hclpe Woman 
or fcrvice in that cftatc, being made good and perfeel with not made 
naturall perfection : but to bee an helpe and furtherance to hea- to bee a 
venlj happinejfe , and in things which tend thereunto. And al- f crvam * 
bcit the Woman by being firjf in the tranfgreffion> and a meanes 
of mans fall is made in her defire fubjelt toman, and to his rule 
and dominion over her; yet by Chrift the promifed feedofthe 
WemAfZy fhec is reftorcd to her firft honourable eftate, to bee an 
helpe to man in heavenly things, and a meanes to winncman, 
and to bring him to God in Chrilt by her chafi and holy conver- 
fation y and by fhewing a lively example of piety, and of the true 
feare of God, and giving due reverence to her husband, as Saint 
Peter teftifieth, I Pet. i. 23. 

This Doclrine is of good ufc: Rrft, to teach men how to ufe vr 
and eileeeme their Wives, and wherein cfpecially to feckc their * c l 
helpe even in hcazenly things % and in earthly and temporall, fb 
farre as they fcrve to further them in fpirituall. If men could 
bee brought to underftand and beleevethis, they would bee 
carefull tomame in the Lord , and to match themfelves with 

O 4 Wives- 

i £ z Adams Nam ail no) on trim in nammg the creatures. 

Wives of the true religion , godly and vertuous , well ap- 
proved f#r piety , faith and knowledge , and truly fearing 
ffc 2. Secondly, to direct Women, how they ought to,beare, 
and behave themielves towards their husbands; and wherein 
they ought to drive, ftudy, and endeavour to bee helps to them, 
even in the way to heaven; Let the daughters of the curfed Ido- 
latrous Canaankes beare this juft brand, that, like Iez.abci y they 
are ioares, and ftirre up their husbands to wickcdnefTe, and to 
Idolatry and cruelty. 
Iff £, To reprove Men and Women, who onely or chicfely feekc 
fiefhly, carnal! and worldly helpe, content, profit, and plcafure 
one from another, and in their mtituall fociety and conjugall 
communion; and fe quite fwerve and ftray from the rule of 
thisDo&rine; where wee have much matter of reproofe mi* 
niftred to us , both of men who take Wives according to their 
lull, and greedy defirc of wealth and riches, not for religion 
and the feareof God; or who make drudges and flaves of their 
Wives whom God made to bee helps meet for them; andalfo 
of Women who pvc themielves to bee no helps to their huf- 
bands except itbeeforthe W 7 orld, no furthcrcrs at all but rather 
pui-backsandhinderersinthe way to heaven,] and in heavenly 
and fpirimall things. 
Of giving The fecond :hing,in the preparation to th« Womans creation, 
names to |s,CTods letting of Adam a wor ke to vietv ail living creatures] and 
the cica- to employ his reafon and wiiedome in giving names to them. 
Where wee are to note and obferve, Firit, that here is no men- 
tion made of the living creatures in the Sea, but onely of thefc 
which God formed out of the ground, that is, beads, and cat- 
tell, and fovvics of the aire all which were ready at hand, and 
God might quickly prefent, and make to palTe before Adam 
all kinds of them, thathec might view and name them. Se- 
condly , wee here may obferve the intent and purpofeofGod 
in bringing them toiddam-, to wit, tnc cxerciic and triallof 
Adams naturaU reafon , wtfedeme, and knrtvledgc ; which were 
snade manifeft: by his giving to every kind fit names, which 
God approved and confirmed. Thirdly, the manifeftation of 
Adams wiiedome, and Gods confirming of his judgement, 


Htyturail abilities cawiot/uflain aga'm/i Spiritual! emmies . 1 $)$ 

which hcc {hewed in naming every kind of earthly creature 
wich a flame agreeable to the nature of it. For whatsoever Adam 
called every living creature, that was the ntweofit^ that is, that 
name was ratified by God. Yea alio, becauie there was no uic 
of names, whereby the creatures might bee knovvnc to any 
other or revealed , ( there being as yet no man befides Ad«m 
lumielfc, nor the Woman yet made to whom hee might fhew 
them by their names) I am induced to thinke, that Adam gave 
iuch a lit and proper name agreeable to the nature and qualities 
of every creature, that the crcaturc,bcing called by that name, 
would come to Adum vvhenfoever hee called upon it; fuchwas 
the obedience of the creatures to Man, and fuch was mans wife- 
dome to rulf them, and fo excellent was his knowledge of their 
fcverall natures and qualities. From which obfervations thus 
opened weemay lcarne: 

That, in the i'tatc of innocency in the firit creation, m?.* had Qoclrivt-. . 
r > 8 riAturall kriowled^c cfzM naturall things,arifing and fprin- Mm pa- 
ging immediatly from his naturall foule, and the powers and fc & ! " ■*■ 
faculties thereof, which were naturall principles created in him ; ^J^c" *" 
he had no need to bee. taught by any inftrucror,™ any art or ' * 
knowledge lit ibv his ftate and condition , nor to learne by 
experience as now we 'doe fincc the fall. 

Ne w r ,iceing Adim was thus perfeel in naturall knowledge cf p> # 
ah things which concerned bis natural! u\ate and conditioned The bci^ 
ye: wss leduced by the woman ,& the ierpentrThis ferves to teach nawraU 
us, that no, ^aturall.kuowledge, gifts, and abilities can uphold knowledgt 
and mflainc a man againft ipirituail enemies, and temptations ; f a ?? 0t U? * 
that power is propertp.fupernaturail grace , neither can natural! 
rcafon dive into the depth of heavenly and fupernaturall things. 
If naturall wit and reafon could have conceived the fpirituall 
meaning of the tree of life, and of the tree of knowledge of good 
and evil 7 ; furely Adam would .firft have eaten of the tree of life, 
and not by any mcanes have beenc tempted and drawn to eat 
o^the tree of knowledge of good and cvill : For he who was 
created good, could in no cafe wittingly have neglecled the 
tree of life, and delired the other upon any faffe luggeflicn. 
Wherefore let us not build upon nature , but wholly u$ongrace % f 
iatl:ings which concernecternallhte and heavenly happineffe, 


1 9 4 The creatures no fit companions /or Mam. 

He that foiloivethnaturallreafon for his guide in the way to 
heaven, may eafily bee carried afide, and fall into the crooked 
wayes of errour,which lead unto hell, and fpeedily fall into the 
pit of dedruclion. 

The third thing to be noted in the preparation to the wo- 
mans creation is, the inequalitie which Adam found in all the 
creatures to be his mates and companions, and their unfitnefle 
for his convention to be an helpe meet for him: this is in thefc 
words, but for Adam t fare was net found an helpe meet for him* 
The words fecme to found , as if God had brought the crea- 
tures before Adam, to lee if either be himfelfe, or Adam , could 
find one among them all fit to bee a con fort for Adam and a 
meet help. But the purpoie and intent of God was toimploy 
Adams wit, and to take an experiment of it, as is before noted: 
And as for God, hee knew well enough what was to bee found 
among all the creatures , hec needed not either to fcekc for 
Adam t or to fet Adam to feekca meet helpe among them : Yea, 
heehadfaid before, I will r*ake an helpe meet for him. The mea- 
ning is, that when Adam had viewed and named all kinds of 
earthly creatures, hec found them all fofarre inferiour to him- 
ielfe , arid lb unlike in nature, that they could not all yeeldiiim 
an help meet for him. The word WEE which is here tranfia- 
ted, meet for him , fome tfould have it to fignifie aeainfthim^ 
which is moll abfurd; For the Woman was not made a perverfc 
creature to thwart Man; then (hec had beenc a Croffeandan 
Hell, not an help. Toftatns would hare this \Vord to fignifie 
contrary to him, becaufe the Woman in her naturali members 
or parts is contrary to Man; which is alfo abfurd. Neither doth 
this word fignifie as one before /#«*,that is, as Kimchi expounds 
it, as one to ft -and before him , and to attend him as a fervant; for 
then God would not have made her of his owne fubftancej 
but of a meaner and inferiour matter: But the word fignifics, 
aso«<? which is his fecond fclfe, made in the fame forme like him, 
as a piliurc is drawne in a table fet juft before a mans face, and 
over againft him, that it may in all parts anfwer to his fhapc 
and feature. Such an help Adam could not fmde among all 
earthly creatures ; but fuch a one God purpofed, and refolvcd 
to make for him,even one who (houid be his fecond felfe, made of 


Humane jocttty and corftety mon a°rtat blefstng. I c? 5 

his owne fubftance, and in the lame image of God ,and confiding 
of a living reafonablc Soule (ashee did ) and of a body in all 
parts and members, and in forme and ihapc fully like to his body, 
(onely the difference of fex excepted.) This common fenfe and 
experience doth fhew and teach, and therefore, this is the true 
ienicand meaning of this phcaie, / mil make an help meet fsr 
him. And hence wee learne: 

That man created in the image of God dothfo farre in nature, Do&r. 
former and fubftance exccll all living creatures, birds, beads and None bat 
living things on catth, that none oi them all is a meet confort Woman a 
or companion for him to converie with. Some delight hec mc ^com- 
may take in ruling over them,and in their ferviceand obedience; j^° n for 
but no true or iolid content in their fociety and converfation. 
As Adsim found this in the flate of innocency, and in his pure 
uncorrupt nature; foall Adams fons of the bed temper ever ab- 
horred to bee excluded from humane fociety, and to convcrfc 
with birds and beads. David counted it worfe then death to 
live among wild beafts in the defarts, and complained bitterly 
of it; Pfalme^i. and could not bcefatisfied tillhce had drawne 
to him all difeontented perfins , and them who durdnot fhew 
their heads for debt, 1 Sam. 22, 2. So did auftcrc Eiuih t when 
letjibel made him flee for his life into the wild erneffe, 1 King. 
19. And never any of Gods Saints delighted to live in the 
Trildernetfe onely, among beads and birds without hinranc fo- 
ciety, except in times of cruc\[ perftcutio*, as appeared, Hefo. 1 r . 
or for fome fpeciall trialLand temptation, as our Saviour, Markc 
1. 13. and his forerunner M»the Baptift>Luk. 1. lad verfe, 
to harden him and make him audere, and a fecond Eliab. 

This admonitheth us to edeeme the fociety of men as a yr € \ 
great blcfling of God ; and not to fct our delight on dogsjiorfes, ° 

hawkes , and hounds, more then in the company of men , as 
many doc, which is an argument that they are degenerate from 
the nature of men. 

Secondly, this difcovers the beaftly dotage of many Romifti Vfc zJ. 
Saints, and of the Monkes, and Anachorites of the Church of 
Rome, who count itan high point of perfection to live in caves, 
and denncs, and cottages in the wilderneflc remote from all 
tamanc fociety 3 and to convcrfc onely whith beads, yea and 


1 96 - Of the matter of Womcms creation, 

was made. 

to preach unto them, as their Saint Francis is by them recor- 
ded to have done,and have called ravenous Wolves his bretheren, 
God made man zfociable creature t to delight in humane fociety, 
snd hath given him a mouth and tongue to fpcake his minde to 
others, who can with reaibn hear and underftand him. Hee 
who will follow thrift muft notlookc on his owne things, 
but on the things of others ; and muft impart all his holy me- 
ditations to as many as hee can, ifhee hath any in him: Other- 
wife hee hides his talent y and covers his candle umdtrabujbell y 
which favours of Satanicall envy , hath no rclilli of Christian 
kindneiTeand charity. 
Of die rib, I might here obferve the conformity of Woman in her na- 
whereof ture and frame unto man, and the fwect hannoay and concord 
JJ52J5- which, by the law of nature and creation, ought to betweene 
Man and Woman; but I have in part touched it before, and (hill 
have more occafion hereafter. 

I proceed to the creation it felfe, laiddownc in the 21. and 
nx. Verfes : wherein I obferve, Firft, the matter of which the 
Woman was made,to wit,/* Rib of the Man, Verfe 21. Secondly, 
the manner, Verfe 22; In the matter; Firft, it is fhewed, that 
God canfed a deep fleepe to fall upon Adam, fuch as makes a marl 
ienfcleffe of any thing which is done to him; fothe Hebrew 
wordnQ"nm fignifies. This fleepe was not naturally but an 
extraordinarie fleepe which God made to fall on him; a fleepe 
which came not from any violence done to nature but by the 
power full hand of God making man to fleepe quietly, fothat 
liee did not feele what, God did to him. Secondly, it isfaid, 
that in this deep fleepe God did take one of Adams Ribs, and 
clcfed up the flefi in fteadofit. Here divers queftions are moved 
by divers interpreters: 1. Whether it was one Rib, or a paire 
of ribs. 2. W T hethcr it was one of Adams neceflary Ribs, one 
of the twelve, which every man hath naturally in his fide; or 
whether an extraordinary Rib, made in Adam for thepurpofe. 
.3 . Whether Adam was call into ftupidity to take away painc and 
feare,or whether for fomc other caufe. 

Somethinke, that if it was a Rib created in Adamabwe thi 
■ ordinary number^ then Adam was made a monftcr. Others fay, 
that if it was an ordinary Rib; then Adam was afterwards a may- 

0) thz manner of IVonums creation. \$y 

med man, and wanted a neccflary naturall part. But. J conceive 
this to bee the truth: 

Firft, that it was but one Rib, or at leaft one pake ofRib$;fo 

Secondly, it was hot one of Adams neceftary Ribs, required 
to nuke hi;-n a perfect man; but a Rib above the ordinary num- 
ber, which God created in <s*d*moi purpofe, and yet Adam 
\vas no rnonfter, neither vfas it a iupertiuous part: for as Adam 
was created the common flock and root of all mankind ; foit 
was requiiite that hee inould have one Rib extraordinary crea- 
ted in him above other Men, whereof the Woman wastobee^ 
made, and he nevertheleffe remaine perfect and complete as any 
other man afterwards. 

Thirdly, tAdams deep fleece was not to take away fenfe of Oi Adam* 
paine; but a myftcry of building the Church out of Chrifts death, acc P fl <*P» 
under which hee flept to the third day. And it is faid, that 
God doled up tne flefh in (had thereof , or in the place 
thereof; not that God left a scarrc or hollow place, or that God 
created flefh to fill up the place of the Rib; butonely clofedup 
the flelh in the place where hee tooke out the Rib, io that 
no scar or print did there appeare, but man appeared mo ft per- 
fc<fr,and without maymeor fignc of any wound, 

In the fecond place, for the manner of the Womans creation, 
it is laid, that G§dmade this Rib a Woman or bmldcd it tip to bee 
a Woman , as the words run in the Hebrew; which word im- 
plies , that as children are derived of their parents to build up 
their familie; fo the Woman was derived from Adam to build 
up his great family, mankind, of his owne nature and fubftance; 
and that his pofterity might fpring wholly from him, both in 
refpecl of himfelfe, and of his wife their common Mother, 
which was taken out of him. I omitneedleiTequcdioiis, and 
ridiculous collections which fome have here made: as, that the 
Woman being made of a- none is hard hearted, and fuch like. 
The profitable points which I obferve from hence , arc thefe 

I : ir(t, wee are heretaughtby mans falling into adeepfleepe, £ e ft rt j^ 
fc-.felefle iike death ,that thcWoman might bee taken and formed 
*tu of him/That Go.i in the creation forefaew ed ,that the fpoulc 
" - of 

i p 8 Woman mu/i pve pnhemimnce^nddm refptB to 'Man. 

Out of of the fecond Adam Chrift ,even the true Church fliould be pur- 
Chrift dy- chafed by the death of Chrift, and the blood drawne out of his 
ing the pc( e . allc i Chrift, by his JUepe in death, {hould make way to is&fi 

u!f"d ChlS and buildu P his church - That the firft Adam and his Wife in 
her creation were the types and figures of Chrift and his fpoufe 
the Church, I need not ftand to prove; the Apoftle hath done it 
fiifficiently,^^ 5.25,26,32. 
yr eu This ferves for much heavenly inftru&ion; as firft, to put us 
in mindc of the unity which is betweene Chrift and his Church; 
and to make us, as wee defire, to bee a true and chafte fpoufe of 
Chrift; alfo to labour to be fpiritually united to him,& never reft 
till wee feele and perceive that wee are borne of Gods immor- 
tall feed, even of his Spirit. 
yfi 2. Secondly, to make us afcribe. our being wholly to Chrift, as 
1 wee arc the true, holy, and regenerate Church and people of 
God, and of the heavenly family. Thirdly, to make us love 
Chrift, and to meditate on his death with all holy reverence 
and tender afte&ion, as the thing by which wee are purchased; 
yea to make us ready to conformc our felves to Chrift in his 
a death, by fuftering for the good of his Church. Fourthly, to 
make us fee , that the creation was as it were a (hadow of Gods 
reftauration of the World by Chrift, and that the reftauration 
is the fubftance by which the creation is perfected. 
DoUr 2 Secondly , God made the Woman of a Rib^ which was a part 
9 ' of the mans body; which tcachethus, that Woman muft by the 
courfe of nature yecld toman t\\cprcheminence, as being made 
yr e out of him; this the Apoftlealfo teacheth 1 Cor. 1 1. 7, 8. And 
' this admoniftieth Women to give due refpecl: to their huf- 
bands, as is meet, in the Lord, and not to ufurpe rule and autho- 
rity over men. 
£ # Thirdly* God made Woman of Mans fubftance; which tea- 

" cheth, that Woman is neare and ought to bee deare to Man, as 
a part of himfelfe; which the Apoftle confjrmes, Ephef.$. And 
here all harih and tyrannicall husbands arc j uftly noted; and their 
doings reproved. 
Deflr t 4. Fourthly, the making of the Woman of a bone, afolidpart, 
teacheth us, that fhee is made to bee a/olid hetpe and (lay to man, 
and ought fo to be in his family .And hereby husbands arc directed 


Wives are aiTtayes to accompany their husbands* i y p 

to efteeme their wives, as the ftay of their family. And wives 

Fifthly, in that God madethe Woman not out of mans head Do ^ r 
nor fret, but out of his fid: > hereby hee hath taught us, that wo- wives * t 
men muft not bee too high and proud as the head, nor too low contmuall 
vafials as the feet , but conforts and companions of their huf- companu 
bands in the whole courfe of their life, partakers of the fame ons of our 
grace, and of the fame honours and dignities; yoke-fcllowes in m$ * 
the fame labours and cares in this World, and coheires of the 
fame glory in the World to come. The wife-Man confirmes 
this fully by the defcriptionof a vertuous Woman, which is 
reformed after the true image, in which fhee was created, Prov. 
31. For hee describes her to bee one who conforts with her 
husband in labour and provident care, and drawes equally with 
him in the fame yoke , and partakes of the fame honour, and 
refpeel: both in publikc and private. The holy Prophets alio 
and Ap6ftles fhew,' that the Woman is made to bee Mans in- 
feparabk companion, Mai. 2. 14. even the defire of his eye, and 
the;*j of his glory, -on whom efpecially hee fetshis mind, Eztch ¥ 
24 16. and that mans delight muft bee to have her continually 
at his fide, and her delight -muft bee to prefent hcrfeifb to his 
eyes as a looking-glafle, in which hee may behold his owne glory ^ 
even the image of God, in which hee was formed firft, ?nd iliec 
after him, 1 Cor. 7. 10, 11. where the Apoftle forbids the 
Wife to depart from her Husband, and the Husband to put away 
his Wife, and their defrauding one another of mutuall comfort 
by feparating and living apart. For as man is the image and glory 
efGod;fo the Woman is the glory of the Man, 1 Cor. 11. 7. in 
whom man may behold, as in a glaflc, the image of God in 
which hee was created. And therefore the holy Apoftles 
who were married, as Peter, and the bretheren of the Lord, in 
their travelling to preach the Gofpell, did lead about their wives, 
as Saint Paul teftirieth , 1 Or.y. 5. Alfo Saint Peter fpeakes 
plainciy to this purpofe, 1 Pet. 3.7, where hee in/oynes huf- 
bands to dwell with their Wives according to knowledge, 
giving honour to the Wife as to the weaker veffell, and as being co- 
heires of the grace of life- that is, as a man is indued with more 
knowledge , fo it is his duty to dwell and converfe with his 


too Man and Wife muft faynttj draft undtr the fame yoke. 

Wife wifely as a man of knowledge: and as wee tender thofe ne- 
ceffary veflells which are uferull for us, and the more weake 
and brittle they are, the more wee take care for them, and have 
a csntinuall eye over them ; fo men ought to bee more careful! 
over their Wives, becaufe they arc the weaker fex ; and to give 
them more refpe3 9 honour and ftiield, and more to efteemc of 
them by having a conftant eye to wards them, and keeping them 
in their fight and prefence, as much as may bee- and fo much 
more, becaufe tfcey arc coheires of the or ace of life, and muft draw 
j oyntly together as under the fame yoke in the way to heavenly 
yfc i . This Doctrine of truth , written in our hearts in the creation , 
fnould bee a guide and direction unto us all in the whole courfe 
of our lives : It directs Men how to edeeme their Wives, and 
tobeare themfclvcs towards them ; and Women how to be- 
have themfelves before their Husbands 5 that the one ought not 
saft the other behind as an unfit and unworthy mate and com- 
panion : the Man muft not run too farre before, and leave his 
Wife behind , either in worldly eftate, or in grace and in the 
way to heaven; nor the Wife draw back and lagge behind, ci- 
ther through carelefenefs, or mean conceipt of her owne frame, 
nature and fbx ; but both muft draw cheeke by cheeke, and fide 
by fide,and by joynt ftrength and endcarour draw on,&pull,and 
put forward one another, as a couple that arc by the yoke which 
God impofed on them in the creation fait tied together. This 
G'flf. *i 1 6. is the will and law of God y and they that walke by this true rule, 
peace, profperity and bletfing fhali bee on them all their dayes, 
and theend of their labour (hall bee anctcrnall Sabbath in hea- 
Yfe a. Secondly , it ferves to reprove the great corruption which is 
daily feene among Men and Women in this milerable World, 
bymeanes of which the World appearcs to bee very much out 
of frame. Some men, like Turves and Italians, make no account 
of their wives, but as of flaves to fcrve their iuft, and as foote- 
ftooles to tread upon, and trample at their pleafure. Some, like 
favage Indians, make them drudges to toile and labour for them 
as Oxen and Horfes, and to iervc them as fervams and (laves. 
Some account them vrcdte creatures , not capable of any great 


A mam Wtje nearer den bis mturall Parents* zo i 

knowledge or wifedome,and thereupon neglect the care and 
pains of inftrucling them,and teaching them, and imparting theij 
knowledge to them>& drawing and pulling them on in the fame 
way , and caufmg them to go on with themfclves in an equal pace. 
And £oagain,fome women efteemc their husbands as men that 
arc bound to lervc, pleafe,humour and flatter them in all things 
which they defire ; and that the mainc care of the man ihould 
bee to deck, adorne,and let forth his wife as his Idol/ in all coftly 
appareil, and toyifn painting , and vanities, as if fhee were 
made to feed his eyes with her ornaments,and vanifhing beau- 
ty. And on the other fide, tome out of a bale mind and floth- 
fulnefle thinke it belongs not to them to bee fellow builders 
of the family, equall to their husband in honeft care, labour and 
induftry for the common g jod of the family, or in grace and 
fpintuail gifts ; in all which they mull bee partakers in trwir 
meafure and proportion. Let iuch tranfgreflbrs of the law 
of nature bee allured , that as they come fhort of common 
humanity, fo much more of the grace and glory of God. 

The third thing in the biftory ofwomans creation, is the 
cwfequents of it, 3. Cmfe- 

The firft , that Cod brought her to the man, vcrf.2 a . querns. 

The Second, that Adam accepted her, as an help meet for him, 1 . 
that is,as his fecond felfe, a molt pleafingand delightfome com- £. 
panionof his life, and moft helpfull to build up mankind, ver.2]. 
upon w r hich Mofes by infpiration of Gods fpint, inferrcs by 
way of neceflary conclufion an excellent doctrine, which hath 
both a morall and propheticall meaning. 

"Firffc a naturall morall icnfe,to wit, Fir ft, that a mans w 7 ifc 
is nearer to him, and ought to be eftcemed dearer than his na- 
turall parents, and to her he mull cleave, though it be with ka~ 
ving them. Secondly that in creating the woman, and joyning 
her to man in marriage, God did prefigure and fore-fhevv the 
infinite love ^fChrifi to his Church, and the love of the Church 
to ChriJtyZnd the fpirituall and myfticall union which is between 
them ; as is noted £/>/;. 5. 3 a. 

The third confequent is, the nat^mefk of 'the man*nd woman, $, 
which was without/^* or any inconvenience in their firft 
creation before their fall, yer.i^ 

E«ueto A- 

202 Marriage the ordinance of(jQii 

i, "Firft,itis laid that God brought her to the man, that is, fo 

Of Gods foone as God had made and fcnnedhercfmansribjhe prclerw 
bringing ^ tcc j her to him to be his wife, and ib an help meet for him ; wc 
muft not thinke that this bringing of her to him was onely a 
letting of her before h:s eyes,and (hewing her to his light ^ but 
that God withall declared to the man how, and whereof he had 
fnaie her, even of a rib taken out of him, and did offer her to 
ffin for a wife and cquall coniortjfo much the phrafe of bringing 
her to him doth import, From whence we learne, 

I hat the marriage of man and wife is the ordinance of God in 
I) Mr. I. the ft ate ofimoceacy^nd God is the firft Author of it, and the 
Mainagc firft match-maker between man and woman in therirft creation.' 
the ordi« Q ur Saviour alio tcftirieth this in thegofpeii, Mat,i^,6. faying 
God tnat ty vertue of Gogs firft ordaining of marriage, man and 

woman married together are no more twxine, hut one flefi , And 
whatsoever God hath thus joy ned together ' 3 r*o m*n ought to pnt 
r And there is good reafon why God fliould be the firft au- 

Kcaj.i' t k or of marriage j Becaufe it is the onely law full meanes of 
bringing forth people to God, and of propagation of mankind; 
and it is fuch a ground and foundation of the Church, that with- 
out it God cannot have an holj feed,o$ the Prophet intimates 
Mai 2.1 5 .which point ferves. 
F/e I Hrft, to (View that marriage is honourable in it felfe, in the na- 

ture of it, among all rkb and women of all forts,orders and de- 
grees, as the Apoftle teacheth, Heb. 1 3 .4. And the Popes and 
Church of Rome, in counting marriage a kind of fiefhly \uu 
cleanencfie, and defilement, difcover themfelvestobeoppofers 
of Gods ordinance, and violators of the lawof nature. 
tffi 2 Secondly, to fhew that the beft celebration of marriage is 

when it is folemnlj celebrated^ and man and woman joy ned to- 
gether by Gods publike Minifters , who (land in the place of 
God, as Ambafladours,and are his mouth to bleiVe his people : 
For then God is after a fecondarie manner the author and match- 
maker; And his ordinance being thus obferved, and the marri- 
age bleficd by his minifters, there may be more hope of blefling 
upon it,and upon the parties joyned together. 
Yfc 3. Thirdly this Jn going about marriage men and women ougfn 


^ " " * " i - i r- "i m > i »■. ■ — 

'Toly«amk wilau>full 9 202 

chietly & fir ft of all to confult withGod,to looke up to him, & to 
ieekc his direction and afliftance by humble, fervent and faithfull 
prayers and is onely he who knoweth fitted nut- 
ches and coniorts for every one,and can give to man an help meet 
lor him. 

Fourthly it diicovers to us the abomination, and unnaturall yj$ 4, 
tilthineffe of whoredomeand fornication, wherein men and wo* 
men do joyr.eand mingle themfelves together without God, 
the Divelland rkfhly luft leading them. No marvell that A- 
dulterers, whoremongers, and fornicators, are fo often in the 
Scriptures excluded out of the l^ngdome of God. 

Secondly, wee hence learne. That pure marriage , which is Dotlr. 2. 
Gods ordinance, is ofone man with oae woman, For ( -od had Marriage 
an excellency and over-pltts of fpirit in the creation; and yet hee m C *"°" c , 
made but oncWoman fox Adam who was butoneman;& wi^Pout oju^vv . 
that he might feeke a godly feed ^s theProphet imh % Alal.i. 1 5. Our man. 
Saviour alfo teachethin the Gofpelithataman ought to have wtt*/. r«if, 
but one wife while he and fhec liveth; and God from thchsgu^ 
ningi even from the creation, (lie wed that he did not allow Po~ 
Ijgamie. And in old time God tolerated it in fome of the Patri- 
archs and Prophets, nota\A thing naturally good and allowable ; 
but as a type and figure of ChrTft and his ieverail Churches, 
which,as feverall ipouies,he gathers to himfelfe out of lewes and 
Gentiles, Cant 6.8. 

This, being lb, tcacheth every man to bee carefull, circum- y& 
ipeel and inquifitive in choofing to himfelfe a Wife who is to 
bee his perpetuail confort and companion ofhis life. It is good 
counccliof a wife-Man, which he gives to all; that There ought 
much del berationto beeufedin doing a thing which is to bee done 
0*ce for all, and if it bee dons amfie % can never bee amende 'd; And 
fil h is a mans taking ofa woman to oce his Wife, ihee is once 
Qkcn for ail, and during her life, hee may not feeke a better, nor 
can bee eafjd of his burden if fhec provcth fro ward, perverfc 
and contentious: hee who finds a good wife, gets a meet helpe 
and continuall comfort to himfelfe ; but bee who takes a 
brawling wire , puis upon himfelfe a perpetuail crolTe and 
.Thefecondconfequcnt, is Adams free and willing accepta- ^; 

P a tiou 

204 Marriage a free arid<voluntarj contraB. 


tion of the woman to bee his wi&, and fo an helpe meet for 
him, inthefe words, t^nd Adam [aid, Tbitis novo bone of my 
bone, andfleflj ofmyfleJb\ /bee fiall bee called Woman y becaufejhec 
-pros taken out of man , Verfe 23. wherein wee may note three 
things worthy to bee conlidered. 

Pirft, that God having made a wife fit for Adam, doth not by 

c outlive or commanding power and authority put her upon him- 

but having (hewed her to him, what one, and whence fhee 

was, fuffers him to accept and choofeher freely of his ovvnc 

accord , and makes not up the marriage till Adam doth cheere- 

i ully , upon certaine knowledge of her nature and djfpoii- 

tion, accept her for his wife and fecojid felfe. Whence Wee 

learne , 

VoUrlnc. That Marriage, according to Gods ordinance, is a free voIhk- 

Maniage f^yy contraU made betweene a Man and bis Wife, mt\de ypitb tbe 

muftbee we n h^ing and mutual I confent ofbotb parties. Though Fathers 

Jree and^ ^ Q £^ to ta ^ jfi veJ totbeir Ssns 3 and to give tbeir Daughters 

tary* to fc ee w j VCSj £ xo ^ % 34, jS. And feme Sons are faid to define 

their Fathers to give them fuch, or filch wives, as Gen. 34. 4, and 

Jud. 14. 2. Yet they ought not to impsfe wives on their Sovti 

without good liking and free content* nor give their Daughters 

in marriage againfi tbeir wits, as appeares in the example of/te- 

becca, whofe conlent wzsfirfl askid before fhee was promifed to 

Rear J f aac > Gen% 2 4' * 8 * And thcre is S 00(i rea ^ on °^ tni s 1 Becaufe, 
where mind es, hear ts,& affections are net united in two parties, 
they cannot delight to draw cheerefully under the fame yoke, 
nor bee an helpc or (tay one to another. Now a wife is ordai- 
ned of God to bee an belpe to her husband, and the dejircofhii 
eyesy and to draw with him in the fame yoke; and heeis to bee 
a [belter to cover, and a flay to uphold h-r all his life. There- 
fore reafan requires that marriage Oiould bee a free and volun- 
tary contract made with the well liking and mutuali conlent 
of both parties. 
ffe. This Do&rinc ferves to reprove divers forts of people, and 
A rcproofc to condemne divers marriages. Firft, marriages of Perfons under 
so many. a g € % before the parties have knowledge and difcretion cither 
to make a fit choice , or to order their affections. Secondly, 


Fl?P?ly dtftres blinde guides to marriage. 205 

marriages of wards, who have wives impofed on them under 
great penalties. Thirdly, forced marriages, unto which children 
are compelled by violent and tyrannicall Parents, orcrudlun- 
jutt. guardians, againft their mind and liking; on iuch marriages 
there can bee no blefling hoped for nor expected, but much 
mifchiefc and many inconveniencies, adulteries , and whore- 
domes, and many difcontentments of life, as experience 

The fecond thing here to bee noted is Adams fpeech;7fe 2* 
is now bone cf my bone, and fie ft of mj flejh j &c. by which it is 
manifeil, that God, in prcicnting the Woman to him, did de- 
clare whereof hee had made her, and of what nature and kind * 
{hee was. Some ancient and moderne Writers doe gather 
from hence, that Adam was divinely infpired with the Spirit 
of Prophecie, and had undcrftanding of hidden myiteries,which 
hee had never feene , heard, nor learned from any; becaufe fo 
foone as God brought the Woman, hee could prefently tell 
-whence Jhec was, and whereof (hee was made, without any infor- 
mation. But this is a vainc and falfc furmifc; for no Prophet 
could at any time know and declare fecret things beyond 
fenfe andreafon, without revelatien either in a drcame, or vifion, 
or word ipeaken to him by God. To know mens fecret thoughts 
or doings without revelation or word from God, is proper to 
God, and to Chri(t,and to the Spirit, which fearcheth all things; 
undoubtedly therefore, when God brought the Woman to vf- 
dam and prefented and offered her to him, hee did withall^- 
clare how and whereof hee had made her, of the fame nature, 
and framed her in the fame image, as I have before touched: 
Tor, in marriage-making, there arefiich declar^ons going be- 
fore to draw affection and free confent, and cxternail infor- 
mations by outward meaacs; and this was a true platforme of 

Hence wee learne , That men and women rnufl not bee lead V)ottrine\ 
unto marriage by fecret infpirations , and divine revelations: What 
But by knowledge gotten by experience, inquiry and infor- S ul jj cs 
mation. Lull and flethly defire arc blind guides to marriage; e ^ 
as wee fee in the Sons of God, the feed of Seth, who by beauty n3gc# " 
were drawne to take to wive$ tte Daughters of men, who were 

P 3 of 


%o6 ConhgaU affeflhnsjhmld 'be gromdedupon knowledge. 

ofCWscarnall and profane pollcrity , Gen. 6. i. and in Efau t 

Gen, 27. A wife was chofen for Jfaac upon knowledge and 
experience of her vertur, modefty, and hoffdtality, and there- 
fore God blefied the match. And Roaz, tooke Ruth to wifc,not 
for riches or kinred, but becaufc fhec was knowne a vertmus 
Woman, Ruth 3. 11. 

As this Doctrine ferves for direction and exhortation to 
men and women, to ground their conjugall affeclions aright 
upon knowledge, experience, and good information 5 which is 
a courfe molt commendable and agreeing to Gods ordinance; 
So alfo for reproofe and conviction of Anabaptifts, Enthufiafts, 
and Antinomians; fuch as John of Leiden, and they of his feci; 
the Anabaptifts of the family of love, who challenged women 
to bee their wives upon pretence of infpirafion and divine re- 
velation ; and, when they had fatisSed their lull on them, and 
were enraged with lull of others s did upon the fame pretence 
cither murder, or call them off, and take others; Gods wrath 
for this horrible (in and diforder purfuing them, and giving 
them up to monltrons and unnatural! lufts, and at length to mi- 
ferable deftruclrion. There arefome who too much refemble 
thefentifcreants, and hereby alfo are reproved; I mean them 
who, like luftfull Shechcm, upon the firft fight are fet on fire 
of luft, and are fo llrongiy carried by it with violence, that they 
mull have one another, orelfe they will dye or bee diftra&ed. 
Such matches and marriages for the mod part prove unhappy 
and uncomfortable; if any doe not, it is a great mercy of God, 
and a favour which ought to bee acknowledged with all thank- 
-, The third thing here to bee noted is the manifefl fenfe of 

Adams words, which is, that the Woman was not onely bone 
of 'ha bones , but alfo flejhofhuflejh; that is, Chee had both of his 
flcfti and of his bones in her concurring to her fubftance. Whence 
wee may probably gather, 
Zottr. l\ That the Rib of which the Woman was made, was not one 
bone, that is, an halfe Rib taken out of one fide* but bones , that is, 
a pairc of Ribs , or whole Rib taken out of both fides. The He- 
brew word '£!>>, that is, my bones, intimates fo much; and that 
this Rib was not a bare naked bone, but had fome flcih clea- 

Simiiitude of natures the beft ground of love. 


ving to it, cecaufe hee cals her flejh ofhisfiefo t as being made of 
hisflefizs well as of his bones. This is a matter of no great mo- 
ment; but, being a truth neceflarily implied in the words of the 
text^t may ferve for fpeciall ufe. 

Firit, to put us in mindc, that Adam^ the firft man, was the Vfe 1. 
common (lock and root of all mankind; and notoneiyall A- 
dams pofterity were wholly contained in Adam alone; but alio 
the fixtk woman, the Mother of us all, had her firft vitail life in 
Adam , and was a part of his living flefh and bones. And , as m 
the firft Adam all mankind had their naturall being: lb in drift 
all the cleft and faithfull have their fpirituall being and whole 
life , and even the durch, Chrifts fpoufe, the Mother of all true 
bclcevers, kath her being wholly from drift; and therefore to 
drift wee maft afcribe our whole foirituali being and new 
birth. The Father, by his Spirit (heel on us through drift, 
begets us to himfelfe of his immortall {ccd , his Spirit, to 
the lively hope , to the inheritance incorruptible and unde filed ^ that 
fadeth not away, refervedfor ns in heaven. 

Secondly, it ferves to worke conftant love betwecneman yr e 2 , 
and his wife, and to ftirre up man to love his wife as his owne 
itefh; and every woman to love her husband as every part of . 
the body loves the body whereof it is a part ; and alfo to pro- 
vokc men to love one another, as being a moft naturall affection 
ofone member to another in the fame body. As for them who 
are envious, and men-haters, and cruell pcrfecuters ; they are 
here difcovercd to bee children of the great man-murthe- 
rcr the Divell , and with him they {hall have their por- 

Secondly, in that Adam gives this as a reafon of his free jy ft r 2 - 
accepting of his wife, becauie (hee is of the fame nature and similitude' 
fubftance, bone of his bones, and fit to bee named Wtf, w>-of manners 
man y or as one would fay ajhe-man: Hence wee learne, that the belt 
the beft ground of marriage and band oflovc is fimilitude of p roun< * ot 
natures and difpofitions , and unity of heart and fpirit, by which ' 
they are both alike affected. This is that which the Apoftle 
teachcth, were hee faith, Bee not unequal! j yoked; for what con* 
cord can there bee bctweene light and darknejfe y righteoufneffe and 
unrifrbteoufnejfe ? that is , contrary natures and' difpofitions ? 

P 4 a Or. 

20 8 Qrcum/pe&ion to bee ujcd'm the choice of a Wife. 

2 Cor. 6. 14. Tlis rule ^Abrahams faithful! fcrvant followed 
in chuluig a wife for I/aaci as hee knew Ifaac to bee charitable 
and kind to Grangers and given to hofpitality , fo hee »adc 
his prayer to God to direct him to find a wife for him of the 
lame difpofition; and when hee found Rebecca to beefuchaonc 
by the entertainment which (hee gave to him being a ftranger, 
hee would not reft till hee had gotten the confent of her, and 
her parents, and friends; Gen, 24. The negle&of this rule God 
forbids in his law, and threatens with a curfe, Deut. 7. 3. It 
was that which made wife Solomon y prove a doating ioolc in 
his old age, becauie wives of a contrary religion turned away 
his heartland made him build high pi aces. for Idols y i Kings u.Ahabs 
matching with le^abelan Idolatrous worfhipper of Baal, made 
him an Idolater and a flave, who/old himfelfexo all wickednefie 
when his wife lezabel ftirredhim up, 1 King. ai. 25. And Ic- 
hor am the Son of Iehofapioat King of Indah by taking to wife 
the daughter of Ahab of a contrary religion, brought mifera- 
blc deftruclion upon himfelfe and his whole family, 2 Cron v 
ai. 6, 
Vfe 1 . This Doftrinc ferves for admonition to all Men, to bee wary 
A rule for and circumfped in the choice of their wives-; and if they bee 
thufing. vertuoufly and pioufly affected , and have a defire to live in the 
feareofGod, and to build up a godly family, to have afpeciall 
eye and refpeel: of true religion, as well as of a good naturall 
difpofition, and good education and behaviour. A godly Man 
muft feeke a godly Wife, a kind and liberall Man a free hearted 
Wifejand a courageous Man a Woman of courage, that they may 
both draw one way. It is true, that fometimes in cafe of no* 
table infirmities bearing fway in Men , Women of contrary 
difpofition may bee ufcfulland fit Wives to correct, amend, or 
moderate their corruptions; a Woman of a mceke and patient 
difpofition may an wage the heat of her Husband being hafty 
and cholerickc , and fo bee an helpe meet for him. A- wife 
Abigail may prove a neceiTary & helpful wife to a fooliihiV^/, 
and by her wifedomc may overcome his folly, and by her liberall 
hand may make amends and prevent the mifchiefe of his churlifli- 
nefleBut it is no wifedome either in Man or Woman to runnc 
inch a dcfpcr.atcinzzard,in confidence of their ownc wifedomc, 


Pi? goo J to h expetted from uneqaall Mi rriages . i op 

vertucor abilities, lor wee find by experiencc.and it is a thing 
commonly fcenc, that Men and Women, by rcaion of humane 
frailty and naturall corruption which remaine in the belt, arc 
more fubject of the froward tolca*ner*rverfeneiTc,thenby the 
wife,meekc and liberal! contorts to be drawnc from their folly, 
fury and churliiTmeiTe : and therefore though in cafe when an ' 
hard lot bcfals Men or Women, they mud make the beft they 
can of that which is too bad, in hope that God will blefle 
their vcrtuous and godly endeavours ; yet the bed rule 
which godly Ghriftians can obfervc in the choice of wives 
is, tocboois fuch as are like affected and vertuoufly difpofed 
as they themfelves are , to regard chiefely the unity of Spirit, 
ana the limilitudeof nature and difpoinion; which is a thing 
here taught by God in the creation and fir ft marriage between© 
Adam and Evab , the firft Father and Mother of all man- 

Secondly , we may gather from this doctrine, that there can yf e u 
bec no hope or expectation of good from uneqnall marriages. 
And when men for carnall, worldly and politike relpects,yokc 
themfeives with wives of a contrary difpofuion and religion, 
daughters of a ftrangc God, and vaflals of Antichrift, there fc!- 
dome or never followcs ablefling. For juftitis with God, 
that when men and women walke contrary to God, and reject 
his right rule in their marriages, and in laying the foundation of 
their families ; God fhould walke contrary to them in their 
whole courfe oflife, and mould erode them in their endeavours, 
and bring their families to confnfion. 

The third and laft conic quent of the womans creation , 3, Confe- 
is , that they ivcre both naked , the man and his wife , and quent. 
they Tf ere mt aflamed , ver. 25. In which words , wee are 
not in any cafe to underftand by nakedneffe, either want of 
neceffary apparell , (for in the ftatc of innocency there 
was no need thereof, and therefore no want of any ) nor 
wy want of naturall abilities or vermes, needful 5 - for beau- of the a*. 
tyS comlinefTc, and ornament, or far naturall perfection ; All kedmfleof 
>uch naked nefle, and want came in by fin, and after their fall : Adm and 
But here they are kid to be ^r%^bccaufe they neither had nor L * c \ 
needed any cloath?s ; or covering of their bodies, which wcrfl in 
-" all 

2 1 o Of the natural! grace and beauty of our firfl fdrent}. 

all parts mo ft comely and beautifull ; Their skin was not 
rough, over-growne with hake like beaftsmor with feathers like 
birds,nor with hard Teaks like ; but their skin,faire, white, 
and ruddic, was comely in it felfe, and beautifull to their ownc 
cycs 9 more then all ornaments of filkc, fine linnen,and all jewels 
of gold and filver,fet with the mod glorious and precious Hones, 
of mod reiplendent colour and brightnefife. And their bodies 
were of that excellent temper and constitution, that they neither 
felt nor feared any diftemper of heat or cold. The aire and all 
the elements were tempered according to the temper of their 
bodies; and all things were pleafinc, wholcfbme, and delight- 
fome unto them ; and to all living creatures they appeared love- 
ly, and full of beauty, and majeftic. It was the creatures de- 
light to fee them, and to looke on them ; and it was their j oy to 
fee the creatures admiring them, and re/oycing in their fight 
and prefencc. And therefore there was no caufe or occafion of 
any iliame,or of any feare tofhew their fimple naked bodies, 
and to have every part and member openly ieene ; no uncom- 
iineflc which needed a covering , but all parts and members 
were beautifull in themfelves , and compofed together in a 
comely order and frame.This is the true fenfe and meaning of the 
words; Wherein we have this plaine doclrine, 
^ « That the worke of God in the creation of our firft parents was 

The cr a' P er ^ e< ^ without errour ; the image of God appeared in their 
tion pe"* bodies, and bodily forme and fhape; they were full of all naturall 
fed. grace, beauty, and comlineffe, in all parts and members from 

the crowne of their heads to the iole of their fecte ; the 
glory and wifedome of Gods workmanfliip iliined in them 
mod clearely to their owne eyes , and the eyes of all crea- 
tures. The truth of this appcares mod manifeftly in the words ; 
for, certainly, if there had beene any Icaft bleraifh or unfeemely 
member in their naked bodies,they would have beene afhamed 
to goe and appeare openly bare and naked without covering; 
therefore I need not ftand to prove it with many argu- 
ments: this one is furTictent , That all the forme, beauty and 
comelincfTe of the moft goodly Men and faireft Women that 
ever were, or arc in the World, gathered together, and com- 
pofed in the body of one Manor Woman; the goodly perfbnage 


Mans rutnated body (hail be re»tuiUed m (Jinfl. 2 1 1 

of Iofcph or ASnijah , the beauty of Abftlom and Abifhtg, and 
theglorv arid ccmlinefle e{ Solomon, and all other formes and 
beauties* named in hiftories, are but the mines, reliqucs, dimme 
jbaderves.-nd defaced firaps of that beauty and comelineile which 
was in the naked bodies of our foil parents, and in every part 
oft'. i 6 fcfcatk > i. And therefore our reafon and fenies may 

judge what comlinelle was in them. 

its point contidcred is or great force to provoke and ftirrc yr et * 
up men to acknowledge with all thankfulncfte Gods bounty Acknow- 
to mankind in the firft creation; and how exceedingly they are iedgeGsds 
bound to love, and honour, and ierveGod for the naturall gifts bounty. 
& a nifties with which God at the firlt did fully furntfh rrtari;n6t 
onely for neceffitj and welbeihg, but alio for glory, beauty, or- 
nament and comeiinefle in the eyes ofall creatures. And al- 
though our firft parents forfeited theie blcflrngs by their diio- 
bedience, and have defaced by fin this excellent beauty: yetwee 
fee Gods goodnefte abounding to us in this, that hee imprints 
in many of us fome (lamps and foot-fteps of the image, in which 
wee were crested, that wee may by the mhk* which remaine, 
judge of the building of mans body, and of the beautifull frame 
Wherein God at the firft created us* 

Sccbn&hrj wee iftsy hence gather comfortable afTurance, yfcx} 
that ayGoel did create man in admirable beauty at the firrffn inChnft 
the creation, and made him comely in the eyes ofall creatures, the giory 
in ill parts of , fo that it was no fhame but a glory to ct our , [ )0 - 

waMce naked- without cloathes or covering : So, much more, in d,r *j! j- 
the work of redemption and reftauration byChrift, Goi : ; * 
can and will repaire our vile bodies, and reftorc ante t. 
their firft beauty and glory with great advantage, and make 
them like the glorious body of Chrifi , and reforms them after his 
heavenly image of holinelie, which fo f?.rre exceeds the firft 

,e , as heavenly excels earthly, fpirituall and fupernaturall 
excels naturail, and incorruptible and immutable furpaffeth 

vhich is fading and vanilhing. For , the Worke ( >f r-.dem- 

[lauration is a worke of greater good neffcio men, 

then the ::rke of creation; and as it excels, fo m : eflFcd of 

it muft bee more excellent. In this worke God ftretchetln 

tent band, and all his goodnefle further 


1 1 All mans infiftnitks proceed from hisfalL 

then in the creation; there hee created all things by his eter- 
nal Word the Son , and by. his Spirit working with him; but 
here hee gave his Son to bee incarnate, rt nd the eternall Word 
to bee made fiejh , and tofuffer and dye, and bee made the price 
and ranlbme of our redemption; and, for the perfecting of this 
worke, hee doth in, and by, and through his Son give and com- 
municate his holy and eternall Spirit to dwell in their earthly 
tabernacles, to unite them to drift in one body, to bring them 
to communion of all his benefits, and to renue them after his 
glorious image of true holincfle. Here therefore is ground of 
hope, and matter of rejoycing to all the cleft and faithfull, and. 
great incotiragemcnt againft all feare and fhame of wounds, 
ilripes, and all deformities which cruell perfecutors, and man- 
gling tyrants can inflict on their bodies. Tor the future beau' 
ty and glory which is purehafed for them by Chrift and pre- 
pared for them at laft, fliall cover, wafli away ,and utterly abo- 
liih all, when hee fliall appeare in glory. 
Yfe 3. Thirdly, wee are hereby admonifhed , that the diflempers-j 
deformities-, and all defects and infirmities, which appeare in 
our bodies, whereof wee may bee alhamed, are not of God the 
Creatour, but proceed wholly from our fin and fall in, Adam f 
and from our ownc furfeting and intemperance. . For^ God 
made mankind moft perfect in Soule -and Body, even 'with 
full perfection of beauty in the firft creation, ^as this Doctrine 
teachcth. And therefore fo often as wee are auSameo^pf |Our 
deformities and our nakedneflc ; let us with griefe^ remem- 
ber our fall , and bee much more aihamed of our (ins, .and lay 
the blame on our felves and not on the Lord God our Crea- 


Tkftate ofmrfirfl Barents before their full. 2 1 j 

Chap. XIV, 

Of the eft ate and condition of our frfi parents: In jive things. I. The 
bleffing offruitfulnejfe;Afpeaall bleffing : Vfes. Marriage fret 
for All men. Colonies, 2 t Dominion over all living creatures \Foure 
Requifites thereto. Degrees of it : Abjolute , and Dependent l 
Vnlimited y and Limited. Reftoredin thrift .3. Food for man. Net 
the living creatures : in mnocency. 4. Mans habitation. Eden: 
What. Of the rivers. Twelve opinions about Vavadife. Of the 
two trees in Ptradife : }Vhy the tree of life. How of the knowledge 
of good and evil L .5. Of Gods image. 

ANd God blejfed them, and fa : d unto them, Be fruit full andmit!- Gen, 1. at; 
tiplj >and replenijb the earth ^ndfub due it > and have domini- 
on over the fiflj of the fea, and over the fowles of the aire f and over 
every living thing that movethupon the earth. Verf.iy.And Godfaid 
Behold^ I have given you every her be bearing feed which is upon all 
the face of the earth \ and every tree in which is the fruit of a tree 
y eel dung feed, to you it Jhall be for meat. Verf 30. And to every 
beafl and foule and creeping thing wherein there is life, I have given 
nreene her be for me at ;and it wnsfo. 

After the Hiftory of the particular creation of the Woman 
with the immediate Antecedents and Confequents thereof} The Jkecom 
next thing in order is the hiftoricall description of the (late and f" 10 / 1 .?* 

1. . r r n -i r • 1 • .cut nrit 

condition of our jirjt parents in the Creation, in their integrity iJ^ renl£:i 
and innocency before their fall and corruption , while Gods 
image imprinted on them remained perfe<5V,both in their Sonles 
and Bodies ; fo that they had no teaft blcmifn or infirmity m 
their naked bodics,whcreofthey might bee afhamed. 

In this their fir [Mate ofinnoeency there are divers things men- In f * v< ;P 3r *- 
tinned by Mofes, and hiftorically laid downeinthis Hidoryof uu 
the Creation, which are to bee unfolded in order. 

The fir ft is the blciTing of fruitful 'nejfe , wherewith God I* 
blefled them fo foone , as heehad created them male and fe- 
male: This is laid downe in thefe words, And G -od blefed them 
and J aid unto them, Bje fruit full and multiply } and rtflcwjb the 
Earth, f erf e :8o The 

2 1 4 Qftk* HH kg nffwtfdnefje* 

2, The fecond is the power and dominion which God gave them 
over the earth, and ov^ >ll. living creatures in the water, aire, 
and earth : this is in the laft ^ords of the Verfe ; and fubdus it, 
and \\slvc dominion over the fifhes,fowks,and beads. 

3. The third thing is the bcuntifnll gift of all herbes bearing 
feed, dnd of all fruits gro-tvwg upon Trees y which God gave to 
mankind for bodily food, Verjez^. And his free gift of green 
herbe or graiTc for meat to the birds, beads^and creeping things, 
Verfe 30. 

4» The fourth thing is the place of their habitations the garden 

which God planted in Eden; this is dcfcribed,C&*/>. 2. 7. and fo 
a-long to the 16. Verfe. 
\ 5, 1 The fifth thing., which is the chiefeft of ail, and which is firfl 

ofali mentioned in the creation of Man and Woman,is the image 
of God in which they were both created: This requires a more 
large difcourfe for the undcrftaqding of it; and for thatcaufe 
I have deferred the handling of it to the lall place next before 
the conclufion of the whole creation, even his viewing and ap- 
probation of every thing which hee had made for very good, 
laiddownc, Verfe 31, 
Of the The firfl: is the blefllng of ' fruit fttfoeffe for the multiplica- 

blefling option anc j increafe of mankind, even to the filling and repltmfbing 
aeffc." " *f™* Etrth* anc ^ tne fubduing of it* In defcrioing this blefling 
Mofes doth hcrfirltlaydownethebleffing in a generall word, 
faying, Godble fed them. 

Secondly, hee meweth more particularly wherein this blef- 
fing doth confift, to wit, in bodily fruitfulnejfe for the increafe 
of mankind,in thefe words, Be fruitful! and multiply. 

Thirdly, the aboundance of the blefling and large extent- 
of fruitfulneffe, even to the replenishing of the Eartb,mdfubduing 

of it. 

tirfr, whereas God is faid to blefle them, the meaning is, 

that God gave them the gift of fruitful™ ft, fo loone as hee 

had made them in his ownc image male and female: For the 

Hebrew word which is here ufed, figniricth firit and primarily 

tobotv the knee 9 or to hneele 4owne y QS appeares , Gen. 24. 11,2. 

WUKtte €hron.6. i^Pfalme 95.6. Dan. 6. 10. And becaufe bowing 

word fig* of the knee is a hind o? fubmitting and applying of the body in 

nificth. kind- 

Of the ji'trufutHo* of the Urord frtatfulnefje. 1 1 5 

kindneucto (ome perfon, to doc him fomc kind and pleafing 
fcrvice, hereupon this word is translated and ufed in the Scrip- 
tures to (ignitie, l : irft Gods applying of himfelfcto men, and X» 
as it were boning downe from the high throw of his Ma jelly to 
fhew himlelfe kind unto them, by giving them many both 
earthly and fpirituall blcflings in this hfc;yea,and himfclfe with 
all his" goodncfl'e to bee their portion, abd to make them fully 
blefled in glory* Secondly, it if uied toiignifie mans applying 2 .' 
ofhimfelte to God, by bendixg his knees and his fpecch to prat fe 
God, and to laud and exto/lhis name^nd to render p/ca^vg thanks 
to his Majefty, and alfo one mans applying of his fpecch to ano- 
ther ; and with bowed knees to falute him, as Gen. 24. 60. and 
Uw^.4. 29. Alfo the aclion of Parents, p<:blike Minifters, 
and fuperiour Perfons whom God hath let over others bowing 
downe towards them, and applying thcmielves to them to 
Willi all bleflings unto them, and to pronounce them blefled of- 
God,2& Afelchifedeci^ blefled Abraham, Gen. 14. and IfaacbU 
Jacobs Gen.lj. and Jacob blefled hts Sons, Gen 49. and Ad of:- 
blefled lfrael, "Dent. 33. In this place God is faid to M'fle them- 
that is,to apply himfelte to them, and as it were bowing downe 
kindly to §ive them a olefling. But becauie there are many 
blejjings which God beftowes on men; Some are natural], earth- 
ly and bodily bit fines; Some heavenly at: d fpir it nail-, And God Bodily 
blefleth men with bodily lie flings two wayes,and in a tw o- fold bleflings- 
reipcel; either by giving them gifts and abilities, as naturall °f cwo 
Xviledome and knowledge in their mindesj and ftrength and r ° :ts * 
ability of body to doe fome naturall and morall worke; or elfc r * 
by aflifting them in the exrrciie of thole gifts and abilities, and a 
giving good nTu: and fuccefle imto them; as for example, ma- 
king their wifedome and knowledge effectual!, and giving good 
fuccefle to the aclions of them ; and making the ftrength of 
"their bodies, and their appetite, and aclions of generation fuc- 
ccflefiill to the bringing forth and increafe of children. Now 

wee are not to underftand any heavenly or fpirituall grace 
or gifts, butonely a naturall, bodily, even ability and ftrengdi 
of bedy and of nature for procreation of children and poftenty 

jit my defect or infirmity, or any failing cfthdr er.dea- 
froftrsting of the aftion of generation ; thus much is 


*1<S Of tht Lnthing </ frmtfulntjje. 

here meant in thefe words. And this appcares plaincly in the 
next words, wHch -(hew in particular what this biclTIng is 
even the blefling of fhiitfulneffe in procreation of children; 
And God fold unto thcm> Bee fruitful I and multiply^ which in 
erlccl:, and in true fenfe and meaning is all one as if Mofes had 
faid. And God almighty by the eternal! Word, his Son did 
give unto them the blefling of fruit fulneflc, even mutuali affe- 
ction for procreation, and ftrengtb and ability of body to pro- 
create and bring forth the fruite of the body, that is, children 
in that image of God, in which they themfelves were made, 
and that according to their ownc will and defire without 
faifing, defect or infirmity. Here then wee fee this blefling 
was a perfect naturall blefling , even the perfed gift of pro- 
creation, for the multiplication and increafe of mankind. 
And thirdly, that it was a blefling of great meafure and aboun- 
dance, even fruitfulncffe and ability to multiply mankind to the 
replenijhing of the czrth^ndfnbdning of it, the next words fhe w: 
And repknijb the Earth, and fubdue it. The firfl: words, reple- 
nijb the Earth, doeplainely {hew, that God gave them the 
blefling of fruitfulnefle, and ability to multiply mankind un- 
till the earth were filled with inhabitants of the children of 

The canh, men. And the other yjovd 9 fnbdneit y fignitiesnot taking of 

howfub. the Earth into pofleflion by violence and ftrong hand ; 

duedby as tnc word is ufed, Num. 32; 12. Iof. 18. t. 2 Sam. 8. Ii. 

Aim* w here countries are faid to bee fubdmd by force of armes . 
*" Neither doth it fignific fubduing of the Earth by forcing it t» 
\ ** bring forth corne,herbes,and fruit trees by hard labonr,manuring, 
and'tillage: Eor, in the creation, the Earth was made frui. fill 
ofitfclfe, and brought forth aboundance ofallherbes, plants, 
and trees, freely, without culture or labour of man forcing it; 
and there was no creature to refill mankind , and to kecpe them 
out of pofleflion ; but the whole Earth was free for all men, and 
futficicntto fat is fie them with all things nccdfull. But here 
it fignifies mens inhabiting , occupying, and pojf-jfing ot the 
Earth, and that in fuch numbers and multitudes, as were then 
able to eat up the fruite of it, if man hadftood in innocency; 
and now are able fince mans fell, to till it, and bring it into 
fob/e&ion being curfed and made barren^ fb that no region or 


Trocnation ofQildten afpeciali bttfmg. 2 1 

country may lye defblate and barren without tillage and 
habitation or' men. This is the true fenfe and meaning oYthc 

Prom whence wee learnc 4. points of DocTrine: The firft, Voclr. c 
That procreation of children in lawful I marriage, is a fpeeiall blcfi Procrca- 
jing and gift of God, given in the creation for the multiplication 1 ™ oi 
andiHcreaJe of mankind. My text here declares it to bee a ble£- £ ,ldr 5. n : 
ling, and other Scriptures confirms the fame. TfMme 127. the buOiaj. 
Prophet David proclaimes children to tee an heritage which 
cometh of the Lord, and the frmte of the womb to bee hi* reward, 
find the Man to bee happy who hath his quiver fall offucharrowes, 
which are like ar rones in the hand of the mighty Alan, And Pfalme 
128. 3. hce (aichj that this is a blejfingand hafpinejfe of the Man 
which fear eth Goi, and walketh in his wayes , that his Wife is as a 
fruitfull vine by the fides of his houfe, and his children tike olive 
plants roundabout his table. And as the Father of 
the faithfull counted it a great defect, and want of a fpeeiall and 
principall out ward bleffing, that heed id goechildleft, and God 
had given him *ofeed, Gen. 15. 10 all Gods faithfull fervanfs 
did pray to God for lffueto themfelves ; and did as a 
great blefling to others whom chcy love/ as wee ice in the 
example of Ifaac , Gen. 25. 21. who prayed to God for his 
Wife that (lice might bee fruitfull: O't^^fofes^Dent. i. 1 1. who 
prayed that Ifiael might bee multiplied a thmfand times more*. 
Of the ELders and People of Bethlehem, who prayed that God 
would give ijftte to Boaz of Ruth, and encreafe his family like the 
family of Pharez,; Ruth 4. 1 1 . OfHanah the Mother of Samuel 
1 Sam. 1 . Of Zacharie and Elizabeth Luk^i. And all the godly 
Matrones,the\Vives of the^Patriarches, counted it their reproach 
ament Women to bee barren, and a great blefling to have chil- 
dren as wee fee in Jacobs wives, Gen. 36. 2 3. and by Hannah's 
teares, 1 Sam. I. 

This ierves firft to teach and admonifh all Men and Wo- jy^' 
men to feeke it as a biefsing fromGod ,and fo to efteeme it,and to ^ 
render unto God thanks accordingly, as Hannah and Zacharie \ 
and the bleiled virgins, as in their holy fongs moft evidently ap- 
peared]. If Men and Women could kave grace thus to doe, 
it would bee a fpeeiall meancs to make them refpeft their 

Q, chil- 

2 1 8 Marriage free for aHtnankjnd, 

children, as great blcffings, and pledges of Gods favour; and 
to make them ftrive to devote and confecrate their children 
to God and his worfhip, and to traine them up to bee fit in- 
(Iruments of Gods glory, and pledges of their thankfulncfie to 
Vfi 2, Secondly, it ferves to difcover thegrofleerrourand herefy 
of the Mankhaans; who held that marriage and procreation of 
children was zworkg of the Divell , as alio of fome Popes of 
SyAiiw* Rome, who held marriage which is honourable among all, and the 
bed unde filed, as the Apoftle affirmeth, Hcb. 1 3 . 4. to bee a works 
tfthe flcfi, which makes men unpleafing to God. The Lord 
defpiieth not his owne ordinance; and marriage is ordained by 
him for increafe of mankind, as this Doclrine teacheth; and 
therefore the opinion of thefe Hereticks and Popes is erroneous 
and abominable. 
Dcclr. 2. Secondly wee hence learne, that as the blcfling of fruitful- 
Mam age nefl'e was given to all mankind in the creation : fb marriage , 
free for ail which God appointed for the increafe of men en earth j is by the law 
mctl ' of God, which is written in mans heart, and engraven in mans 
nature , free for all MenandWomen, to Ww# God hath given abi- 
lity andfivsngth of body f+r procreation and fruitfulnep , for in- 
creafe of mankind. As the text here openly exprefleth fo 
much, loin all the Scriptures wee have examples of holy men 
of all forts, even of Priefts and Prophets, not oncly allowed, but 
alfo cemmmdtd by God to take Wives and beget children , as Ifaiah 
cap. 8. y. Ezechiel chap. 24. Hofea chap, r, And the Apoftle 
commends it as honourable in all, Hebr. 15.4. AndtheApo- 
itles who were molt devoted to Chrijt, and to his worke, did 
lead about Wives with them, 1 (for. 9.5. And although in times 
of great trouble and perfecution raifed up againft Chriftianity, 
Wives are a great burden, and breed much care and griefeto 
preachers of the Gofpell , efpecially who muft bee ready to 
run and flee whitherfoever God cals them; and therefore in iuch 
cafes the Apoftle, byreafon of the urgent and pteffingnecefptj, 
holdeth it better for continent and chafte Men and Women to 
rcmaine unmarried, 1 Cor. 7. 26. And our Saviour doth approve, 
and w r ell like it, in cafe when a mans heart and affection is fo 
extraordinarily taken up with the love of the Kingdome of he*- 

Mawiave free for ali mankind. 2 1 9 

ve n, that liee is like an Eunuch without any dcfire or arrecTion 
of marriage, Matth. 15?. 12. Yet, wee have no word or pre- 
cept in all the Scripture to reftraine any Perlbns ofany order 
or calling from liberty of marriage. Saint Paul affirmes that 
he and Barnabas had power and liberty iri this kind, though they 
ulcditnot,i£V.9. 5. 

The coniideration whereof ferves : Firft, to teach Men and yr el 
Women of all forts to maintaine and retaine that liberty which 
God had given them from their rirft creation, and to admoniili 
them to be ware, that neither Satan by his fuggedions, nor any 
of his wicked instruments by their cunningly devifed fables, 
nor any mifconceipt of their owne hearts, doe lay a needleffe 
fnart upon their confeiences , and poflefTe them with a falfe 
opinion, concerning that liberty which God hath written in 
mans heart in the (late of innocency, which cannot bee taken 
away without violence offered to nature. They who are thus 
inftru&ed and fully perfwaded, if they doe marrie, they may 
have comfort in this affurance, that they are not out of Gods 
high-way , neither in this havelwerved from his perfect law, 
and rule of liberty. If they find many croffes in the married life, 
yet let them know , that they arp no t enrfes laid on marriage 
tor an unlaw fulneile of it. If they doe live finglc to avoid 
worldly cares, and to devote themfelves wholly to heavenly 
thoughts and fpirituall cares for the Kingdome of heaven, they 
have more caufe to rejoyce and glory in the abound ance of Gods 
fpeciall grace to them , in that hce hath given them an heart to 
tbriake leffer blelUngs for the gaining of greater, and bringing 
of more glory to God. 

Secondly, this iheweth, that the Popes prohibitions of Prieits yr e *' 
marriage, and the abfolute vowes of virginity and finglelife, Apamft' 
taught and impofed by the Church of Rome, arc curled and Popiftvir* 
corrupt inventions of msr% and diabolicall devices, yea damnable gmity and 
harepesy as the Apoftle callcth them, 1 Tim. 4. 1. and a Pet. 2.1. vowes ' 
lor, though divers holy Men of God , to whom God gave 
power over their owne wi Is , and the gift of continency to ftand 
ftcadfaft m their owne hearts have ftrongly refolved to keepe 
their virginity and to live finglc, that they might apply them 
ielvcs to the icrviceof God and his Church with greater free- 
ly s dome. 


Abjolute^vo^cs of noirgmity^c. DiafoHcaUdeViccs. 

dome from worldly cares, and have fteadfaltly held their re- 
folution, proving themfelves fuich as our Saviour and his Apoftle 
doe commend, Mattb. 19.12. and 1 Ccr.j. yet wee never 
read in Scripture, that they were commanded by God , or that 
they did bind themfe Ives voluntarily by an unchangeable voiv, or 
under any "execration to abftaine from marriage, and from pro- 
creation of children therein : but alwayes, without any abfolute 
neceffity impofed on them, remained at liberty to marry if jiift 
Ob. occafion were offered. If our adverfarics objecl, that the law 
of nature muft give place to the Evangelical I law, which hath 
greater promifes, and tends to lead men to fupernaturall and 
heavenly happineile; and that for Chr ids fake and his Churches 
•Aflfa good wee mult renounce liberty of nature : I anfwere, that the 
Evangelical I law doth not offer violence to the law of nature $ 
neither doth it abolifh any part thereof; but rather doth perfeli 
it> by giving men grace wilHngly to neglecl naturall liberty for 
the gaining of a better eftate: As for example, the law of nature 
requires that men love Fathers , Mothers , Wives, Children, 
and their owne lives , and gives them liberty to hold lands and 
houfes : bat yet when the cafe fo (rands, by reafpn of tyrannic 
and perfection raging , that a man muft either forfake all thefe, 
or deny Chrift, and renounce Chriftian religion; here a man 
ought to forgoe all for Chrift, as the Gofpeli teacheth: And yet 
the Gofpell never commandeth us to renounce Father, or Mo- 
ther, or Houfes, or Land, and the like,, and to.cxpofe.onr felves 
to death ,when we may, together with Parents,Wives,Children, 
and Life, ftill cleave to Chrift and enjoy him for falvation; yea 
it were frenfie and fury for any Church to impofe lawes on men 
for the hating of Parents, Wives, and Children, fbrfaking houfes 
and lands , and giving themfelves to death voluntarily when 
there is no inevitable neceffity laid on them, but they may li^e 
good and faithfull Christians, and yet love Parents, Wives, and 
Children, poflefle lands andhoufes,and live in fafety. Wherefore, 
though wee highly commend them who more zealoufiy fol- 
low Chrift, and forfake the World, and make fmall account of 
naturall bleflings in comparifon of fpirituall , but doe as Saint 
Paul did who made the Gofpeli free, and did not ufe lawfull li- 
berty, and power : yet wee cannot but count them execrable 


l)efire oj Procreation in cur fir ft, Parents. 1 2 l 

who tyrannize and lay cruell fnares upon mens confidences, 
and impofe lavves, and vowesupon themfelves, or others, to 
forfake, and renounce utterly their lawfull liberty, and to bind 
them by that law and vow which either they mull brcake, or 
elfc fall into many wofull inconveniencies and abominable 
evils and mifchiefes, as wee fee in the Popes lawes and vowes; 
which have proved caufes and occaiions of fecret Whored omes , 
publike Stewes, many Rapes and Murders of innocents, to the 
ftaining and defiling of the whole Land. 

Thirdly, we hence learnc, that our fir ft par ents,in the ftate of l.Voti* 
innocency, had in them both the affection and naturall defirc 
to bring forth children , and to increafe mankind with all con- 
venient fpeed , God fo commanding them ; alfo they had all 
ftrength and ability of body to beget and bring forth , and 
there was in them no defect to hinder procreation for s mo- 

The words of the text do plainely fhew this : And reafon Rfaf.i* 
grounded on other Scriptures proves it fully. F ir ft our firfc pa- 
rents were created perfeft in their £^,and God gave them the 
blcjfingof 'frnitfalftejfe^ow where there arc all natnrall perfecti- 
ons and abilities accompany with Gods blefling , there can 
be no hinderance of procreation, or any faUi« 3 i n any naturall 
action therefore this Doctrine is manifeft. 

Secondly, all barrenefle and all multiplying and fruftrating^r^ 
cf conceptions came in as a curfc for fin, and upon the fall of our 
firft parents, as the Lord himfclfe fneweth , Gen.3.16. There- 
fore there was no place for it in the ftate of irwocency. 

Thisferves to admoniili us all fo often as we fee barren- yr € z 
nefle in men and women, and mifcarrying wombes, and dry ' 
breafts ; to remember our fin and fall in our firft parents, and 
to grieve for our corruptions derived from thcm,and to hum- 
ble our felvcs under Gods hand. 

Secondly, to perfwade us, and to make us fee and beleevc J rr ■ 
that our firft parents did not ftandlongin their integrity and - ,2 ' 
ftate of pure nature -yea, that theydid not lodge therein one night 
as the Pfalmift fpcakcs,T^/.49.i 2. For reafon and common ex- 
perience do teach us,that man doth readily and without any delay 
follow his wil!,andthe affections which are moft naturall in him; 

Q 3 !• 


Procreation the mojl naturalUEl. 

fo foone as reafon permits ; now the affection and defirc of 
procreation is mod naturalises all people of undcrftanding do 
know, and the learned do grant ; and his will mud needs be 
acknowledged ftrongly bent and inclined to it,becaufe God had 
commanded them to multiply and replenife the earth; and there 
was no reafon moving man to reftrainehis will and affe&ion,but 
onely till he had viewed the garden wherein God had placed 
him, confidered the trees and fruites of it, and received Gods 
commandement of abftaining from the forbidden trcc,all which 
mult needs be done before the end of the fixth day. And if 
man in the (tare of innocency "had k*owne his Wife , {heehad 
without faile conceived a feed pure without fin, and had brought 
forth children in Gods image perfect and upright • wherefore 
they did without doubt fall in the end of the fixth day , as I (hall 
more fully prove hereafter. 
Z)o#r. 4. Fourthly, wee hence learne; Tha't it is Gods will revealed 
The whole from the beginning, and his ordinance and law given in the 
earth given creation, that the Earth and every part of it ftiould bee free for 
to Mm. an y ma nto pofieffe andinhabitit, untillit bee folly icpicnifhed 
withfo many men as are able to fubduc it by eating up the fruit 
thereof This text teacheth plaindy this point, by (hewing 
that one end for which God bleffed Man and Woman with 
fruitfulnefle, was , that they wight replenijh the Earth. And to 
the fame purpofe, thzPfalmift fpeaketh fully ^falrne 115. 10. 
The heaven and heaven of heavens is the Lords , hut the Earth hath 
hee given to the children of men : and Dent, 32. 8. it is faid, that 
God hath divided the Earth to bee the inheritance of the Sons of 
Adam. This truth the curfed Canaanites acknowledged by the 
light of nature, and therefore theyfuffcred Abraham Jfaac, and 
Jacob to fojourne in their Land , and there to live with all their 
families, to feed their cattell, todiggc wcls, and to fowcornc, 
and were fo farrc from driving them out, while there was 
roome enough, and they lived peaceably among them , that 
they entered into league with them, Gen. 14. 13. and 21. 27. and 
26. a2. 
yfe r Pirft, this fcrves to clearc that doubt, and to decide that que- 
' ftion and cafe of confciencc which is much controverted among 
ggdly and learned divines, and agitated in thefe dayes, to wit, 


The Tbbole Earth ordained for mam habitation. 222 

whether it bee lawfull, to fend people, and to plant colonies Oflearfia 
in the vail countries of the weft-Indies, which are not rcplc- polonies 
nifhed with men able to fubdue the Earth, and to tilt it: If wee into otIu 
bee Sons of Adam the whole Earth is free for us, io long as it paK$ ' 
is notreplenimcd with men and fubdued. The ancient (haggling 
inhabitants or any other , who have taken pofleilion before, 
they have right to fo much as they arc able to rcpleniih and fub- 
due, and bring under culture and tillage; and no other people 
have right to difpvjfejfe and expell them, or to dif quiet them in 
their poiTctfion, or any way to doe injury and offer violence to 
them, except they have iuch a cemmijfion and -warrant as God 
gave to the Ifraelites to expell the Canaanites^ but it is lawfull 
for any Sons of Adam by the law, which God gave in the crea- 
tion fas this Dodrine fhewesj to polTeffc and inhabitc the vafi 
places, and to fubdue the barren untilled parts. And much more 
may true Chriftians, who bring the Gofpcli of falvation and 
word of life among them, by a fecond right in Chriftj fettle 
thcmi«Wes there , and maintaine their pollcffion of thefe lands 
which they have rcplcnimed and fubdued by culture and tillage; 
and fo long as they doc their endeavour to convert them to 
Chriftby the preaching ofu^Gofpell, an d to make them par- 
takers of the blciTing in him the promiled f^«cl, they defer vc 
to bee received with all honour of thofc favages who come 
by this meanes to owe themfelves to them. Wherefore, Let no 
man bee fcrupulous in this kind; but proceed with courage in 
fiich plantations, and with confidence of good fucceffe, and 
blefllng from God. 

Secondly , it difcovcrs great iniquity and injuftice in divers Vft i 4 
forts of men, Firft, in them who having gotten the firft polTei- Agamft' 
lion in fome corner of fomc great continent and large region, t hr e.« Corr* 
do challenge the whole to,themfelves as their proper right being ofmen » 
no way able to replenish and fubdue it; and by force feekc to *• 
keepe out all other people who come to live as neighbours 
peaceably in places nearc unto them, for whom there is roomc 
enough , and more land then they can (ubdue and ? cplcnifh. 
Secondly , in them who think it lawfull for themfelves to 1# 
invade countries rcplcnimed with men and fubdued, and by 
force to expell or bring in iubjeftion the old inhabitants with- 
er 4 out 

224 CjGdgayt man 'Dominion over the crtaiwzs. 

out expreffe warrant from God • as the Spanyards did depo- 
pulate many great countries in tumeric* ^ and root out and 
deftroy the naturall inhabitants. Thirdly, in them who take 
poflefiion of lands to the ftraitning of the natives; whkh the 
naturall inhabitants without their hclpe can fufficicntly reple- 
nish.* and lubdue, and bring under tillage. In thelc cafes there 
is great injun" ice, and wrong offered to Gods law, which re- 
quires that as we would,that men (Tiould doc to us, fo we (hould 
doe to them, and ufe no other dealing: and they who thus tranf- 
greffethe bounds which God hath let in dividing the earth to 
all Nations and People, cannot juftly hope for Gods blefling 
1 1, The next thing after the blefling of fruit fulneffc', is the Lord- 
Dominion Jbip 9 rule, and Dominion, which God gave to man over all living 
over all creatures; and that is in thefe words, Verfe 2 8. And have Domi- 
,ivmg crea- niQn e ^ er ^ ^ jr f ^ e $ €A ^ a „d the forrles of the aire, andthebeafis 
cf the Eartb 9 &c. For our full undemanding whereof wee are 
to inquire , and fearch out: Firft, -what things are neceflarily re- 
quired in perfect Dominion and Lcrdfhipover the creatures, 
Secondly , the divers degrees of it. Thirdly, •«« ^hat degree Do- 
tt-auifius minion over the creatures w^ given to man. Concerning 
the rlrft, There arc foure things required to perfect Dominion 
and Lordiliip over the creatures ; two in the Lord and Ruler, 
and two in the creature ruled and made fub/eel'. In the Lord 

1. and Ruler there is required , Firft, Power and ability to order, 
rule, and difpofe according to his owne minde,will and pleafurc, 

2. in all things, the creatures ruled by him. Secondly, a true 
right to ufe and difpofe them according to his owne will and 

3. In the creature there is alfo required : Firft, a difpofnion fit- 
nefTe, and inclination to ferve his Lord and Ruler, and toyeeld 
to him in all things whatfoevcr hce fhall thinke fit. 

4j Secondly, a bond of duty, by which hee is bound to obey his 

Lord, and ferve for his ufe, and iicccflarily to yeeld to him in all 
things. All thefe things arc neceffarily required in perfect 
Lordfhipand Dominion: And wherefoerer all thefe are found 
to concurre in the higheft degree , there is jnoft perfect Dc • 
minion; and where they are in a ieffer degrce^there is a lefler and 


to it. 

God alone abjolute Lord oyer tfa creatures . 225 

inferiour Dominion; and where any of thefe faileth or is wan- 
ting, there the Lordfhip and Dominion faileth and is imper- 
fect: As for example; The Lord God, as hee is almighty and 
omnipotent , ib hee hath abfblute power in and of himielfe, and 
all ability to order, and diipofe, and rule every creature as hee 
hirnielfe will : And as he is lebovah, the author of all being, who 
hath his being, and is that which hee is abfolutely of hlmfelft 
without beginning, and doth create and give being it all other 
things-, ib hee hath abfolutc right to uk and diipofe all creatures 
according to his owne mind and will; and in thefe refpects hee 
is abfolutely called the Lord; and is abfblute Lord even in this 
confuiion of the World and all things therein ; as over all other 
creatures, fo over the rebellious Divell and all his wicked in- 
ftruments; and hath abfolute power to deftroy them, or to make 
of them, even contrary to their difpofition, what ufe lie will. 
And becaufe in the creation God made all things good and per- 
fed in their kind and nature, according to his owne will and 
wifedome, and every creature as it was good in the nature and 
kind of it; fo was it moft fit & inclinable to ferve for the ufe unto 
which the Lord appointed it in the creation: and as it was the 
worke of the Lords owne hand h y u\ m brought into being out 
of nothing; fo there was a bond of duty laid upon it to obey 
the Lords word, and to yeeld to his will without any rehTiance 
or rclu&ation. And in thefe refpecTs Gods Dominion and 
Lordfhip was not onely moft abfolnte overall creatures, but 
alio moft fwet and lovely unto them ; even a moft loving and 
fatherly rule of God over them, and a molt free and voluntary 
fubjection and obedience of them to him, and to his will in all 

But now,ever fince the fall and rebellion of the Divell againft 
the light, and the fall and corruption of man, and the confufion 
which thereby came into the World; Though Gods pow r cr and 
right (land moft abfolute and unchangeable like himfelfe, 
and hee both can and doth moft juftly over- rule the Divell and 
all creature which are moft corrupt and malicious, and makes 
even their enmity ferve for his glory, and for the communion of 
his goodncfle more fully to his eled: yet this power and right he 
excrcifeth not in that loving and fatherly manner over the rebcl- 


2 t 6 SeVerall decrees ofVomimon. 

lions and difobedientcrcatures;but by juft violence and coaclion; 
by neceflity and ftrong hand forcing and compelling them 
to doc and worke, and to fuffer and yeeldunto, and ferve for 
thatuie, which they would not and from which they arc molt 
averie . 

And becaufc no other Lords have any fuch power or right 
over any creature, but all their power, and right is^given them 
by God, and is but an image and fhadow of his right and power; 
therefore their Dominion k not abfolute and m»}} pcrfett- % but 
fecondary and infaiotir, depending upon Gods will, power, and 
Degrees pieafure. Thefe things propoiedas grounds and foundations, 
wee may from them eahTy'obferve divers degrees of Lord lliip 
and Dominion. 
h The rirft and higheft Lordfhip and Dominion, which is moll 

abfaintc over all creatures is that of God, which, in refpe&of 
Gods power and right cannot becincreafed or diminished at 
all : For , as hee hath right,to doe with all creatures what hee 
will , beeaufe they are his owne, and hee gives them all their 
being ; fo he hath power as he is omnipotent,eiiher to incline or 
to inforce them to doe his pleafurc and to ferve for whatuie 
hee will. The Angels in heaven and Saints glorified and made 
perfecl,and all creatures in the ftate of innocency,as in duty they 
are bound to ferve and obey God ; fo they have in them a fitnefle 
and inclination to ferve and obey his will in all things tothevt- 
moft of their power; and therefore this Dominion over them is 
lovely and amiable, and is paternnm imperinm^ fatherly rule and 
Dominion over them. But the Divels, and wicked men, and 
all creatures corrupted are froward and rebellious ; and his rule 
and Dominion over them is, in refpeel of them, violtnt and 
compulfive ; and as a King he forceth them to doc what hee will, 
and compels them to lerve for whatuie hee will, andjufticc 
requires it {"hould bee fo. 
2. The fecond Degree of Dominion is, when a Lord hath both 

power and right to rule over creatures, and they have an incli- 
nation and fitnefle to ferve and obey ; but ail thefe zizfrema. 
ftipenoHY Lard, giving this power and right to the one to rule, 
and difpoiing and binding the other to ferve and obey. 
Dominion j\^ delegated Lordfliip and Dominion, is either unlimited , 
unlimited. ' $ r 

Vomtmon unlimited and limited what. 227 

or limited. Vnlimited is that which is not confined to ibmc 
creatures, but is extended over all things in heaven and in earth; 
and it is a power and right to make them all fervc and obey him 
In all things, whatfoevcr hee will. This unlimited Dominion 
is«iven oncly to Chrt(lasMediatour;.who asheejs manper- 
fonally united to God, atid in his humane nature hath perfectly 
fulfilled the will of God, overcome all powers of d^arknefle, 
fotisficd Gods juftice, and redeemed the World, is exalted to 
Cods rirht hand 9 as David foretold , P/alme no. 1. and hath 
*// fower in Heaven and in Earth given unto him s Matth. 28. 18. 
and hath a name given him above all name j, even the name and' 
title of the Lord Chrift, {0 that in and at his name all knees mull 
bow, both of things in heaven , and things m earth and things- 
under the earth, that is all mult cither voluntarily as they arc 
bound in duty, give all obedience and honour to him, and pray 
humbly in his name to God ; or by'his power bee forced and 
compelled to bow under him as a ludgeand yeeld to his will, 
Philip. 2. 10. 11. 

Limited Dominion is not over all creatures , but onelyover And limi. 
creatures of the inferiour World fifh, fowles, and beafts; newe<l. 
ther is it a right and puwer gi VC n to that Lord and Ruler to doe 
with the creatures what hee will, and to n (c them as hee li- 
fteth; but ondy to make them obey and fcrve him io fime as the 
fuperiourLord doth thinkethem fit and convenient for his ufe,& 
for his prefentftate & condition.This HmitedLordfhip & d:levated 
Dominion doth vary and alter together with the ftatc and' con- 
dition of him to whom it is given; anditisfomedmes, and in 
fome Perfons greater, and in ibmc letter $ according to their fe- 
verall ftates and conditions, and their fcverall difpofitions and 
behaviour towards the fupreme Lord, to whom all power and 
, Dominion doth abfolutcly belong over all creatures. This H 
indeed is the Dominion which God in this text gave to our meant. 
fir ft, and in them to their pofterity. This Dominion is limited 
to fijheiy fowles , heafts^ creatures living on earthy as the Words of 
the text plainely (hew. Secondly , while man continued in 
his innocency and integrity, as he had power & ability given, 
and continued to him to rule, order and difpoie all thofc crea- 
tures aright in all things; ib hee had a true right and intereftin 


228 Dominion hjl by man/efiored by (hift. 

them given and continued by God. Thirdly, as there was* 
bond of duty laid by God on thefe creatures to obey man and to 
yeeld to his uptight will: fo there vJZsadifpofiHon, inclination 
and fitneflc m them to obey man in all things which hee 
in his wifedome thought fit : And therefore this Rule and Do- 
minion it may bee called dominium pater nnm % a fatherly, loving 
and fweet Dominion and Rule of man over them. But this 
Rule and Dominion being forfeited by man, and loft by mans 
(in and fail , together with his ovvne life and welbeing, is no 
more to bee challenged or ufurped by man, or by any ofhispo- 
fterity , but onely fb ferre as it is refiored by Chrifi who is the 
hire of all things, and the onely begotten Son, by whom the 
Father made all things , and by whom, as by the I^ord creatour 
Rcftored wit ^ hi^felfe^ce g avc tfi i s Dominion to man, created in his 
xn Chrift. image. Now this Dominion, Chrift hath reftored to men in 
divers and levcrall degrees*, as they differ in ftate and condition. 
I. Firft, to the eleel: and faithfuil Chrift hath purchafed and 

procured , that they, as they are his members united to him, and 
adopted to bee children of God in him, fhould have a right and 
intereft in all things, not onely on earth but alfoin heaven; fo that 
they may make uic of all things fo farre- as they ferve to helpc 
and further them in the way to heaven, and to the fruitionof 
God ; fo mollis teltificd, i Cor. g 9 si, 22. where the Apoftle 
faith, all things are yours: whether Paul, or Apollos, or Cephas, or 
the World, or life, or death, or things prefent, or things to come > all 
are yours, and yee are Chrift s, and Chrift is Cods. 

Over the creatures on earth they have that Rule and Do- 
minion given which is mentioned in my text; but with fomc 
differences may appcarein divers particulars. 

Firft, Adam had rule over them onely to order them, and 
make ufc of them for contemplation and delight,' 

Secondly, Adam had Rule and Dominion over them all in 
his ownc Perfon ; but the eleel: have now a general I right to all, 
but not a fpeciall rights every man in his ownc Perfon, to every 
living creature: They may make ufc of all living creatures which 
come within their fight and knowledge , to contemplate on 
them; but they may not take into their pofiejfionjxot kiil,eat, and 
tike Ipo ile ofany but fuch as are wholly loofe from other men, 


What riobt an umtmeratt man bath to the creatures . 229 

and which God by lawful! mcancs gives and puts into their 

Thirdly, as Adam had power and ability to call and com- 
mand all living creatures; io they had an inclination and dilpo- 
frtion to obey him. But the cleft have not that naturall power 
and ability, nor the creatures that inclination; becaufe of the 
vanity and corruption, which (till remaines untill the full re* 
(hmptioncomC) and all things bee refrored, and all creatures de- 
livered frotii bondage of corruption, and reltored to the glorious 
liberty of the Sons of God^Rom. 8. 2 1 . So much as God in his wife- 
dome iindes fit for man in this eftate of grace, fo much power 
over the creatures hee gives to him ; and fo much inclination 
and fitnefle to the creatures. 

Secondly, to men unregenerate , Chrift hath purchafed and 2. 
procured a kind of common and fecondary Right and Domi- 
nion over the creatures; that is, both power and liberty to ufc 
them, lo farre as they icrvc for the common weale and order 
ofthe World, and the benefit of the elect. Some have poiTeiTion 
given them, and power over the creatures, that they may live 3 
and grow ,and continue in being till the time of their conver- 
iion and regeneration, when they rtiall have a true intereftin 
Chrift, and to all things in and through him. Somi wicked 
men, not elect,have them lent of God; and Chrift ha:h procured 
that they fliould have the ufe and poileflionof them, either for 
the good ofthe eleel who live among them,or the benefit of their 
eletl fticcejfors and chofen poftenty which naturally fhall come 
of them* , and to whom they fhall bee inftruments of natural! 
being. So long as unregenerate men have poflelTxon of crea*- 
tures either given by men, or gotten by induftry, labour and 
other meanes which are not civilly and naturally unlaw full, 
fo long they have Dominion over them, and power to life 
them joynea with civill right, which Gods law allowcsby the • 
procurement of Chrift and for his fake. I have a little digreited, 
and gone beyond my bounds in {peaking of this Rule and Do- 
minion as it is reltored by Chrift, for that is proper to the Rate 
of grace, and not tobe^ handled 11 nd«:r the creation. It is do- 
minium regium y re gal I 'Dominion, or rather in part tyrannical I and 
violent, in rdpect ofthe creatures which are naturally k> averfc 


2 3 o Qoi the difpofer and di/pmfer of Ins creatures, 

from it, and their native inclination is quite againft it, in fomc 
mea&re and degree. 
j j j The third thing next in order after Dominion, is the food? 

The food which God allotted both to man and to orher living creatures 
of man in on earth in the date of innocency, exprefted Verfe 29. 30, 1 have 
the crea » oiven y oh every herbe, bearing feed, which is upon Earthy and every 
twn 4 trcc ' ln w hich is the fruit of a tree yeeldmg feed; to yon it (ball bee 

for meat, 30. And to every beafi, fowle, and creature living on 
earthy 1 have given greene herbe for meat >and it was fo. Nowhere 
wee cannot underitand the creatingof heroes, trces,and grade, 
fit tor the ufe of man and other living things j that is rehearfed, 
Verfe 25. Nor Gods bduz direction of men and beads to eat of 
theie; nor anaturall appetite and inclination given to Man, and 
other creatures to affecl: and defirethefe things: but the words 
doe exprefle thus much, that God the Creatour is the oneiy 
Lord , and all power and right is in him to difpole and give 
them, and the ufe of them; and man and beads had no right to 
the herbesytreesyfruits^andgrajfey but of the free gift of God. The 
' 9 nrD , I give, or have given, doth fully exprefle a free gift. Ip 
that hee laith, that herbes, bearing feed, and trees yeelding fruit, 
Jhall bee to mankind for meat, and greene herbe or grajfe /ball bee 
meat to the U^fi^ andfowles, and creeping things which live on 
earth-, This fhewes, that man in innocency was to feed onely 
oniuch things, and as yet hee had no other meat allowed, and 
other living creatures did all feed on grafle> Hereby alfo it is 
manifeft, that all herbes, bearing feed, and all fruits of trees 
were wholfome food for man , and all green graffe for all 
other living creatures which move on the face of the earth: 
Otherwife God would not have given them to man and other 
creatures for meat. From the words thus opened, wee may 
obferve fome profitable indrucYions. 
Dottr. I? From all the words joyntly together, which fliew the Domi- 
God the nion which God gaye to man,and the food which he allowed both 
cnelyab. to nian ailc j other creatures; \Vee may learne,that God is 
foluteLord^g onc jy aD £ i ut e and fupreme Lord of all creatures, and no 
creature hath right to rule over others, or to meddle one with 
•another; but, by Gods free gift , our meat, our drink, and what- 
soever wee have in this World, God gives it freely to us; and 


God the ancty ab/olute Lord of all creatures. 

wee have no right to any thing but from him. If'mans wife- 
dome, power, knowledge, and ability to rule the creatures, and 
their fitnefle and inclination to obey him, had intituled him fuf- 
ficiently, and given him a true right, there had beenenonced 
of Gods giving this Dominion; and io if his appetite to herbes 
and fruits, and their fitnefle to feed and delight him, and the 
concord betweene the appetite of living creatures , and the 
greene grafle had given them a true right to it, what need had 
there beeneofthis gift, and that God fhouldfay, Behold I give 
to yen every her be and fruit far meat} &c. In that therefore thefc 
two are here recorded as free gifts, of God, this dodtrine 
flowes naturally from hence. And this is aboundantly con* 
firmed by other Scriptures, as Gen. 1 4. 19. where Melchifedcck^ 
Gods high and royail Prieit,inblefling Abraham, cab God the 
fojfejfour of Heaven and Earth; that is, fuch a Lord as holds in 
ins hand and poffeflion by an abfolutc right, Heaven and Earth, 
and all that is in them, fo that none hath any right to any thing 
in them, but of his free gift; And Dew. 10. 14. it is fa id, that 
the Heaven , and the heaven of heavens is the Lords, the Earth alfo 
with all that therein is. Alio T>falme 24. 1. the Earth is f aid 
to bee the Lords , and the fulneffc thereof \ the round World and they 
that dwell therein; and Tfalme 50. 13. the fo*fl« «fthcfdd>yca y 
and the whole World u mine faith the Lord, the fa ma alio is te- 
ftiftcd Pfalme 8p. Ii. and lob 41. 11. And lob confeffeth 
that all that hec had was Gods to give and take away- at his plea- 
fure,M 1, 2i.We have alfo a ftrong argument to prove this from 
the quit-rent which God requires, and men arc bound to pay 
to God , and to whom hee alTignes it in teftimony of their 
homage, and that they poffefle nothing, but of his gift as te- 
nants at will, that is, the tythes of the fruite of the Land, and 
.of the Cattell, and of all incre.ife, all are the Lords quit-rcnt,and 
were paid to God by all the faithfull, even to his Priefts and 
Minifters who Minifter before him, and have him for their 
portion, Levit. 27. 30. Gen. 14.20. and 28. 22. and Num. 1 8, 

This fhewes, that God may law rally take away from wicked 

men, and appoint others to take from them whatfoever they 

:,ifhc beta plcafcd at any timej and it is no injuftice, neither 


2 3 2 All Tbee have but knt m c/God. 

have they caufe to compiaine, becaufe they do? not acknowledge 
him their Lord, nor pay due rent, nor doe homage to him by 
honouring him with their wealth and fubftance. It is held to 
bee no wrong, but ;' Lift and lawfull for earthly land-Lords to 
ieaze into their owne hands, and take away from their tenants 
thehoLiies, lands and rarmes for which they wilfully refuse to 
pay the due rent, and wilfully deteineit; much more is it juftice 
in God, the chief e and abfolute Lord of all the earth and the crea- 
tures therein , to call: men outofthofe houles and lands, and to 
deprive them of ail their increaie and revenues, for which they 
refule to pay their due homage tythe and quit-rent to him, 
and to his Minifters and Servants, whom hee hath aflignedto 
receive them for his ufe and fervice. 

Vfi %• Secondly, this admonifheth lis to acknowledge, that all wee 
have is Gods, and all ourhoufes, lands, goods, and riches, are 
but his talents lent to us to bee employed, as for our owne be- 
nefit; fo for his glory chief ely , and the good of his Church. Alio 
itjuftly ferves to incite and ftirre us up to render thankj , praife, 
and due lervice to him for all, and to pray to him daily for a 
blefllng on our meat, drinke and all neceffaries , and to begge 
at his. hand the free ufe of his creatures, and a true right unto 

yf e j # Thirdly, it ferves, to fhewGods %kq.2X mercy, bounty and fa- 
therly indulgence to us, in fuffering us to have and enjoy £o many 
bleflings and good creatures , which wee have forfeited by 
our finnes and doe daily forfeit by not ufing them aright, but 
abuung them, and neglecting to pay a tenth at lead for our quit- 
rent to God; yea, and all or the moft part, if hce requires it at 
our hands for the neceflity of his Church and themaintainanceof 
his truth.Ifearc,and juftly fufpec1:,that if we examine our felves* 
few will bee found among us not deeply guilty in this kind; 
as many other wayes, fo efpecially for Sacrilegious detaining 
of tythes and due maintenance, which God hath fcparated to 
himielfe for the upholding of his publikc worihip, and the 
preaching of his word, and continuing of a learned and faithful! 
laborious miniftery in his Church, 
j) 6 ft r i § Secondly ,.. w T ee hence learne, that in the &ztf ofinnocency 
'man had no power over living creatures to kill, 5 md eat them; 


.All creatures at unity before mans fait. % » * 

Neither did one bead devoure another and feed on his fleTh^ 
but the food of man was onely herbes and fruits of trees ; and 
the food of beafts and birds was the greenc herbe and graffe 
ofthe field, the words ofthe text ihew this plainely. And other 
Scripture* intimate fo much, that in thcflateofinnocency lyons 
and ether ravenous beafts did live on grajfe, and no creatures 
did hurt one another, as Ifa. n. 6, j and 65 21. where the 
Prophet defcribing the abotindancc of peace which lhall bee 
in the Church m the mod fiourilhing and happy times ofthe 
Gofpeil , and letting it forth by the ftate of innocency faith, 
that the Wolfe and the Lambe, the Leopard and the Kid, the young 
Lyon, Calfe and Fatl'mg, and the Cow and the BeareJhaU dwell 
and feed, and lye downe togethrr^ And the Lyon {hall eat graffe or 
ftraw like an Oxe or Bullocks , md they fh all not hurt ^ nor defirc? 
in all Gods holy mount aine; that is, men fhall not kill and eat up 
beafts, nor beafts one another. And indeed it is molt manifeft, 
that death entered into the World by fin and mans fall , Gen. 2. 17. 
and death came upon all by mans fim% Rom. 5. 12. and that 
the corruption, vanity and confuiion, which is among the crea- 
tures, did proceed and iflue from the fame roote, Rim* 8.20. 
And they had never groaned under the killing knife and [laugh- 
ter , ifmanhadnot iinned and brought them into thztfubjettion 
to vanity. 

Thisihewcs, that mans cftatc, wherein God created him yr ffXm 
was a mod fwcet and happy eftatc, full of joy, peace, delight and 
contentment; and man had no want, nor any thing w hich hee 
could diflike; but all meancs to make him thankfuil to God, and 
joy full before him. The meat and food of man, and of all living 
creatures was iuch as the earth brought forth in aboundance 
by Gods bleiftng without labour; they needed not to feeke it 
by toile and travell ; it was plentiful! every where, and they 
had variety of all tilings which might give them content; 
there was no death', not fo much as of a creeping thing; no hurt, 
nor killing, no crying nor groaning under vexation; no cove- 
ting, matching and ravening ,cvcry creature had enough. And 
yet man by Satans temptation afpired higher , and fo did fall 
into want mifcry and bondage to death. His fall was ofthe 
Diveli and^ his owne fclfc, God gave no juft occafion. And 

R there- 

234 Main nonrijJiment in innocency ^hat. 

therefore wcc cannot now under this corruption cxpccT any 
fteadfaft fatisfa&ion and contentment in this World, no wo ver- 
runne with confufion, nor in any worldly thine:. Let us abhorre 
our owne unfatiable defires , and watch over our wandring 
kids , and drive to keepe them under, left they make us further 
(tray from the right wayes of God, and plunge us deepc into per* 
ffi 2. Secondly , this ferves to fliew , that with Gods favour and 
biefling, and to man fober, temperate, and of a good conflitution e 
the herbes , corne, and fruits of the Earth, and trees, are a fatti- 
fjing nourishment for this prefent life. It is not fifh nor rlcfh, 
nor all the dainties and forced dimes of the World, which 
can fo nonrifh and ftrengthen a man, as herbes and fruit could 
have nour idied our firft parents in innocency. It is not there- 
tore by bread ox any ftrong meat, .that any man can live or doth 
live, but by the word which Cometh from the month of GW,by 
that mans meat is bleffed to him and made a refrefhing nouri- 
shing and living food unto him. 
D&Ur. 3 . Thirdly , in that all herbes , bearing feed, and all trees y eel ding 
finite , are here faid to bee given by God as fit meat to nourifh 
man , and all greene herbe or graflc to other creatures; Hence 
wee learne 7 that all fruits of all trees, and all herbes bearing 
feed, were wholefome meat for man, and all greene grade to 
beads in the date of innocency. All poifbnand unwholefome 
quality ,tade and fmell in herbes, plants, trees, and grade, which 
hurt man, or bead, came into the World by fin , and are bitter 
fruits of mans fall and tranfgreflion, and ofthecurfc which his 
difobediencc fcrought upon the earth. For all whatfoever God 
made, was good in it fclfeand evilland hurtfull to none; And 
if all herbes, trees, and grade had not be^ne good, wholefome 
and pieafant, God would not have given them for meat to man, 
or any living creature. 
Yje. The confideration of this point is of good ufe to keepe us 

from murmuring and grudging againdGod, as if hee had crea- 
ted the poifon of herbes, and unwholefomnefie of fruits, upon 
which men and other creatures forfeit even unto death and de- 
ftruftion. So often as wee fee any fuch thing happen and come 
to-pafle, or difcerne any ill quality, ta(le and fmell in herbes, and 


Mans habitation in mnocer.cypleajant, 235 

unfufficicncy in fruits and herbes to nonrifh, and fee living crea- 
tures killed, and their flefh eaten for ncceility of mans nouriuV 
ment, let it put usinmindc and remembrance of our fin and 
fall in our firlfc Parents, from that integrity wherein wee and 
all other things were created. Let us bee aliiamed of our dif- 
obediencc which makes the ground curfed unto us. Let the 
groancs of beads ilainc for us, and their bloud fhed and poured 
out with Itrugling, and with cryes and iighes : Let the fb wre- 
neffe of wilde grapes, the loathfome finell and bitterneffc cf 
ibme herbes, and fruits, and the poifon of lbmc plants, all and 
every one fmite us with the light of our naturall corruption, 
and make us loath our (innes , and figh and groane under the 
burden of them, and labour to fubdue corruptions, and put away 
ourfinnesby repentance. 

The fourth thing, which I have propounded to bee confide- I V. 
red after the creation of man, is the place of his habitation Mans ha- 
in the ftatc of integrity , that is defcribed by A/ofes in the b '" c j on ir ; 
fecond Chapter from the feventh verie to the fixtcenth. inaocenCT 

ss4nd the Lord, God planted a garden Eafrward in Eden , and q qt ^ ^^ 
there hee put the mankind which hee had formed, 9. And out of the 
ground the Lord God made togrvyr every tree pic af ant to fight and 
good for food , the tree of life in the midfi of the garden, and the tree 
of knowledge of good and evilL IO. And a river went out of Eden 
to -water the garden, and from thence it was par ted^ and became into 
fower heads > &c % 

In the defcription, as it is here laid downc by Mofes, wee 
may obferve two maine things. 

The firft,thatGod beforehand provided a place ofpleafant habi- 
tation, and of exercife for mankind; and fo io jne as the male and 
female were formed, he placed them therein. This is plaineiy at- 
firmed, Yerfe 8. whereitisfaid, God planted a garden^ m^Verfe 
1 5 . God put man into it to drejfe and keep it. 

The fecond is aplaine dcicription of the place in the 8. Verfe, 
and fo along to the 1 5 . Verfi. 

In the defcription it felfe , wee may obferve divers notable 

Eirft , that the place of mans habitation was mofl pleafant; z 
a garden, that is a plot of ground chofen out for pleaiure and 

K 3 fruit- 


23 6 Ofthepkcc of Mans habitation in hmocency. 

fruitfulneffc , planted and beautified with all both goodly and 
fruitfuil trees and plants. 

2. Secondly, that it vtzschofen and planted by GodbimfeJfe, and 

prepared and made ready for man, that fo fbone as they were 
Formed, hee and the Woman might bee put into it. 

5. Thirdly, that this garden was fcituate in £<^*,that is,a region 

Eden, an d country moft pleafant; for in the Hebrew text the name 
pi?, (ignifies pkafure and delight, 

4« Fourthly , it is faid to bee Eaftward in Eden,znA that in a two- 

fold refped : Firft , becaufc being in Eden it was Eaftward 
from Canaan the Land of the Israelites, for whom Mofes wrote 
this Hiftory, and gave it to them, when they were come into 
the borders of the Land, and had taken poflfeflion of B afhan 
zndGilead. Secondly, becaufe it was planted in the E aft- fide of 
Eden towards the Sun-riling, which is commonly the moft plea- 
fan t place for fcituation. That Eden was Eaftward from Canaan 
in the land of Mefopotamia towards Babylon, it is manifefl by 
this , becaufe Euphrates was the river which went out of Eden^ 
and watered the garden : and Euphrates runs through the coun- 
try of Mefopotamta clofe by Babylon, which country when/*. 
cob journed unto from Canaan , hec is faid to come into the 
land9f the people of the Eaft, Gen. 29. 1. That the garden was 
on the Eaft-fid? of Eden; it appeares evidently by this, that the 
river which watered the garden, did run through Eden Eaftward 
towards Ajjyriah and. Babjlon in one ftreame or great river, 
and when it came to the garden it was parted and became foure 
ftreamesor chanels; one of which, to wit, that which runs by 
Babylon retaines the name of the maine river ,.and is called Eh— 
phrates^s appeares Verfe 14. 

5> Fifthly , this garden is defcribed by the commodities of it; 

Firft, it had in it every kind of tree both pleafant to the fi$ht- y 
both the goodly Cedar which is faid to have beene in the garde* 
of the Lord, E&ch. 31. 8 and alfo good for food, that is, all 
trees ycelding fruit, Secondly, it had in it two Jpeciall fruit- 
trees, wtitcb were of lingular ufe ; the tree of life, and the tree of 
knowledge of good and evilL Thirdly, it was watered with a 
river which went out of Eden, that is, proceeded out of the Weft 
fart, of Eden 1 and watered it by dividing it fdfeinto/Wf/*- 


Of the foure 1\tVers of the Garden of Em. 237 

vcrall ftreames which did run through feverall parts of the 
garden, to moiften the ground, and to cherifh the roots of the 
trees; after which parting of the ftreames and running through 
feverall parts of the garden, not by any labour or art of man, 
but by Gods appointment fo ordering and difpofing them, 
they did not meet againe nor gather thcmlclves into one cha- 
nell; but ran apart from thence, and were parted, and became 
foure heads or ftreames running in foure chancls into feve- 
rall parts of the country , and into ieverall lauds called by feverall 


The firft here mentioned is Pijhon, which takes a compafTe The rivers 
to the land of HavlUh, which is a countrie bordering upon the m lt * 
upper part of the Terjian Gulfe:it was firft inhabited by Havilah 
tneSonofC«/&, and by his polterity ; it borders on that part 
of Arabia, which Ifhmads pofterity inhabited, which wee call 
Arabia deferta. For wee read, Gen. 25. 18. that they dwelt 
from havilah to Shnr, that is, in Arabia defer ta- t and when Saul 
was fent to flay the Amale kites ,hee fmotc them from Havilah 
aithotigoefi to Shur, 1 Sam. iy. 7. that is, along the coaftsofthc 
JJhmaelites. In this land of Havilah, the text iaith there is good 
gold, and Bdtlwm, that is,atrea which yeeldsa whitilh gum, 
and alfo there is Onyx* ft one. 

^»Thc fecond river, in Mofcs dayes, was called Gihon; and it 2. 
takes a comp3rTe toward the land of Cu[h, that is, not Ethiopia 
which is alfo called Ctijh, but that part of Arabia which borders 
upon Chaldaa. For ail Arabia and Ethiopia are in Hebrew 
called by the name of Ctijh, becaufe all thefe lands were inha- 
bited at the firft by Seba, Sabtah x Raam^h, Sabtccba, Sbeba, and 
Dedam, which were the Sonsof Cujb, asappearcs, Gen, 10. 7. 
And that part of Arabia which the Midianites inhabited , is rVEO 
called Ctifij; For Mofes his wife, being a MidUnitifi-woman PI#X. 
as wee read, Exod. 2.1s called a woman ofCn[h, Num. 12. that 
is of Arabia, not of Ethiopia as our tranllaters doe render the 

Third river is called Hiddekell& it is the ftrcame which gocth 3: 
Ealt ward towards AJfjriah, and runs into the great river Twis 9 
Which parts AJfjriah from Mefopotamia. 

And the fourth river is that which retaincs the name of * 

R S the 

258 Saint Hteroms mm* s about the Garden of Eden. 

themaine river Euphrates, which in Hebrew is called Terah; 
becaufeit makes the land watered by it fruitfull above others. 
This is the description of mans habitation in the Itateof inno- 
cency as it is here laiddowne, and expounded by the helpc of 
• other Scriptures, and not according to the vaine conceipts of 
men which have no certainty nor truth in them. 

Before I come to obferve from hence any fpeciall point of 
inftru&ion, I hold it neceffary, Firft, to fhew the variety and 
multiplicity of vaine, uncertainc, and erroneous opinions of di- 
vers ancient fathers and other later Writers concerning this 
garden, and the particulars thereof before mentioned; all which 
are by certaine ground laid downe m this expoiition, and by 
cleare evidence of Scripture and ftrong reafbns eafily con- 
Opinion i« Firft, Saint Hierome, being milled by the tranflation of A- 
quila, which runs thus ,GW had plated a garden from the beginnings 
doth hereupon conclude, that Paradife was planted before the 
Com/iem* j-i eav enand Earth were created; which Opinion is moftridi- 
u® z culous, and contrary to common fenfe and reafon: For where 
there are trees growing out of the ground i and rivers and 
ftreames watering them, there maft needs bee ground and 
earth. It was imporTible for trees to bee planted and to grow 
out of the ground before apy earth was created. Wee here may 
fee, how wile men may fometimes build caftles in the aire, and 
that the mod learned of the ancients have their errours; and hee 
who was counted the mod learned of all the Fathers in the 
Hebrew tongue 3 doth here miferably miltake the Hebrew 
pnrafe; For though the Hebrew word CTOpo Mikedem> which 
is here tranllated Eajlward^ or on the Eafl-fide, when it is fpoken 
ofGodorotChrid, doth iignifie in the Prophets fro?n ever- 
ladings or from eternity, as Mich* 5.1a. Bab. I. 12, and Pfalme 
74. 12. And when other things arc faid tobec Mikedem, the 
word Signifies either from -eld time , or from the dayes of old , as 
Pfalme 77. 6. and 143.?. where David faith, I will remember 
:'-,: dayes of old \ and Nchem. 12. 46. from the day es of old, even 
from David and Afaph they were chief e of fingers: Yet fometimes 
it fignities Eafiward, or on the Eafl-Jide^ or from the E aft, as 
aopeares rnoft plaincly, Gen, 3,24, where it is ufed to fignifie 


Sever all opinions concerning the GirJm of E Jen. 229 

the [Eaft-fde of the garden where God placed the Cher hi m; \ 
Gen. 12, o . where i« is faid, that- Abraljam came to a mount 
which was Eafiw^d of Bethel y and had A ion the Eajhjia?, and 
fo undoubtedly it is ufed in this text for E aft ward > as our tranfls- 
torstruely render it. 

OrtgenmdPhilo Iudtttt lii\demknd. opine, did conceive P a, opinio < 
radiie to bee no earthly or bodily place, but to bee jprituaUy 
uxderftoody which opinion Epiphamut proves to bee agsinV 
reafon: becaufe trees growing out of the ground, and rivers, 
fhew that it was a garden planted on the earth, and earthly no* 

Some have held, that the whole World was Paradifc, and that c<; 
this garden did extend it folic over all the earth , which then 
was wholly a place of pleafureand delight; which isalfovery 
abfurd, for then Adam had bcene cafi out of ih? ivhole earth when 
God calt him out otthe garden,. and the land of C7*/5, and of 
havilah^md Ajfyria, towards, which the rivers did run aftev 
they were gone out of the garden , had beene Out of the World 
Beiides, wee read in the Scriptures, that Eden,[n Which the gar- 
den was planted, wasafpeciall country in Mesopotamia, near c 
Har an and, and the people thereof did trade with Tims, 
2 King. 1 a. 12. and Ez,ech. 27. 23. 

Ephrem held it to bee a remote place beyond the vaft Ocean Sea, Opinion 4 . 
and unknowne tons. 

Damafcene in his book 2 defide, chap. 14* held it to bee a place Opinion ?. 
higher then all the earth* 

■ Beda and Rupertm held it to bee a place next unto heaven , Opinion 6, 
reaching up to the Sphere of the Moone- 

Alexander Hales and Toftatus thought it to bee a place in the Opinion 7, 
<tire farre below the Moone. 

Others who held it to bee a fpeciall place in the earth doe Opinion 8. 
much vary and differ among themfelves. Luther conceived, 
that it contained in it all Mefopotamia, Syria .and E-jypt, 
Others thought, that it comprehended all Afia and A' opinion 9, 

fc. Others, that it was that part oi Syria, which is called tht opinion 10, 
region of Damafc;ts >becauic there was the Kings forrcit of goodly 
Cgdars, which is called Paradife, Nehcm, 2. 8. and there is a 

R 4 towne 

240 Sever all opinions concerning the Garden of Eden. 

townc called by the name of Eden and Paradife^ which is men- 
tioned as foinethinke,y4«wj 1.5. 
Opinion 11. The Opinion of Bon avert ure is,that the place of it is under the 

Ophiionli. BelUrmme in his bookc de gr/tti a pr/mi hominls> chap. lo. con- 
' fefleth, that it muft needs bee an earthly and bodily place plan- 
ted with trees; but farre remote from knowledge of men , and that 
no man can define where it is; thatk was not deftroyed in the 
general! deluge and flood of Noah, but remaines to this day; 
And that Enoch and Eliah were tranflated thither, and there 
are kept to fight with Antichrift in the end of the World. This 
Opinion is contrary to truth, and contradicts it felfe. Firftj, 
the Scriptures teftifle, that Eliah was not tranflated into an 
unknowne place on earth, but went up to heaven in a firie chariot. 
Secondly, tnat the waters of Noah's flood did prevaile 15. cubits 
above the higheft mountaines. And therefore if Paradife was an 
earthly place, as Bellarmlne holds, it muft needs bee deftroyed 
in the generall deluge, Gen.j. 20. Yea, if Paradife had beene 
preferved fafe from the flood, it had beene needleflfe and vaine 
labour for Noah to build fuch an huge arke. God might have 
faved him and all the creatures with him in the garden of Pa- 
radife. Thirdly, Mofes doth here pfainely define where this 
garden was, and whofoever with underftanding reads this 
Hiftory, may eafily define where it was. But where it is now, 
none can define; for it is deftroyed, and onely theplaceof itre~ 
maines flill. 

But, not to trouble my difcourfe with particular confuta- 
tions of thefe ieverall opinions; the very text it felfe, and that 
cxpofition which I have made of it by the hclpe of other 
Scriptures, doth as it were with one blaft blow them all away 
likecbaffe, and with one ftroke dam them all in pieces. For 
this text tels us, that this garden was planted in the earthy and 
God made the trees in it to grow out of the ground', that the 
ipeciall place of the earth , in which God planted it was Eden, 
that is, a place in Mefopotamia and Babylonia, knowne by that 
name, and mentioned by Rabfhekeh among the countries which 
the *s?ffyrian Kings had conquered, fcituate betwecne Iudea and 
JJfjrisi, and nearc unto Affyriah, 2 King. \y. 12. and 


The be(l mens opinions mctrtaine. 241 

by Ezckiel, cap. 27. 33. mentioned among the countries and 
cities, which trom Mefopotamia did trade with Tjrw. The 
text alio tels us, that it was iri Eden Eafiward, or on the Eaft- 
fidc, watered with a river which came out of Ed;n from the 
other part thereof; which river having divided it fclfe into 
foure ftreames, that it might run through feverall parts of the 
garden and water it, did no more meet in one, but from thence, 
that is, from the garden was parted, and became foure fpeciall 
rivers, taking their courfe and compafle towards feverall lands; 
to wit, Pijbott to the land of HaviUh, Gihon to the land of C«/&, 
Hiddekel, to the land of Afyriah, and Euphrates through Ba- 
ty/oniaand Chatdaa; all which are to Iewcs and naturall Ifrae- 
lites ( who ever fince the captivity of Jfrael to JJfyriah, and of 
Indato Babylon doe live a difperfed and fcattered people in 
thofe countries ) knowne by thofe old names to thefe dayes, as 
appeares in the Itinerarieof Benjamin Tudahnfis the lew, and 
divers other hiftorics. Now thefe things being plainely laid 
downcinthetext , explained by other Scriptures; the places* 
and rivers being often mentioned in hiftories, and knowne to 
the Iewes who dwell in thofe parts untill this day ; there is 
now no kaft colour or u\ow of rcafon left for *he divers opi- 
nions before rehear fed; they all appeare to be vaine & erroneous; 
the manifeft truth of this text overthrowes them all at once. 
And now from hence wee may learnc a profitable point of in- 
ftru(5lion. vi*» 

That nothing is more vaine and uncerraine then the opinion of BoUrinei 
witty and learned Men , both ancient Fathers and later Writers Bcft mens 
and Schoolemen, while they follow their owne reafon, & their opinion is 
owne witty conceipts without warrant from the Word of God. uneertamc, 
There is no furecr certaine ground which a man may fafely 
reft upon for the right underftanding of the Scriptures, but 
onelythe word of God it fclfe, either ipeaking plainely in the 
very text it fclfe, or by other places and teftimonies which are 
more full and plaine, compared with the obfeurer texts. By 
this meanes onely the Spirit o'f God doth enlighten our hearts 
and underftanding to know infallibly the true fenfe and mea- 
ning of them. Befides, many other proofes which ferve to con- 
fkme this, which I omit as not necefifary at this prefent; wee 


24 1 ® ne Scripture kjl interpretedby amherl 

have a firme argument from our Saviours owne words, Iohn i6 
ver. 1 3/ 14. where hee laxch , that now under the GofpelWfo 
Spirit fpeak^s not of him/elfi ( by fimpleand immediate infpi- 
ration without any word, as in the Prophets of old ) but what" 
focver hee pall he 'are , that pi all heefpeake^ and hee [ball take of mine 
and pj all pjew it unto you-, that is, hee ihall infpire and enlighten 
men, onely by my word which I have fpoken with mine owne 
moutb,and by theProphets and holy Men of God who have prea- 
ched and written. Alfo our Saviour andhis Apoftles,by their eon- 
leant praclife did ihew, that the fure ground of expounding 
and undcritanding the Scriptures in any obfeure places, is ,the 
plainer text and word of Scripture in other places. For they 
proved the truth which they preached and wrote in the 
Gofpeli by the Scriptures of the Law and the 'Prophets, 
Vfi, Wherefore let us not build upon the wifedome of men, nor 

upon the fmooth words of mansreafon ; but on the word of 
God proved by it felfe , and made plaine one place by another; 
Let us hearken to fuch preachers, and follow them as the fureit 
guides, who make the ^Scriptures by themlelves plaine and ma- 
nifeft to our underfhnding. As for them who can give no 
better reafon for doctrines of faith, hut teftimonies of Fathers 
and Schoolemen, nor follow any furer guide for expounding of 
Scripture but expofitions of Fathers framed by their owns 
conceipts, not proved by plaine texts ; let us not build too much 
upon them. And , above all, Let us hate and abhorre the pefti- 
lent DocTrrine of the Romifh Doctors, and all the Popiih fa- 
ction, who make the Canons of Councels, the opinions of Fa- 
thers, and the Popes determination , the onely fure grounds 
whereon men ought to build their underftanding of the Scrip- 
tures and their behefe of the word of God. 
Of the tree Another, and a fecond thing which comes here to bee more 
ot life, ai-i.l fu'jy opened over and befides the diveriity of opinions, is the 
the lK ^ z ^ tree of life ^ and the trie of knowledge of good andevill, which are 
C f good* ^'ftid to becinthe midfl of the garden. Thefe two trees are here- 
andcvill. fa tnc hiftory marked out and diftinguiftied from the reft of the 
trces,as being let apart by God for another ufc more then meere 
naturall.. Concerning thefe trees, there are divers and feverall 
opinions of ancient and moderns Divines. 


Of the Tree of life. 245 

Firft, concerning the tree ofltfe. Some tbinke it had a nam- Why the 
rail power and vertuein it to make mans body lively , and to "ccofhfc? 
keepe it from all wcaknefle, decay and mortality, till hce mould l * 
bee removed to heaveiv.this is the opinion of Scotns and tAqui- 
»^,\vith others. 

Some thinke, it had power and vertue in it to make man im- zl 
mortall, and to preferve him from death for ever, as Toflatmi 
and that, if a man had once eaten of it, hce would not have 
dyed, but fhouldhave enjoyed fuch immortality, as wee have 
by Chrift after rhelaftrefurredion. - 

Bonaventures opinion is, that it had fuch vertue and power 2; 
in it not naturall, but iupernaturall. But theie opinions arc 
moere humane conccipts contrary to reafon. For firft, the fruit 
of a tree,which is pulled off/raten^igeftedaand fo changed from 
that which it was in a bodily nutriment by the operation of 
mansfleihly ftomack, cannot in any reafon bee eenceived to 
have naturall power in it to give that to man which'tt felfe had 
»ot,to wit 4 immortality & immutability. It is a true? ulc,that no 
naturall thmg can worke beyond the mturall flrength of it^ neither 
can it give to another that which it felfe hath not at all; and this 
tree had no immortality, for it was deftroyed with the garden irt 
which God planted it. Secondly, fupcrnaturall power and 
vertue to give lire is the proper vertue and power ofChriftand 
of his Spirit whichworks in men, and derives life from Chriffc 
to them: but- there was no fuch communion of the Spirit, nor 
any fuch operation of the Spirit in any earthly creature before 
Chrift was promifcd; fuch arTiftance and operation of the Spirit 
is proper to the elect of mankind,and came onely into the World 
by Chrift,as the Scriptures tcftifie. 

There are divers learned men of better judgement, and they 4, 
hold that this tree of life is fo called, not for any vertue in it, 
cither naturall or iupernaturall ; but becaufe it was given of 
God a Sacrament and fcalcof life toman, and man wastoeate 
of it , not for bodily food onely, but that by eating of it hec 
might bee, as by a pledge from God, aflurcd that he fhould by 
God bee upheld in life; and alfo might bee admonimed , that 
his life is upheld not by any power in himfelfe, but by covenant 
from God confirmed by this fcale. 


244 Tb* ^ m °ftf e wjywbole of Qbrifl. 

Ofwhat But thefe differ among themfeives , concerning the life 

life whereof it was a feale and pledge. 

i # Somethinke, it was a ieale of that prefentife which Adam 

had i which in it felfe was mutable, 
a. Some thinkc,it was a feale of a better life, even of immortality 

and life immutable, which Adam iliould have obtained by con- 
tinuing in obedience for a certaine time. 
$. Others thinke, tbat it was a Sacrament , that is, an holy fignc 

and ieale of Chrift who is our life, and of that fpirituall life 
which wee have in him: thus Junius, and others of our late 

Nov/, to declare in few words what I conceive to bee the 
truth: Firft,I cannot conceive, that there were any Sacraments 
given to man before the promife of Chrift, and the revealing of 
Godspurpofe and counlelL in him: For a Sacrament is an out- 
ward element or vifiblc thing confecrated by God, tofignific 
and feale heavenly and fupernaturall things* and grace fpirituall 
and invifible: But heavenly and fupcrnaturall things, which be- 
long to eternall life in Chrift , and fpirituall grace, were not 
revealed to man in the ftate of innocency, before the promife 
of Chrift, which was made upon mans fall ; Therefore there 
was then no ufc of any holy ligne, or pledge of fupernaturall 
grace, or of any thing which wee obtaine from above in, and 
by Chrift. The tree of life could not bee any Sacrament, figne or 
fymbole of Chrift, or fupernaturall life in him. All that I can 
conceive or affirme with any warrant from the Scriptures is 
this, that the tree of life had greater and more excellent naturall 
vertue and ftrength in it then other trees, and the fruit thereof 
W&morefweet, lively and nourijhing; and by this meanesit was 
more fit then -other trees to bee not onely a fignc, fymbole, 
and pledge toman, whereby hee was to bee admoniilied that 
his life was to bee upheld by his obedience to God, and depen- 
dance upon him; and alfo to bee aflfured and confirmed, that God 
would uphold him in life: but alfoa feale of the covenant of 
works, whereby hee was to bee fctlcd in that ftate of life, 
wherein hee was created. I confefTe, that the wifedome of Cod 
(that is Chrift as hee is made untPus of Cod wifedome) is called 
4 tree e-f life to fuck to lay hold on htm 9 Prov, 3,18. and the fruit e 

The Iree of Knowledge of good mi eYill. 245 

of the righeow,(th2t is ctcrnall life,and all fa vingbleflings, which 
arc the fruite which the righteous, /uftirled and {anftificd in 
Chri r t, doc enjoy ) is called alfo theme of life > Trov. it. 30. 
Revel. *. 7. and d wholefome tongue , that is, the healing and 
faving word of the Gofpell, and other powerfull meanes of 
falvation are called 4 tree oflifcfProv. 15.4. and Revel, 22. 2,14. 
But ail this is by Way of aliuiion, and tends to teach us; not that 
the tree of life inParadife was a Sacrament of Chrift , and of 
faving grace and ctcrnall life in him; but,.that as that tree was a 
pledge and meanes to confirme man in his naturall life; fo Chrift 
and his graces, and his holy and healing word, are the pledges 
and meanes of heavenly and fupernaturall life. And this is all 
that I can Icarne out of the Scriptures, concerning this tree of 


The other fpcciali tree is called the tree of knowledge of H 
good and cvill; which I conceive to bee fo called, not becaufc fc^faJL 
it did beget reafon and undcrftanding in man, or did lharpen i e dac of 
his wit by any vertue or power in it, as lofefhns and divers He- good and 
brevees imagined; for then it had beenc good for man to eat €vil *. 
of it, and hee (hould have gained thereby: Nor becaufe Satan by 
th: lying Serpent perfwaded the woman that being eaten or, 
it would make them >ts God, in knowing goad and evilly for it was 
fo called of God before, when hee forbad them to cat of it: 
But the true reafon why it is fo called is, becaufe God having 
forbidden man to cat of it, man could not eat of it but by difo- 
beying God and tranfgrefling his commandement, and fo bring 
fin,and the bitter knowledge , and the wofnll experience and fenfe 
of cvill upon himielfc,which taftcand knowledge of evill makes 
the fweetnciTe of good better relived, and the profit thereof- 
better knowne and acknowledged, Againc, becaufe the eating 
,of this tree was mans (in and fall; and gave occafion to God to 
promife Chrift ; and to the Son of God to undertake as mans 
furcty to make fatisfa&ion for him, and to him; and 
out of his evill to raife up a new kind of good, greater and better 
then that which man knew before, even to bring him to the 
knowledge of fpiritual &fupcrnaturai good: In this rcfpecT,God 
might well call it the tree of 'knowledge of good and evill, upon his 
ownc foreknowledge of that event, which hee in himfdfe pur- 


246 Godprovides an habitation for man. 


pofcd to bring about upon that occafion. 

As for fearching and inquiring what kind of tree it was; 
whether a vine ^s lomc held;or afigge tree, as Theodoret thought;* 
or an apletree^s others; I hold it vaine curiofity, becaufe the text 
cals it by another name, by which none of thoic trees were ever 
called. Certainly thefruite ofit in it felfe was naturally good, 
and had no eviil quality in it, which could corrupt or ftaine 
mans nature, or inhife malice into him jas I fhall hereafter fhew s 
when I come to Qflds commandement by which hee forbad 
man to eat ofit. 

And thus much for the opening and expounding of this part 
of the hiftory, concerning Paradifc,the place of mans habitation 
in the ftate of innocency. The do&rines which hence arifc, 
I will but as it were point at and name unto you. 
DoBr, 1. Firft, wee here are taught, that Gods bounty to man, in the 
Gods creation was great and wonderfull, in that hee made him not 
S rcat onely a reafonabie creature endowed with wiiedome, know- 
ian. ty ° ledge, and ability, to choofc out and make an habitation for 
himfelfe above all other living creatures on earth: but alfodid 
provide and prepare for him before hand , and did plant for 
him a garden to his hand, a place of lingular pleafure and de- 
light, ftored with all delicacy for his dwelling and habitation. 
Wee count it a great bounty , that God gives us large places 
wherein to dwell, and gives us wifedome and art to build 
Houfes and Cities ; and materialls neceflary for building. 
And if GodblerTeus withSheepc, Oxen, and other profitable 
cattell, wee rejoyes to build dais, and folds, and encloiures for 
them; and Houfes and Cities for our felves, and acknowledge 
our fclves bound to bee thankfull. But God in the creation 
was fo kind to man, that though hee left other living creatures 
to the wide World, yet hee provided a P 'aradife of 'pleafure for 
man to dwell in, and to delight himfelfe; fo that this point is 
yfc. Whence wee may gather fteadfaft: hope, and comfortable 

perfwafton, that feeing God was of himfelfe io kind to man, 
being then but a mecre naturall creature, as to prepare for him 
lb plcaiant an habitation ; now when we: are made fpimaalL 
and by one Spirit united, to him in Cbrifl, and made Sons by re- 


Mm mtwtdly aver/efrom idkneffe. 247 

generation and adoption, he will much more provide an excel- 
lent habitation for us,even an heavenly which fhal fo farre exceed 
the earthly Paradife, as the ftate of a Son exceeds the ftatc of a 
fcrvant, and fpirituall exceeds naturall. 

Secondly, here wee fee, how uunaturalland monftrous mans yr e 2 ; 
ingratitude was, and is declared to bee, in that hee would bee 
drawnc by the fubtility of theDivcll, perfwading him by the 
Woman? and the Woman by the Serpent, to yeeld upon any 
promifc or hope of an higher eftate, to tranfgrcfTe any comman- 
dement of God, and difobey his word and revealed will , who 
had fo highly magnified his kindneffe, and made his Angular 
care and providence for him moll cleare and manifeft. But 
molt of all may wee all bee afhamed and confounded for this, 
that our fir ft Parents, and wee in them, would beleeve Satans 
lyes in the mouth ofa Serpent, and would give more credit 
to them, then to the word of the Lord our Creatour; as if all his 
good nefle and bounty were nothing in our eyes, which hee 
fhewed in our creation, and in providing fo pleafantand well 
furnifhed an habitation for us. 

Secondly, Gods putting of Adam> into the garden that hee D Q U r% 2; 
might dreffc it and keep it, <loth teach us, That man in the No idle- 
creation was made, and is by pure nature, moft averfe andab- ncffcal- 
horring from idlcneffe; and his true content and pleafirc in lowed^ 
this World is to bee in cxercife of his wit,reafon , and bodily 
activity. T he earth before mans fall was all fruitfull,and brought 
forth for mans ufeall ncceflary and delight full things without 
art, toile or labour \ fo that man might have fpent all his time in 
contemplating upon his creation, and all things created: but 
yet God would not, that man fhould live, neither did hee fee 
or thinke fit for man to live idle, and therefore put him to d>rjfe 
and keep the garden , in which hee had occafion to exercife his 
minde and body without toile or labour , onely for plealure 
and contentment. And therefore this doctrine is naturally 
gathered from hence, and all thofe Scriptures confirme it, 
which condemne Jloth andidlenejfe, and fend thefinggard, as a 
creature degenerate from his kind, tolearne of the Ant and 
nicancft creatures, as Prov. 6.6. And tell us, that idlenefle and ki*j hunger, and want 7 ar,d rmm % and decay to the 


248 Man by nature attive anl flirting. 

honfesofthe idle and fuggifi, Prov. ip. 1 5. Eccief 10. 18. and 
abottndnnce of idlenejje was the roote the evils, which came 
upon Sodim, Ezech, 16,49. But the diligent hand makcth rich, 
and brings plenty ef all bleJJJngs, Prov. 10,4. and brings men to 
promotion, n\\c and honour, Prov. 12. 24. and makes their fub- 
fiance precious, Verfe 27. and their foul es fat, c Prov»ij. 4, and 
caufctb even women to bee prai/ed in the gates t Prov. 31. And 
that man is by nature, active and, cannot brooke idlen^e, it ap- 
peares plainely by theftirring nature of children, who arc ne- 
ver quiet nor content, unlove they bee bufied one way or other; 
and by the reftlcffeneffe- which is in wkked men, who de- 
wife mlfchiefeen their beds, and have working heads, and cannot 
ceafe from doing femething , rather evill exercifes then bee 
Vfe. Now this being a manifeft truth , may juftly provoke and 

Bcuftit ftj rrc USU p t0 loath and abhorre id 1 ene ffe, flothi and lazinefle, 
therefore. as fp Cc i a ll marks and igominious brands of naughty perfons, 
miferably degenerated from humane nature, and from the 
frame and difpofition, wherein they were at the firft created by 
God. It was not good for Adam in innocency to live idly, and 
without excrcife, but hee muft b<?« bwfied as in miad by con- 
templation on God* w«rks; fo in body by ruling the creatures, 
drejfmg and keeping the garden, when aboundance of all things 
flowed to him without toileor labour; much more will it be 
hurtful! dangerous and pernicious to us,who are a people corrup- 
tcd,and in our whole frame out ofordcr,perverfe, and froward. 
If wee give way to (loth and idlcneffe, for if wee labour not, 
wee cannot have what to eat: but poverty will come upon us, 
like an armed man ; If wee bee idle and negligent in honeftand 
good labour, our perverfe, rebellious and reftlefle nature will 
lead as into evill exercifes and wicked works. As (landing 
lakes of water grow corrupt, (linking and unwhokfome ; and 
ground not laboured , (lirred r.p and tilled, will bring forth cor- 
rupt, (linking weeds, bryars, thornes, and thiftles: So our cor- 
rupt, nature if it bee not exercifedand bufied about vertuous 
adions, and profitable labours, will grow more corrupt, noy- 
fomeand filthy; and will carry us away into frowardncfTe, v«- 
uity and fmfull praclifcs , which will make us ioathiome to 


In innocerxy man en) dyed a conttntedefltfe. 249 

God and men, and will Speedily plunge us into mifery and eter- 
nail perdition. 

Thirdly, wee here fee and are plain ely taught, that man in Dollr. 3. 
innocencyhad aboundancc of all good things, necdfull for pro- Acomcnt. 
fit,pleafure, and full contentment; and wanted nothing which fullcftatc 
could bee required for earthly happinefle, to make him blcfled in inno * 
in this World, and fully content with his eftate and condi- cency * 

Firft, his rcafon and underftanding could not conceive, nei- xi 
thcr did hceknow any good, which hee wanted and did not 
poiTeflc, whereof hee was by nature capable: all wordly goods 
hee had at will ; and of heavenly and fpirituaii good which 
was fupcrnaturall , hee had no knowledge nor undcrftan- 

Secondly, hee had ail provocations to move him to fervc 2# 
God, and all bonds to tye, and knit his heart in love to God, 
and to make him wholly obedient to God, and dutifull and fer- 
viceable to him in his whole heart and ioule, body, mind, and 
ftrength. Hee had food at will, mod fweet, wholefome and de- 
licate, in all variety and abou.idance, without any care toileor 
labour ;the Earth brought itfortU of her ovvnc accord; the whole- 
fomc and pure aire did cherifh it , and ths.Sftnand Heavens by 
their warme influence did ripen, perfect, and prepare it to his 
hand. Hee had a moll: pleafant dwelling a garden beautified 
with all earthly errtawrtu, and a Paradife of picafiire and delight. 
Hee was Ugb in honour, dignity and promotion above ail living 
creatures both by Sea and Land, and had rule and Dominion over 
them all. His cxcrcife was without toile, labour or paine, fwect 
and pleafant. Hee had for the exercife of his minde all Gods 
works, thesontempfation whereof might fill his foulc with de- 
light and joy in God his Creatour; and for the exercife of his 
bodily llrength and activity ,Jhee had the drejpng and keeping of 
thegarden which was a woriu of pleafure and delight, not of 
paines and labour, for k needed no digging, planting,culture or 
tillage: his bufincfle alfo was without care and feare; for there 
were no theeves to annoy him, no eviUbcafts to hurt and f poile 
his garden,and to trouble & wafte his habitation; fo that without 
further proofe, this Doclrine is moft clearc in,and from the text. 

S The 

250 tyd not the Juibor of Mam fin. 

yr €% The confidcration whereof is of excellent ule to confirme 
God no us in this affurance,perfwafion and beliefe,that God in no refped: 
way the anycaufs or Author of mans fin and fall, neither did give him 
caufeof t h e [ ca nj occalion of difcontcnt with his prefent eftate, that 
mans fin, ^ v fecking to foare up higher, heeihould catcha fcarcfulldowne- 
fall into fin, and bring himfclfe in bondage to death,Hell,and the 
Divell. For wee f:e, God gave him all occafions and aboun- 
dance of bleflings as ftrong provocations to provoke feiin to 
lo/c his heavenly Ma jelly , and as firme bands to bind, and tye 
him to obedience. It was the Divell who firft breathed pride 
into man, to afpire and foarc above his eftate , and fuggeftcd 
into his heart evill iurmifes and thoughts of God .that God did 
iecketo keepe him from a better eftate by retraining him from 
Octree of knowledge , which by eating of the fruit thereof hec 
might obraine, and become like to Cod. Wherefore let no man 
charge God with giving the ieaft occafiortof difcontcnt to man 
to provoke him to fin; but let us bee humbled with the fight of 
our owne mutability, frailty and vanity, who in our firft Parents 
and beft eftate were fo fragile and mutable,and much more now s 
being corrupted and made fub/ed to vanity, and flaves of cor- 

Chap. XV. 

Of the image of God on man in inHC-csncy. Sundry opinions of it. 
What tie word Jignifieth : Zelcm and Dcmuth. Image of God 
naturally and fupernaturall. Differences between* the image of 
the firft and fecond Adam. Images ejfentiall, and accidental/. 
Particulars of Gods image on tyidamx info ule and body. Vfes of 


ANd God/aid , Let m make man in our image after aur like* 
nejfe. Vcrfeij. S$ God created man in hu owne image, in the 
image of God created hee him; Male and female created hee 

The gemrall Poftrinc of the creation of our firft Parents** 


Opinions concerning Qods image in Man. 2 5 ! 

the image of God, I have heretofore laid open out of ihefc words. 
It now remaines, tbaa I proceed to the Do&rincand Def;rip- 
tionofthat image of God in the fpeciall and particular p»intr % 
thereof; which I refcrved to the laft place, becauie it is the mame 
thing which difcovcrs to us the excellent ftate of man in in- 
nocency. As for the bleffing offruitefu<nejfe for the incrcaic 
of mankind, and mans Dominion over the creatures, plenty and 
variety of bodtlj food, and a pleafant habit ation y the earthly Pa- 
tadife,they are bvxextew* ^»rf,outward bcnerits:but the image of 
God containcs in it internal I blejfings of the foule, & of the whole 
man, as well as cxternall & outward benefits; & therefore I have 
firft dhpatched thcm,&now come to that image ofood,in which 
did confift thehigheft pitch of mans natural/ perfe&ion & felicity. 
In the handling of this point, if I fhould rehearfe the fevcrall 
opinions of the ancients; how they make a difference betwecne Opinions 
the image & likeneffe of God;how fomc make the image ofGod to of the 
bconcly in the foule; fomc in the whole man; fomc hold the r(Sdo-jJ na g e ani 
nable ioulc, as it is endowed with unMrftanding } will and memory, f k p nt ? c 
to be the image, and holineffe and righteeufnejfe to be the likjnefe of ° 
God; others hold that Gods image confilts in mans Dominion, 
&Lordfhip over the crcaturcsjothers.that Gods image con ifts in 
mans immortality; others in this, that man iiafprAtttall Jubflance 
in refpeel of his foule, others that the image of God, after which 
God formed man, is God the Son as hee is the image and cha- 
racter of the Fathers Terfon, and the ftmllitude is the holy Chofi; 
others that the image of God is the humane nature, which the 
Son was ordained to aiTumc, and did in fulneiTe of time take 
upon him : I f I mould rehearfe all thefc, and lay them open, and 
confute h much in them as in unfound, I mould fpend time 
ana weary my felfc to fmall purpofc. Likewife. it would take 
up exercifes of many houres, if I mould rehearfe the divers 
opinions, cueltions, and difputatiens of the SchooUmen&W which 
would trouble mens braines, and leave them in a maze or laby- 
rinth , uncertaine what to hold or beleeve; as alio the many 
deputations, abfurdities, 2nd contradictions of the Iefuits, by 
whichthcy contradict one another; and fomc of them them* 
/elves, in many things which they teach and arfirme concerning 
the image of God. Asforthcgrollc opinions of old Htretick*^ 

S 2 as 


Naturalt andjnptrmtmali e/Jentialllmaoc Ttbat. 

as of the M'ankhaaas, who utterly denyed the image of God 
in man; and of the Indians avA Anthrepomorpbites, who held 
that the outward forme and fharpe of mans body was Gods 
image; and of the Pelagians who held, that the image of God, 
in which man was created, was no other but that in which every 
man is now borm ; they are not worthy to bee named, it were 
loffc of time to confute them, and to difcover the abfurditiesof 

The maine ground which I will wholly build upon, {hall 
bee the word of God, written in the facred Scriptures ; and what 
I find in the lathers and bed moderne Writers agreeable to 
the Scriptures, that I will commend unto you $ and where I 
find them differing from Gods word, I will be bold to pro- 
fefle open differ t, and fhew my diflike ; that none may bee 
miflead by them, or by any who build, upon humane autho- 

But that wee may- understand this point piaincly and fully; 
I will firft of all fift the words of* the text, and fhew what is 
the image and lik^ne fie of God, and how wee are underftand the 
pkrafe of making man in his owne image , and after his likenejfe. 
And fecondly, I will fhew the particulars wherein man wa3 
made like unto God, and what is that image in which hee was 
wfv.u the Firft, the image of a perfon or thing is that which, though it 
wo: d mage differs in nature and fubftance, yet is formed by that perfon 
ggniftes. anc [ according to that thing, and in all things made like unto 
that whereof it is the image; in fo much that hee who knowcth- 
the perfon or thing it fclfe , when hee feeth the image, can dil- 
cerne, that it is the image, of fucha thing or perfon, and that it 
is very like him; and by feeing the true image; hee knowes and 
difcernes what a one the perfon or thing is, whereof it is the i- 
&, mage:this is the firft &the mod proper fenfeof the word image, 
and thus it is tiled where ftatuesoi gold, filvcr, wood, ftone, or 
other metall, made in the fhape of a man to reprefent him, or 
in fome other fhape to reprefent a feined God, are called images, 
as Num. 33.52. where God commands the Ifraelites to deftroy 
"he Idols of the Canaanites , and cals them molten images ; and 
\ King. 11. 19, the Idols cr ft awes made to reprefent BaaL 


TbCtoord Zclem explained. 25? 

the God of the Zidomans, are called the images of Baal. And 
man being made a tit creature to repreient God, and to (hew 
his glory, is in this fenfe called the image and glory of God, 1 Cor. 

Secondly ,the word CZJ ,*, Zelem % image. \% ufed k&t&ziwms, 2 . 
thatis,abuiively,tofignifiea vaine fhadow or bare forme and £««*• 
(hape of a thing ipithout a fab fiance - y fuch as is thefhadowofa 
man or other creature; or a fhape formed inthefanfic, having 
no being but in mans imagination, as Pfa/me 39. 6. where every 
man is laid, to walke in a vaine Jbadow, the word isttT>,Ze/em, 
image, and Pfalme 37. 20. the vaine fanfie and dreame of the 
wicked,that is,thc vaine felicity, which they frame to themfetves, 
is called by the fame name ZeUmjmage. 

Here in this text the word is ufed in thefirft fenfe, for fuch a 
thing, or fuch a creature as differing in nature and fubftancc 
from God, yet in that nature and fubftance is fo like unto God, 
and doth lliew forth the glory, wifedome, power and other 
attributes of God; that they may bee feene and rcprefentcd in 
fome good meafurc in the things, and by the things which arc 
proper to that creature. 

And an image according to this fenfe hath in it two things Two 
to bee confidcrcd, to wit the matter and the forme. things in 

The matter is the nature and fubftancc of the creature, diffc- an ima ^ J 
ring from the fubftance of the thing, whereof that creature is *• 
the image, and yet a very fit fubjed to receive fuch a forme, and 
fuch qualities as may make it very like the thing whereof it 
is the image; as for example gold, 111 ver, wood, and ftonc, dirKx 
in nature and iubftance from man; and yet they are fit to re- 
ceive the whole outward fhapc of a mans body, and to bee 
like unto it in all parts. If things bee both of one hi;id and na- 
ture, though the fimilitude bee never fo great, yet the one 1$ 
not called the image of the other, except k bee made fy, and 
according to it: as for example, O ic eggc is not the image of 
another, nor one apple, nut,or figge anothersimaiCj nor water, 
nor wine of the fame kind in feverail cup-, though they bee 
very like , becaufc they are both of one nature and of the 
fame kinde, and one is not made and formed by another. 

Secondly, the forme of the image is the ftkrnejfc andfimilitHde y i % 

S 3 which 

254 Tbe fbord Vemutb explained. 

which is in all the parts &propcr tics of a thing,by mcanes.whcrc- 
of it refembles that whereof it is the image,& is like unto it,& fo 
becomes the image of it;as for example,the formed (hape,& rc- 
femblance,which is in theimagc of gold,Glver,or ftone,by which 
it refembleth and exprelTeth all parts of a mans body, and the co- 
lour of it, by which it refembles a mans haire, face, hands, and 
cloathes, that is thelikenefle by which it becomes the image of 
a man, even of this or that particular man , and is kno wne and 
difcernedto bee his image, and in it his fiape is plainely feene. 
Both thefe are here to bee underftood in this word image ^ and 
Gods image containcs in it both the fmilitude ox refemblancc, 
by which man is faid to bee like unto God in all his naturall pro- 
perties, gifts,and endowments; and alfo his natirse y andfubftance , 
which though it differs from Gods nature and fubitance; Yet is 
a fit iubjed: of fuch properties, gifts, and endowments, which 
refemble Gods attributes and properties. 
Dmuih'j Ss condly, the Hebrew word rW^Denmth, which is here 
' j " tranflated iikene$e y is ufed in a twofold fenfe : Firft, it fignifies 
the (imilitude and likenerTe, by which one thing refcmbles ano- 
ther in all the fpeciall properties of it; thus it is ufed T>falme $8* 
4, where the poifon, rancour, and malice of the wicked is faid 
to have the Hk**cffeofthe poifon of afprs ; and Ezech. i, 10. the 
llkenejfe of the faces of the foure living creatures* in Ewehiels 
vifion is faid to bee like thefaceofaman^ and of a Zjw^andof 
an Oxe, and of an Eagle, and Dan. i o. \6. one is faid to touch 
» T)4niel % who had the Ukeneffe of the Sons of men. Secondly, it 
fignifietb the fam* that the word hnage doth, that is a thing 
which is made like to another, and is the very patteme which 
refembleth it in all parts , and properties, as 2 King. 16. 10. 
where the patter ne of the Altar of Damafcas which ^hazicnt 
to Vriah the Pried, is called the image of it . And 2 Chron. 4. 3^ 
the images of Oxen which Solomon made under the brafen Sea\ 
arecalkdfTO"! Demnth y the likenejfe of Oxen, and Ifa. 40. 18. 
an image made to reprefent God, according to thatconceipt 
of him,whrch men frame in their mindesjs thus called. 

Herein this text the word is ufed in the 1 'atter fenfc, and 
fignifies the fame, that the word image doth in effect , but in 
fc&vtfB order and manner. For the word D 1 ^ /awg*-, fignt* 


In bow many kinds the 'mage of God is diftingulfihed. 255 

fiesfirftarrat*^, and then the Hksn'fc by which tfiatcreature 
fo rcfcmbles God the Creatour^in ali the fpcciall properties of 
it, that it becomes his image. And the word VWQn y likenefie % 
fignifies firft xhzftmiUtudc, and then the creature; that is, fuch a 
fimilitude and refcmblance of God (tamped upon the nature 
and being of a creature, as makes it the very image of God ;1 
and fo thefe two words, Zclem, Image % and Demuth , Lil^neffc, 
are ("as the beft learned and molt judicious cxpofitors of this 
text doc affirmed the one the expoiition of the other; The word 
Image (hewcth, that the creature barely confidered is not Gods 
image} but by the naturall properties, and gifts by which it rc- 
fcmbles God. And the word lilgneffe fheweth, that the Jimi- 
litude alone is not the image, but asitfub(iftsinajSr/*£;<r#, and 
flowes from the nature and properties, which God gave it in the 

Vpon thefe grounds wee may cafily underftand, that the 
phrafe of creating man in Gods owne image andlikenejfc, fignifies 
Gods creating man of fuch a nature, and endowed with fuch 
waturall properties, gifts, and endowments; that hee doth in 
them all reiemblc himfelfc, and is his lively image very like 
to him; (hewing forth his divine properties and attributes of 
goodncfle, wifedome, power, knowIedgc,and in all things con- 
formable to his juft will. Thus much for the opening of the 

The next thing to bee confidered, is the Image it felfe , and Jmage of 
the fpeciall things wherein it doth confitt. And here I hold God nam - 
it ncceflary, firft to diftinguifri the image of God, and hislike- j- a ' ! ^ and 
nefleinto two kinds. The firft is natural/, formed in the :*crea-j. u ^ rnatlJ 
tbn. The fccond is fupernatur at I and fpiritaall, formed in man 
by the holy Ghoft dwelling in him. This diftinftion, thouqh 
divers people ( Lead by cuftome and humane authority more 
then the word of God J doe reject as a meere device of mine 
owne: yet I finde it plainely laiddowne in the word of God. 
For the holy Apoftle Saint Paul> 1 Cor, 15.49. doth in expreflc 
words affirme,that as there is both a firft Adam madeoftbeEartb, 
earthy jwhoby Gods breathing into him the breath oflife became 
a living foule in the firft creation jand 2ML0 afecond tAdam made 
a quickening Spirit* even the Lord Chrift from Heaven heaven Lj: 

S 4 So 

1 56 I be'differi nee bttweme tbe image 

So there is a twofold image of God in man; the firft :The image 
of the earthy Adam y 'm which hce was created; which though 
hee forfeited, and loft by the law of juftice: yet by Gods com- 
mon and generall indulgence in Chrift, hee iidio farrcretaine 
and communicate it though,grievoufly mangled & defaced, that 
wearefaid to have home it , who are Adams naturall progenic, 
and were created upright in his loynes. The other is the image 
pkil. 2. of*** heavenly Adam, the Lord Chrift, who being in the forme 
of God, e quail with God, did humble himfelfe to defcend from Hea- 
ven by taking our nature upon him, and framing to himfelfe 
out of the feed of the woman by the operation of the holy 
Ghoft a moll: pure and holy manhood, which did beare ( over 
and above the image of the firft Adam deformed with many 
frailties and all our infirmities , fin onely excepted, Rom, 8. -$. 
Philip. 2.7. ) an holy and heavenly image created and framed 
in his humane nature by the working of the holy Ghoft, which 
is given to him not by mcafure, Ioh. 3. 34. even from his firft 
conception, Luk. 1 . 3 5 . And this image as the eleft, regenerate 
and faithfull doe beare in part, in the ft ate of grace, while they 
are by the inward workc of the Spirit conformed to the image of 
Chrift) Rom. 2. 2?. and Qhrift is formed in them, Gal. 4. ip> So 
they ill ill fully and perfectly beare it m heaven after thelaft 
refurrc<?tion,i Cor. 1 5. 4p. 

And as the holy Apoftte doth diftinguifh thefe two images % 
and doth oppofc the one to th e other, making the one the image 
of the firft Adam, who was of the Earth earthy, the other proper 
to Chrift the fecond Adam, who is the Lord from Heaven hea- 
venly; fo hee doth jfhew divers differences betweenc them in 
his divine f:piftles, which are confirmed alfo by other Scrip- 
Differences Ekft, the image of God in the firft Adam was naturally it 
becwecne was that which was given him in the creation ; fo my text here 
the image faith, G od created man in his owne image: But the image of God 
or f he ftl ^in the fecond Adam was fupernaturall and fpirituall ; for hce 
2fJf. COn was ccncc i vec *> anc * f° rmc d in the wombe by the holy Ghoft, 
1 Lnk, 1.35. and his image is communicated to men, and they 

are changed into it by the Spirit of God, a Cor. 3.18. 
2 a Secondly, the image of God in the firft Adam was mutable ^ 


efthefiYflandfecQnd Adam. 257 

and Adam did forfeit it, together wrth his life and naturall 
being, by hisfinanddifobedience : And although God, out of 
his common favour and indulgence in drift, doth dill con- 
tinue it in fome degree to Adams pofterity ; yet it is much de- 
faced and deformed in all parts, and in fbme parts quite abolijhed^ 
and is now (tiled the /ikeneffc of corruptible man, Rom. 1.23. and 
the hkeneffe offmfu/lflsjhy Rom 8.3. and the forme of a fervanr, 
and likeneffe or' frailemen even as it was in Chrift, Phi/. 2. 7. 
But the image of God in Chrift is immutable; neither our fins 
which hee bare, nor all our infirmities, nor the Divell, nor the 
World, nor all the powers of darkneffe, nor the curfe ofthe/aw % 
which hee was made in his death, nor the wrath of God and 
the agonies with which heewraftled in his agony, both in the 
time of his bloody fwcat, and on the croffe when hee cryed 
out, My God why haft thouforfaken me? could deface or impaire 
that fpirituall and fuper natural/ image of true righteoufneiTe 
and holinefle , which was ftamped on hts humanity , and in 
which it was framed by the holy Ghoft; but over all thofe 
enemies and powers hee triumphed, even upon the Crojfe, Co/of. 
3. 15. and in his curfed death hee offered up hlmfelfe a facri- 
fee molt pure, holy and without fpor, Heb.$. 14. fo that his 
holinefle was- no whit ftained , nor Gods fpirituall image in 
himdcfaced,or dimin'ifhed. And as this fpirituall image could 
not bee diminifhed in Chrift the iecond Adam, our head: foil Rom 8.g?. 
isinde/eb/e and cannot bee defaced in any of his members truely IoJj *' '*• 
regenerate and united to him by the fame ipiiit; but it dayly an I4#1 - 
increafith in them, and they are transformed into it, from glory tCer.i.iS* 
tegtorj, by his Spirit in them, which is ftronger and greater 
then the Dive//, the Spirit of malice which is in the World, and nh. 4. 4. 
rules in the children of difobedience; For the Spirit feales them iCom.%* 
up unto the day of redemption, Ephef. 4. 30. And they can* 
not fin by apoftacy, and fall into infidelity and impenitency, 
I Ioh. 3. 9. becaufe the feed of God abide thin them. 

Thirdly , the image of God in the firft Adamvtzsmoft per- 2^ 
fell at the fir ft, for hee was created perfect with natural/ per- 
fetti**; and the naturall image of God was never fo perfect in 
any of bis naturall fons, as it was in him at the firft. And as it 
decayed and was defaced in him by his fall: foia all of his rx> 


2 5 8 The AifferenceiheVtoeem the image 

fterity who arc Gods elect, it gives place to the better image of 
Chriji; And in his Sons who are reprobates, it fhall bee utterly 
aboliihed at laft, and changed into the image of the Diveli, 
when they fhall bee pnnifhed with everlafllng deflruBwn from 
the pyffesce of God, jmd from the glory of his power, 2 Thejf. i . y. 
But the image of God in the fecond Adaw>is at the firftinthc 
lead meaiiire like a graine of mufiard feed, and ftili it increafeth, 
till at lad itcommeth to fiilnefie and perfection in glory. In 
Chrift our head it was not {o clcare, nor fo full at the rirft, being 
ecclipfed with our infirmities; but that hee did grow up in wife- 
dome, zndfiature, and favour with God and men, Luk^ 2. 5 a. and 
io this image increafed in him, and hee was more and more 
full of the holy Ghofi, till at length hee was perfected with glory. 
And to hkewife in the ftatc of grace, it daily increafeth in all 
the true members of Chrift , till they come to glory, and bearc 
the heavenly image of Chrift, and attainc to the fulnefie of him, 
as 2ppeares Rom, 1 2. z> 2 Cor. 3.18. and 4. 16 , Ephef. 4. 13, \6« 

Cofojf. 3. i o. 2 Pa, 3. i$;i 

Fourthly, the image of God in tsfdam condfted onely in 
fuch gifts and endowments as made him a perfect naturallman i 
capable of an earthly felicity: It did not enable him to iearch 
into the heavenly things of God , nor make him partaker of W- 
venly glory: But the image of God in Chrift confi&soffpirituall 
gifts and fuper natural I graces, which doe enable a man to fearch 
into thzdeepe things of Ged, which never entered into the heart 
of Adam in innocency , 1 Cor. 3. 9,10. or of any mcere na* 
turall man^ and which doe make him fit to fee God and to 
inheiite the Kingdome of heaven, 1 Cor. 15. 50. and Hebr. 
12. 14. 

The image of God in which Adam was created, did confift 
chief ely of originall righteoufoetfe 9 which was but a perfect na- 
tur all uprightness, and conformity of his reafon, undcrftanding* 
will and affections to the will and law of God, madeknowne 
to him in the creation, and alfo in the per fcd; frame anddifpo- 
fiuon of his body, and of all parts thereof, by which they were 
moft apt and ready to follow his upright reafon, will and af- 
fections in all things , and to move and workc accordingly; 
and the Scriptures attribute n© more to man, while hee bare 


of tlxfirfl and/tcond Adam. 259 

that image in the creation, but onely that Godm.idc man upright, 
Ecclef. 7. verfe lad, this was the heightand perfection ottbat 
image. But the image of God in Girift, the fecond Adam con- 
taines in it the rightcoufnefle and helincfe of truth, Ephefq, 24, 
that is, a rightcoufnefle wrought in us,by the holy Ghoft,and a 
true holinstfc and holy conformity to God, which cannot faile 
and deceive, and which doth elevate and lift pu ftp to heavenly 
felicity, andtheeternall fruition of God. 

The imtge of God in which Adam was made, was but the 6. 
uprlvhtnejfe of fervants y and conformity to the will of God; 
commanding as Lord and Crcatour under paine of death, GW. 
2. 17. But the image of God in Chrift is the image of Sons and 
Children , not onely adopted to God in Chriir; but alfo begot ten 
and borne of Gods immortal I feed, even his Spirit, and made 
partakers of the dtvine nature, loh, 3.5. Gal. 4. 5 . I TV? . 1 . 2 3 . 

and 2^.1.4. iM«3« &• 

JLaftly, the image of God in which Adam was made, did -7. 
not in the greateft perfection of it give that fkhtfi and faff>- 
ciency ef contentment, which might fettle his rcfolution never 
to dearc more; for hce, out of a defire to know more, and to bee 
liks God in knowing good and evil I , was cafily tempted and di awne 
by the Serpent to eat cfthc forbidden fruitc : But the image 
of God in Chrift, the fecond Adam gives fuch fo lid cemtem to 
Gods people, even here in this fraile life intheftate ofgrace^ 
where they have it but in part, that neither life, nor death, m 
Angels, nor principalities, nor porters, nor anguifh,perfecpition } pnill 
erf word , can make thtm willing to forgoe it for any other hope: 
and in the full perfection of it after the laffc rcfurre&ion , it 
brings falnefle of joy, contentment and fatisfaction, and fils men 
up with thefnlne(fe of God, Pfalme i6> 11. and 17. 15. Rom. 8, 
35. Efbcf^.19. 

Now ttide things which I have here laid downe by way 
ofplaine Doctrine, concerning the true meaning of the woruS 
inxigs and Ukeue^e , and the difference betwecne the image 
of God, in which the firft Adam was created, and the image 
of God in the fecend Adam Chrift, in which hec was formed 
by the holy Ghoit, and into which all the cleft are changed and 
raxed, v/ren they are regenerate and made new creatures in 

him : 

2 6o Images diftingufed into/tVtraitforts. 

him may fcrve for excellent ufe : as I ihall (heW| when J have 
defcribed the image of God, wherein our firft Parent, were 
created, and have laid downe, by way of Dodiine, the particu- 
lars wherein it doth confift. 

But before I can diftinclly defcribe tfo Image of which 

my text here fpeakes, I muftyeta little more diilinclly fhew 

the feverall forts of images which, are images of God, and of 

other things. 

Images There are images which arc effentiall andperfeft, to wit, every 

effcatiall, perfon begotten by another of his owne nature; and images 

denca*?'" wmcn arc accident all and imperfett. 

An effentiall image, is either abfolute and moft per/eft; or 
lejfe perfeEt. 
I. The effentiall image which is mofi perfeEt and abfolute , is one 

perfon begotten by another of the lame undivided fubftancc 
and being, in all effentiall properties equall and alike, diftincl: 
onely by per fonall properties andfubftftence. Thus the eternall Son 
of God is tke Image oftbsFatber of whom he is begotten from all 
eternity, of the lame nature and individual! fubftahce, For the 
lccond perfon the Son , confidercd according to his divinity 
limply as God, before his aiTuming of our frail e nature; isfaid 
to bee in the forme ofGed> that is,his perfon is of the fame effencc, 
glory, and majefty with the Father, and bee thought it no robbery 
to bee equall with God , that is to have ail effentiall properties of 
God equall which the Father, as the Apoftle tcftificth, 'Philip. 
2.6. and in this refpcdl, hee is called the image of the invifble 
God 3 Colojf. 1. 15. and the brightnejfe of bu glory, and the exprejfe 
image of his per/on, Hebr. 1.3. which words though they have 
refpect to Chrift, as hee is the Wor -d made fit /£,and God incarnate, 
revealing God in his goodneffe, wiiedome , juftice, mercy, 
power, and the like : yet they mud not bee limited to his incar- 
nation; but are extended to his deity as hee is the eternall Word 
the Son the fecond Perfon , by whom the father created all 
things, and who with the Father doth uphold and fuftainealf 
things as the words immediatly fallowing doe fhew. For 
indeed the eternall Word the Son, is in the forme of God, one 
and the fame God, of the fame fubftance, glory, and ma;eity 
with the Father, and onely diftinguilhcd in pr/fcvallprcperticst 


The fimfictiiw of the word Ima^c what • 161 

reUtiom , and fubfiftence: And therefore hec alone can truely 
bee called the image of God in this ienfe, which is molt per- 
fect and abfolute. 

The cffentiall or fubftantiall image which is fejfe perfect then *J 
the other ,is either naturall oxfupematuraff. 

A naturall effcntiall image is one pcrfon begotten by ano- HmrtU* 
ther of the fame nature and kind of fubftance, and equal! and 
alike in the fame kind of natural! properties, but not of the fame 
fingular iubftancc and individual! properties; thus every Son 
of man is the image of the Father which begets him; for though 
hec hath a feverall loule and body, and feverall properties which 
are of the fame kind, but not the fame fingu tar with thofe of 
his Father : yet becaufe his body and foule, and all the faculties 
of it, are ot the fame kind, and in the outward forme rcfem- 
bles his Father, and his Father may bee feene as it were in 
him, therefore hec is his Fathers image and made in his like- 

A fuper natural! effcntiall image is a nature or perform who And fits 
is fo begotten of God by the holy Ghoft, given to bee and abide / >iwir *" 
in him, as the immortal J feed of God; that hee is made partaker T1 ' 
of the divine nature, that IS 9 hath not onely , and 
lpirituall gifts wrought in him, by which hec is made fit to fee 
and enjoy God: butalfois united to God, and God becomes his 
portion for ever. 

This image is either primary or fecondary. The primary image 
of this kind is onely Chrift as hee is man, or the humane nature 
cfChrift, which God formed and made in the womb of th% 
virgin fo pure and holy by the holy Ghoft from the fir ft con- 
ception, in which the holy Ghofl came upon her , and the power of 
the Almighty over-fhadoived her 3 Luk^ I. that it was not onely 
mod pure and hofy, and full of the holy Ghoft from the firft 
being of it ;but alio was perfonally ajjumed and } united to the eternall 
Son of God , the fecond Perfon in the blefTed Trinity , and fD 
became the firfi borne of every creature, CoJojf. i. 15. and the 
firfi fruits which doe fancTifiethc whole made of the elcdf, 
1 Cor. 15. 23. and hee head from whom the Spirit is derived 
unto all the cleft, Ephef. 4. 15, fo that they become a kind of firfi 
ftmts of Gods cr<iMnres % Um % 1. 1 8, 


262 Seyerall forts of images. 

T\\z feconiarj fupcrnaturail image is every elect, regenerate 
child of God, begotten and borne of his Spirit, flicd on them 
through Cnrift, Tit 3. 6. and fo created a new man after God, 
in right cox fnefte and hslinejfe of truth, and made far takers of the 
divine nature % one with God in Chrift and by Chrift, Ioh. 17.23. 
I call this a fscendarj image, becaufe the eleA become this image 
wQUmmediatlj % but after a fecondary manner, by dcttving the 
Spirit from Chrift ,and by union with God in him, I call it 
a fupcrnaturail image, becaufe it is above mans nature, and be- 
longs not to him in the creation, nor conlifts in any naturall 
froperties or refemblancc. And I call it an t 'jfentiall image ^, be- 
caufe every regenerate man, hath in him the holy Ghoft dwel- 
ling as thefoule of hujottle, quickning the whole man; which 
Spirit is of the fame eflence with the Father and the Son. And 
in refped: of this Spirit, and his gifts dwelling in his taber- 
nacles their bodies, and furnifhing them throughout; they are 
truely called, and arc indeed, anew image of God, and new en a» 

Allthcle forts of images arc to bee excluded out of this text, 
for our firft parents are not here faid to bee created after God 
ejfentiallj ovfuper naturally, butonely in the accident all and na- 
turall image of God; as 1 have in part fhewed before, and Hull 
alfb hereafter more fully fliew in all the particulars. 

The accidentall er imperfeEb image of a thing or of a pcrfbn, 
is a thing or perfon fo framed and made by another, as by a pa- 
tcme, and after the likenefleof that patcrne, that it doth very 
much referable it inlikencffeandfimilitude, but yet is not every 
way equall, nor in all things fully alike, nor of the fame nature 
and iubflance with it. 

In an image of this kind, there are required two things nc- 
ccflarily : 

Firft, that the thing which is the image bee verj like, that 
whereofitisthcim3gc; yea ioJike, that it muft relemblc and 
rcprefent either the nature and cfTentfcU forme of it, or the 
outward forme and figure, or feme fpeciall properties and pro- 
per, qualities of it ; or all theic together, and yet in a different 

Secondly, that it. bee formed smdmadf by that whereof it U 


What requires in eVtry image. 2 63 

the image, and according to the patcrr.c of it : Where any of 
thefe two is wanting , there can bee no image ac all; as for 
example, One eggc is like another in nature, iiibftance, and all 
naturall properties; yet that eggc is not the image of the other, 
becauie the one is not made by the other, as the paterne of it: 
io wee may fay of an apple, or a figge, and of many other things; 
but the forme of an egge or apple made in chalkc, or pafte, or 
\vax,is the image of an egge or apple,though not fo like it as ano- 
ther egge or apple, and tarre different in nature and fubftance, 
becacfc it is formed by it as by a paterne. And agsine, though 
an eggc bee formed in the body , and of the naturall fiibftance 
of a bird , and fometimes wormes are bred in the bodies of men 
and beads ; and tf]g egge rcfembles the bird in whiteneflc or 
in variety of other colours, and the wormes teemelike mans 
ficfh, in whom they are bred, both in colour and fubftance, xn& 
in life, fenfc, and motion : yet they cannot bee called imager be- 
caufethey are not like in (hape nor outward forme, nor in any 
property, but onely in fome qualities, and fmall refcrabhnce, 
But the picture orft*t*e 9 made after a man, and in manv things 
like him, though more like another man then him , yet it is h'vj 
ima-re, and not the image and picture of another: io the figure 
of a man appearing in a glafTe when hec (lands before it; though 
it differs in nature and iubttancc, and is but a vanishing ihado w : 
yetbecaufein outward fliape, forme and colour it is very like, 
and is expreffed in the glaue by him looking in it, therefore is 
his image. And the imprejjion of a damp or fealcmadein wax 
or well tempered clay is the image of that ftampe or feale, 
though it bee not perfectly like, by reafon ofjfomc fmall defects 
in the wax, clay or damping; and the imprcflion of another 
kale engraven with the fame figure or letters may bee in di 
points more like , and yet not the image of it, becaufe it was 
not made after it, but by another feale engraven with the fame 

Now then, that wee may plainely fee that man was created, Man macJo 
and how hec was created in the image of God , and mzdc after * i[QrCi0d * 
ha Ukeneft , and that hee is a true accident all image of God^w*' 
lit Creator) Wee are to obferve and take notice of thefe two 


2 64 Man atone beam Gods image. 

i. Eirft, that God did frame mans nature, even bis whole foulc 

and body after him/} Ij e 9 with intent that both his fubflance, 
and natural! properties and endowments might take their pat- 
terne from him his Creatour; that is, in a word, Godhimielfe 
was the originall and chiefs pattcrne by which alone man was 
made and formed. 
2 * Secondly, that though divers other creatures bad in divers 

things more resemblance of God, then man had; as the heavens 
in large comprehenfon of the vifible Worlds the Sun in glorious 
bnghtne§e y beauty and Majefty; thehigheft heaven in glory and 
immutability} And all creatures, as they have eflence and being, 
and were made good and perfed in their kind,have,fome more, 
ib me fewer impreflions and refemblance of God in his eflence 
and attributes: yet none can bee called -r^ image of God among 
all vifible creatures but onely man; becaufe, though God formed 
all things after his owne will, wifedome, and goodneflc; yet 
heemadeno vifible creature living or without life, fofarre re- 
fembling himfelfe in his nature and effentiall properties , that it 
might j uftly or with good reafon bee called his image; but onely 
man. As man alone of all creatures under heaven was made 
in the image of God- 9 fo man alone doth fo plaindy refemblcGod, 
is fo (lamped with the imprcflion of Gods properties; and in 
bis whole nature and frame is made {oft a fubyctt for God to 
dwelling and to bee conformed to God; and wherein God may 
fewhis wifedome, power, goodnefle, liberty of will, juftice, 
mercy and other attributes, that hee onely of all vifible crea- 
tures can trucly bee called the image of God* 
Particulars Let us now therefore in the next place come to the things, 
wherein wherein this image of God did confift, and in refped of which 
the lrna^e ^ings manis faid to bee created'mthe image of God, and to bee 
ftool tnc nP - a S c of God his creatour. 

Conformi- Hrft, it is a moft.certainc truth that the image of God, in 
ty of Adam which man was created, is nothing clle but the conformitjof 
tp Gpd. mAn untQ God; and man is truly called the image of God in ref peel: 
of all thofe things wherein hec doth, more then any other vi- 
fible creatures, refemble God in his divine ejfence and properties, 
Kow this conformity of man unto God is twofold, primary, 
or fecondary % 

Mans conformity to God in bis Stale. 265 

Trmnru conformity, is fcatcd in the Soule of man, or in man Infoulc 
Recording to his foule the chiefe part of his fubftance. 

Secondary conformitie is that which is in man according to 
his bodie, and confifts in the body and in things which belong ro 
his body. 

Conformitie of Man to God in his Soule, is either in the 
Nature of fub fiance of his Soule, or in the naturall Faculties^ 
properties 9 and Endowments of it, 

Firft, conformity to God in the Sab fiance of his Soule, is the 1. 
fimilitude which mans Soule hath untc the nature and fubftance In the fub- 
of God, in that mans Soule is not a Corporeal! fub fiance ^ asall ftan.coht. 
vifibie Creatures are, nor a Material body created of any former 
matter, but it is zpure Spirit y cvcn a fpirituall, incorporeall, invi- 
fible and living fubftance, and (oit iscalled. 1 Cor. 2,1 1. & Heb % 
12.15. and both here in my text 5 and 1 CV 1$. 45. a Living 
Soule which lives and gives \i£c to the body ; and in thefe things 
it is like unto Cjodvi\\o> in his nature and being is a Spirit,ora. fpi- 
rituall fubftancc,asour Saviour affirmes,^ 4.24. & is called the 
Jnvijtble God Coloff. 1.15, & Tim. 1.17. and the Living god 
pfat. 42.2. (8c Icr. 1 o. 1 o. & Ioh. 6, 96. and his Etcrnail power 
"and Godhead are called Inv.ifible things, iiom 1.20. yea as God 
faith of himlclfe, Ifa 40. 18. So wee may truely fay of mans 
>oule, that it cannot truely be likened to any viftble things neither 
can any bodily fubftance refembic it. 

Conformity to God in the natural! faculties, properties and in* i] 
dowments of his Soule is the likcneffe, and (imilitude which man In £ he na. 
inrefpe<5fcofhisr*v*/<?«, under [landing, liberty of will, de fires and ^^ **" 
affeilionsy all upright and perfect, had unto Gods wifedome, j£ tic 
knowledge, goodnetfe,libertie, juftice,mcrcy,and the like . 

Firft, man in his perfect under fi anding, naturall light, wife- l\ 
dome and know lcdge,didrefcmbls Gods wifedome,and know- 
ledge of all tilings. For man in his creation, and naturall integritic 
did rightly know G od and himfelfe, and did perfectly under ft and 
alithcworkes, and the nature of all the creatures of God, and 
what was good both for himfclf and them, fo far as was needfull 
in his kind, and in that naturall cftate, and what was juft for him 
to do: and howtobcare him(elf uprightly towards God and all 
his creatures, That he had the knowledge and u»der Handing of 

T all 

6 6 Adam natmallwi/dcme appear es by four e things. 

all thefe things fufficiently to make him perfect and happie in 
that cfiate; and that there was no errour or ignorance in him 
of any thing which was meet for him to know , appears moft 
plainely by clivers things, 

Firfi,by Gods giving to man dominion and rule over all living 
creatures, andpucing him in the garden to dreffe it, and puting 
all the earth in Subjection to him ; which God would never have 
done* being infinitly wife and juft, except he had knowne man to 
be one who undcrftood and knew the nature of the earth, and all 
Herbes, Plants, and Trees in it, and by hisreafon, wifdome and 
knowledge was able to rule all Creatures with difcretion,and to 
order them according to their feverali natures, and to dreffe the 
garden, and fubdue the earth. Adams naming of all the Creatures, every one by 
foch a name as did mew the nature of if; fothat God did approve 
andconfirme the names,*/**. 2. ip and every Creature did in ail 
Jikelyhood come to Adam being called by that name. 

Thirdly, by the underftanding which he bad of the nature of 
the woman (when God mewed her to be formed of his Rib) and 
prefently giving her the name WX, woman ,or Jhee Mar^ 
Gen. 2.2}. 

Fourthly, by Adams (tec converfing with God, and bearing of 
his voice without fear or dread ; which was a ftrong evidence of 
an upright heart and pure confeience, and that he knew God, and 
ihis goodneffe ; and that though God was greater then he could 
comprehend 3 yet God would notl urt him, butuphold himfc 
long as he did obey Gods will revealed to him. 

Secondly, man did refemble God in theperfeft liberty and 
freedome of his will, and in the perfeel conformity of it to the re- 
vealed and knowne will of God, and in the teadincfle and natu • 
xall forwsrdneffe of it to will whatsoever good was within his 
powcr,and of himfelf to will nothing which was un Juft and evill: 
by thefe things be rcfembled the free will and liberty of God, 
and his jaftice and equitiein all his doings. That mans will was 
moft free to good, and that he had power of will to obey God 
appearcs, , . _ 

Km 2 F,rft by tni - that the Law of God was written in bv heart as 

theruk cfhis life and aftionsjapd that fo deeply, that it remaines 


Mam Tfillmoflfree before bis fall. 1&7 

in the heart of his corrupt feed in Torn: meafure,& cannot be quite 
blotted out. Ashe knew by his undemanding and in hisminde, 
lo he was willing iu his heart, to will and to do all accordingly • 
& of himfelf would never have fal!en,if the DeviH,that Spiritual 
wickfdnejfe, had not by the Serpent (educed and deceived him/ 

Secondly, by the power md Dominion which God gave to 
him over all Creatures vifible 3 which he would not have done, if 
man had not been as ready in mff i as perfect in knowledge to rule 
them aright. It is not knowledge alone,but uprightnefle of heart, 
and will, and power, and frccdome to will juft things juftly, 
which God requires to make an able and fufficient Rnler, as *Da- 2tor#1 ^ 
vid teftifleth in his /aft words. 

Thirdly, it is manifeft by the commaundemenc which God 
gave to man to be obeyed under paine of death y which he being a 
good God would never have impofed on man, if mans will had 
not been free and upright; for then he hadlaidafnare which man 
could not have avoided; and had required more of man, then 
man by his naturall power was able to performe. 

Thirdly, man was aifo conformable to God, and to hisjuft ^ * 
will, goodneffe, purity andhappincfle, in all the defires andaffe- " 
&iom of his heart and foule, He of himfelf defined no more but 
that which God gave him and allowed him 5 hee loved God us 
his Crcatour, and the author of all his good ; He did rejoice in 
Gods favour, love, and bountie • He delighted himfelf in all the 
naturall gifts which God had given him,and in the good creatures 
of God ; there was perfect Harmenie undfweet cenfent between 
hisreafon, undcrftanding, will, and his defires and affedions : 
whatsoever he knew to be good and juft, that he freely willed^ 
defired and afetted*.thcYc was no diforder, difcord or repugnancy 
and diffention in any power or faculty of Soule, or Body ; no 
lead caufe of griefe, but all Joy snd content. And of himfelf he 
never would have defired more then God had given, nor coveted 
an higher eltate, if Satan hadnot/*££^M mchdefire,andfedu- 

* This, and indeed all the whole perfect uprightneffe of man in 
all the powers and faculties of his Soule, in his understanding, 
will, defires and affections is moft clearly confirmed by plains 
tcftimonics of holy Scripture, 

T* Firft 

1 6 8 Mans cmjormtty to §od m his r £ody. 

Tirft, by thcbft verfc of this Chapter, where ttfc {"aid that 
when God had created man Male and Female, and finifhed the 
Creation, he far? every thing which he had made % and behold it 
if as very good, If man was very good; then was he upright in all •" 
tf)<s faculties of the Soule, in his underftanding, will, de-fires and 
affections, and there could be no diicord among them • for that is 

Secondly , we have the teftimony of the wife Preacher Ecclef. 
7. 3 o. that mm upright, that is,tn Originall rjghteouf- 
neffc, conformable in his upright rcafon, underftanding, will and 
affecl fons to the j'uft revealed will of God. 

Thirdly, experience tcacheth that the things which make man 
afhamed, are ignorance anderronr in mind and underftanding, 
ferverfneffe of iviU y difarderly Ms and affections ; and deformity 
anddifiemper either in Soule cr Body. Now Man and Woman 
had no caufc of fhame in them, neither were they ajhamed when 
thty were nal^d &nd went uncovered in all parts, asWeereade 
Chap. 2. 25. and therefore in the ftate of innocencie all thefe 
caufes of fliamc were far from him, andhe moft free from them. 
In body. The Secondary conformity of man to God y which is in man 
**• according to his Body ^confifts in things which belong to the body 
and to the outward vifiblc man. 

Firft, wee miift not conceive, thatGodis any kind of body or 
frodMyfubfiaHcefaskhfyhctnous Vorftius and other Armmians 
have written) neither that God hath a forme and fliapc like a 
mans body, as the Anthromorphites of old dreamed : For it is 
manifeft, that in him, who is infinit, and fo prefent in all places, 
that he is in his whole ellence in every place; fiiould have any 
difference j or limitation or dimenfion, or meafure of fevcrali 
parts, which is necelTarily required in the f orme,fhape and fub- 
ftaricc of mans body and every bodily thing, 
% Eutyet, becaufeinthemoft wife, and artificial! frame, and 

natural! temper of mans body ; and the mod fit di/po/itien, and 
order of all parrs, by which it is a ^ fubietl for a reafonable 
Soule, and the principall parts of it jit inftruments for the fevc- 
rali faculties of the Soule, whereby to perforrce their many and 
fevcrali Workes and operations the witedome, power, and good- 
mflb ofGoddidfiiins tor^ of mans body, more then in all vi- 

Mans bodify conformity to God. 169 

fible creatures ; and the Image of God appeared in it. Ma;is eyes, 
fight, and all outward fenfes did reprefentGods omm ci nee and 
knowledge of all things; his hands did (he wand represent *~>ods 
power to do and worke whatfoever he will ; hi? amies did reprc- 
fent Gods ftrcngth and power to fave bis People, and to dcitroy 
his enemies ; The beauty, comclinch r e,& naturall ma/efty which 
appeared in mans body & upright ftature, by which he did over- 
looke all creatures, as one molt fit to rule them, did the w forth 
and reprefent the glory and majeftieoFGod and his Lordfiip, 
dominion^ providence And power , by which he governs all things. 
In a word though mans body was mutable in the Creation and 
fate of itsnecency, and might fall from that ftate s yet fo long as 
man didcontinue in that (late, and did not fin, he had that lively 
vigour , & psrfeEi temper of body, which did free him from death, 
and all evills which tend to hurt and dedruftion ; which alfo was 
able to uphold him in life andflrengthf r ever, if fin had not en- 
tred, and fo in fome fort he was immortaS andimpajfible, not 
fubjeel to death ex my pafflon and furTeringof hurt and evilly* 
his body, and fo there was in his body feme Ukencffe of Cjods im~ 

For proofe of this Wee have good arguments in Scripture : 
Firft God himfclfihewech that rhurthcr, andfhedding of mans 
bloud is a defacing of his Image in which he created man ; and 
for that caufe he threatens revenge of murther, and of violence 
offered to Mans bloud y Gen. 9 . 5 , 6 . No w murther and (heading 
of mans bloud is a defacing of mans body \ therefore the body 
alfois afccondarielmageofGod. 

Secondly, the Scriptures which fct forth Gods attributes and 
workini by feverall parts of mans body, as his omnifcience and 
providence by Eyes y Pfal % -$ 3, 1 8. 3 ♦£>*». 16. 9 his activity and 
working Hands, as Exod. 15* 16. Pfal. 44. 3. Ifa. 5 I. 9. his 
love, and mercy by Bow ells as lfa.6^. 15. Jer. 31. 20. his pu- 
nifhing and revenging Iufticc by breath of 'mouth and noflrilU 
TfaL 38. 15. and If*. 11.4. his fecret thoughts, counfells and 
purpofct by Heart >Pfal. 33. 11. his utterance of his mind and 
will by Mouth % ]er. 9. il< thefe Metaphors do (hew thatthc 
body of man and chiefc parts of it have fome fimilitude of Gods 
attributes and work*s,arid fo mans body is fecondarily the Image 
andlikcncffcofocf. T3 Thirdly, 

27 o Qods bounty infinite. 

Thirdly , the Scriptures (hew that death if the wages of 
Sin> and all mortality and fub/eclion to evills and pafllons, which 
tend to hurt and corruption came in by mans difobedience and 
fall, as appears, % om. 5. 12. and 6. 2$.andby Gods, coinmina- 
rion, Gen.i* 19. But in the Creation and ftate of innocencie man 
had in him no Sin, nor any inclination of himfelf to any evil! or 
Sin ; therefore he was after a ioxti^mor tall and incorrumb U 
in his body, and had even in it a fimilitudeof Gods immortality. 
Fourthly, the body was in all things conformable to the Soule, 
fit and ready in all things to follow the motions of the Soule, to 
be directed and moved by the upright reafon will and affections, 
and todccallworkcs unto which they move it; and therefore 
as the Soule was made in the primary Image and likenefife \ fo the 
body in the fecondary Image and likenefTe of God. 

Laftly , to conclude this do&rine of Go ds I mage in which man 
was created, wee may not unfitly arfirme, and with good reafon 
hold ; that though man in the ftate ofinnoccncy,beforc the pro- 
mifeofChrill, had no Supernatural/ gifts, nor any part of the 
Spiritual! Image of the iecond Adam ; but was oncly a perfect 
naturall man,and notimmedhtly 9 & pr oxi ma potent i a capable of 
fupernaturall grace, nor of the Divine nature : yet becaule his na- 
ture and whole frame was fucfias had a poffibility, or remote 
power, to be made partaker of the Holy Gholt ; uuited to God in 
Chrifl, and made partaker of the Divinenature, and anew crea- 
ture,or new man framed after God ; therefore he in this refpeel: 
may be laid to be treated in the Image ofQod ; that is in fuch a 
forme, and of fuch a nature, as had a poflibility to become like 
unto Chriit, and a new creature made in the Spirituall Image of 
y/ e Now this Dofrrine of Gods Image briefly and compendiouHy 

proved in all parts 9 is of excellent ufe. 
I. Firftthis difcovers the infinite riches of the bounty cfgodpif- 

KJchesof fing all bounds; and declares his goodneile to be like a great deep 
b° dS ie to w ^ c ^ can never be founded, in that he hath overcome all our 
man, ev *^ an< ^ ma n c e towards him with his great goodneflc to us, and 
and when wee had forfeited our being, arid his Image in which 
he created us good and perfect with all namrail perfections, and 
did juftly deferve to degenerate and be turned into the Image 

Qods bounty infinite. 


eftheDivel/, and to become in the likenefle of his malice, and 
andmifery ; he out of his owne meere mercy and free grace and 
bounty, did give his Sonne, and the Sonne did freely undertake 
to humble himfelf,to become a fecond ssfd.imjmdc in a better 
Image^vcn an heavenly and fpiriruall, that he might not onely 
fafpend the execution of Gods juft fentenceupon mankind, and 
procure to the tirft Adam and ail his poftenty the continuance 
of their naturall being for a time, and of fome reliques of the 
Image which they had wholly forfeited t but alfo mightrenuea 
gre*r number chofen out of mankind, and rcftore them to a better, 
even an heavenly Image-Joy transforming and changing them in- 
to hisfpiritttalland [nper natural L Im tge, and making them con * 
Formable toir, and partakers of the Divine naturejoy themydi- 
call dwelling and powerfull operation of his fpirit in them- Here 
is that which may dazle the eyes of men, and the fight of Angcils, 
when they looke into it; and which may aftoniihall hearts of 
*nen, and confound all humane reafon, when they thinkeofir. 
and heare it preached ; That God in finitely jufi And holy ,to hate 
arid punift Sin, fliould,by ourevill,and Sin committed againft 
himandhis juft will and Law, take occasion to be more good, 
^ndtofhew greater goodneiTe to us; and when wee deferved, 
to have no being but in Hell and eternall mifery ; hath raifed us 
up tothcfpirittiallftate of grace fiom which we cannot be burled 
and call downe by all the powers ofdarkenefle, and by which 
wee (hall afcend to the blefled ftate of Heavenly and Eternall 
glory. Here is Iwcfurpajfing all knowledge y the depth whereof 
Wee may admire y And adore in filence ; but neither can our hearts 
conceive, nor our tongues exprefle the fulnejfe thereof. 

Secondly , this former difcourfe {hewes, what a vaine and foo- *. 
li/L thing it is for CHnftian people, to be fo wedded to the opi- Vfe 
nions o r godly learned men in all points, which have bcene^ octo 
formerly received and commonly beleeved ; or to be fo ftrongly ck '," 
concciptcd and perfwaded of their full undcrftaniing and per-^^ °£ 
fed knowledge of all the Scriptures , and of alltrtth taught unerring 
jn the written word of G O D ; that whatfocver they have 
taught , and commonly held , they will cleave too till death ; 
and they will receive and embrace no tnath , nor any ex- 
poficion of any Scripture, which haih not bcencbcforc obierved, 

T 4 taught, 


2 jz The Serf turn alone make m Tbife tofahation. 

taught and published in the Sermons and writings of the godly 
learned Ancient Fathers, and the founded ^W^modcrne 
Divines. Iconfeffethe Scriptures alone, dayly read and heard 
by men of ordinary capacity and learning, are able to make them 
wife to Salvation ; For the way to life may eafily be difcerned 
by their guidance,and direction. But there arc degrees of know- 
ledge, and divers mcaiures of Guifts ; and when a man knoweth 
enough to bring him on inanordinarie way to life, yet there is 
ftill more knowledge to be learned, and a greater depth of k»cw- 
U&ie to be found in the Scriptures which are doubtfull, obfcure> 
and more hard to bcunderftood ; and many new cxpofitions of 
divers places , which more plainly and fully confirme fi/id 
trtttbes formerly beleeved j which he that fearchcth out and diC- 
covereth,doth thereby get more ftrength in faith, and growth in 
grace, and more fpirituall joy and comfort, and runs on faftcr and 
snore fpeedily and ftcadfaftly in the way to Salvation. Wee fee 
here for example, the common opinion ofAuncientand moderne 
writers togoe currant; that there is but one kind of Image of God 
in man ; and that the Image unto which Chrift reftores us, is the 
very fame in which <Adam was Created ; that Adam had power 
by that Image to obtaine Heavenly glory, and to grow up to that 
eftate, which the c led Saints come torn Chrift; that Chrift r*-. 
fiores no more but that which Adam loft y and unto which he 
from 1 d have attained after fometime of continuance in innocen- 
cy j that he was Createdin holincffe as well as Chrift, and true 
Cbridians are, and fo partaker of the Holy Ghoft. And when 
any thing is taught out of the Scriptures to tke contrary, many 
mouthes^venof more learned men, are opened togainfay and 
oppofc \ And yet you fee the Scriptures more narrowly fifteddo 
teach mofl: plainely to the contrary, and have not any plaine 
Ipec ch tending to prove thete common opinions : yea the Scrip- 
tures which are alledged for them, & are fo applied & expoun- 
ded, do prove the contrary, if they be well weighed andconfide- 
red with a cieare judgement, not foreftalled wkh prejudice and 
partwlitie: wherefore let us wholly depend on Gods word, and 
net on mens reafon or /ugdement to fubjecl either the Scriptures 
or thefenfe of them thereunto; and let us Rill more and more 
I fcWl after increase of knowledge and underllanding ofDivinc 


Mart more excellent then other creatures \boTp. 17^ 

truths hid in the harder places of Gods written word, knowing 
that thefe are the laft times wherein k^ ow ^dge /ball be increafed> 
as wee read, Van, 12 4. Let us nut confidcr the Per [on which 
prcacheth and teacbeth ; butwhat is by him taught. Ifnowexpo- 
fitions and Do&rines, not formerly taught, yea crofting the com- 
mon opinions, be proved by better grounds and clearer evidence 
of Scripture, and tend more to advance other laving truthes, to 
beate dovvne errours, and to incteafe Piety, and godly affection in 
men ; let men take heed,and beware of rafh oppolition and gaine* 
laying, leafl they be found to fight againft God y while they (land ^ft, «T 
too much for the authority of men, though fuchas have beene 
holy and godly fervants of Chrift, and famous in their gene- 

Thirdly, this doctrine of Gods Image in Adam doth both dif- Vfi 3. 
cover and alfo minifter ftrong arguments whereby to confute Of confu- 
divers erroneous opinions much diflenting, and diffonant from tauon of 
the folid truth and word of God, to wit, not onely thofe mentb- €rl -°?*°g J5 
tied before, but others alfo; as, that Gods Im^ge was onely ori- opimo1 
ginall right eon fneffe or juftice, and that the n at nr all faculties of 
Sonic and Body did not concurre to it ; that the whole Image of 
God in A dim vjusutterlj loft by his fall, and is quite abolinSed 
till it be repaired and reftoredby Chrift, with divers others of the 
fame ftampe ; concerning which 1 finde many hot deputation? 
among the learned \ all which appcarc fuperfluous, if this do - 
elrine were well weighed, and made a rule whereby to mcafurc 
them 5 for it will, like a ;uft meafure.fhew which of them come 
(hort, and which goeto farre beyond the truth and true line of 
holy Scriptures. 

Laftly, in this wee fee as in a clearc glaffe the dignify and r ^f.^ 
excellency of hftmnne nature^ above the nature of all other vifible J cc *' 
crcaturesjin that he was made completely in Gods Image y and con- i e hancc 
formable to God, and like to him in his whole frame,andinall noted, 
faculties of Soule, and parts and members of body : And let this 
ftirre us up to walk? worthy, and befecming fuch a nature and 
frame, and labour to keep both our whole Settle and Spirit , and 
all members of our bodies unfpotted and iinftaincdwithfinnc, 
which is the defacing of Gods Image : and let us reverence Gods 
Image in o;her men, especially fceing'itis repaired and ruad: of a 

b cites. 

2^4 0/ tyds aStuai! ProVidence. 

better kind by Chritt, and above all take heed of cruelty and of 
defacing Gods Image in any part, by ciiting of members and 
mangling the bodies of men, especially of Gods Saintes whofc 
bodies are Temples and Tabernacles of God by his Spirit. 

Thus much concerning the firft externallworkeof God, the 
creation and the fta.te wherein God created man, and wherein 
t ! .; : (late of Innocency did confift.- 



Chap. XVI. 

Of the aU kail providence of god.' The Ohietl of it. What the 
ivordfignifeth: in ^.. things, Proofe that there i?a providence-. 
by 1 Texts y'and, Arguments. D efcription y (hewing what it is\ de- 
mon ftrateditt the parts, and branches of it. T^roviience gene- 
rail and fp?ciall\ dels of it. Special I providence in jawing 
the cleft by. (thrift « what: and in what parts. Vfis, 

. • j « .. 
'He next great externall workcof God after the creation, 
is his aBwll pr evidence, by which hce doth rule and difpofe 
all things created, and doth order all acYions which arc done, 
and all events which come to paffeinthe World, to the mani- 
feftationof his glorious goocmene. 
Object of This great worke of God doth reach through all other cx- 
provi- ternall works, which are done either by God himfelfe or any 
dence. others and doth comprehend'withinthe coropalTe ofitall Gods 
works which hee doth in the World, whether they bee woiks 
of wife dome and power in^uling and prcferving his creatures, 
or workes ofiuftice in punifhing anddeftroyine;, or workes of 
mercy and grace in redeeming repairing and faving the World; 
and in bringing his chofen to eternall bleiTednelTe. Yea there 
isnoworkc done, nor any event which comes to pane at any 
time, or in any age of the World; which God doth not over- 
rule and ordn by his providence. For, as hee is infinite in wife- 
dome and power 3 able to decree and ordaine from all eternity 
,a\{th[ngswoft wifely, and tQ create and bring to pajfe ail things 
according to the counfcllof his will by amghty ha^d of power f 


Severnli acceptiom of the word Providence. 175 

which cannot bee refitted. So a!fo hce hwenderfull in goodnejfc 
and bounty ,to provide, mod carefully all things needfull in aboun- 
dance, for the behg <*«^ wclbcing of his creatures, and to order 
governc and difpofe all things good and evilly mod wifely to 
the good of his eleel, theiuft punifhment and defiraclion of the 
wicked, and to his owne glory, 

VY hcrcfore that wee may better underftand this poinr, 
and proceed profitably in the handling of it. We are firft to con - 
fider the ftgnif cation of the name , and the true fenfe of the 
word; And after ro infill upon the thing itfclfe, and to define 
and defcribe this acluall providence of God, 

The word providence is foraetimes taken in a large icnfc, and vvhat the 
Signifies Gods care and refpeQ of all creatures; both in decreeing, wordfigl 
and ordaining their being and all things which befall them, and nifieih .. 
in executing hiseternali decree according to the counfell of his 
owncwill; for in all thele things God did (hew a provident care 

Sometimes the word is nfed more firitllj and that three r* 

Firft, fox the provident care and refpeel of God in decreeing 
things for the beft, that they (Kould fo come to pafle as they 
have done, or mall doe at any time hereafter, of this providence 
the Apoitle fpeakes Htb<-. 1 1, 40. where hee faith, God having 
provided fome better thing for us 9 that they without m fionld 
not bee made per feci , this may bee called Cjodi pr evidence in 
willing and decreeing. 

Secondly, it fignifies Gods provident care, which hee (he wed 2+ 
in the creation of the World , and all things therein. For hee 
firft created things above which could fublift, and bee' perfect 
by themfelves without the inferiour elements and the crea- 
tures in them, as thehigheft heavens, and their inhabitants the 
Angels j then hee created the vifible heavens, which might bee 
ready by their light to bee of ufe for other thngs below in fuch y 

meafure as was needfull; then hee created the Ipacious regions 
of the aire,through which that light might iliine to other ele- 
ments, and all creatures which hee was about to create in them ; 
and before hce created any living creatures, which could not 
Well fubfift nor move themfelves Without greater light then 


%y 6 Several acceftiom of the word Providence* 

that of the naked heavens, hee created the Sun, Moone, and 
Starres, which might both give light fufficient to thofe creatures, 
andalfo might cheerifh and comfort them and all other things, 
which were madeto ferve for their ufe And before heecrea- 
ted mankind male and femak in his owneimage, fit to ruleun- 
der him in the inferiour World, hec prepared and made ready 
for them all creatures , which they might rule over; all kinds 
of delicate food in great variety and aboundance^ and a Lordly 
palace and place of pleafurc wherein to dwell, in which he put 
them fo foone as they Were created* As God in all this iliewed 
his provident care for man and all creatures, to make them every 
one perfect in their kind with natural! perfection in the creation: 
fo I have noted this his attnall providence in the feverall paf- 
iages of the creation and have unfolded it fo farre as for the 
prefentwas neceflary. 
3. Thirdly, this word is frequently ufed to fignifie Gods provi- 

dent care in ordering and governing the whole created World, 
ixApreferving all creatures therein, and in difpojing everything 
which doth befall them and come to paflfc in the World, to fomc 
good end, according to the counfell of his owne will. This is 
the aEluall providence which now comes to bee diftinctly 
handled,and unfolded in the next place after the creation, 
proafe But before I come to defcribe this providence of God, and to 

that provU| a y p ent h cnat u re> object, feverall parts and kinds of it, I hold 
denccis. Jtneceflary to prove clearly out ofthe holy Scriptures, that there 
is in God {uch a providence and provident care, which hecdoth 
fliew and excrcife in the ruling and governing ofthe whole 
World, and ordering, and difpofing all things to their feverall 
ends; And that God is not a carelefle, flecpic and Numbering one, 
who doth neglect, and not fee, regard, and care for any things 
here below, as fome blind foolcs, defperate Atheifts, and 
wicked Men have imagined and fpoken,as the Vfalmifl {heweth, 
Pfalme 10. 1 1. I3. and P4»7- who fay , that the Lord doth not 
fee, God hath forgotten y bee hideth his face y hee will never fee^ 
nor regardjior require what 14 done among men in the World. 

For the manifeft proofe of Gods providence, I will firftre- 
tehearfe fome notabjc teftimonics, even plainc texts of holy 
Scripture, which being laid together may minifter to us fuffi- 


OftjodsaBMllpoVimce? 277 

ctcnt matter, andoccafion, to dcfcribe and fct forth thca&uall 
providence of God, and all things wherein it doth confift, and 
which thereto belong. 

P fa/me 14. 1". The Lord Icohethdowne from heaven upon Text* of 
the 0y^'' en of men 1 9 fee if there bee any that doe undfrflandScfipwre 
andfeeke after C f od. forthG^ds 

Pfaime ;}. I 3, \^\%> The Lo-d loook^eth from heaven y aftua u $ 
hee (psholdeth all the Sons of men, from the place of his habit a. p r0 vi- 
tien, hee looketh upon all the inhabitants of the Earth, Hee dencc* 
fiOnoneth all their hearts alike , hee confidereth all their 


Pfaime 34. 15, 16. The eyes ef the Lord are upon the righ- 
teous , andhiseares are open unto their cry. The face of the Lord . 
is atrainft them , that doe evill to cut off the remembrance of 
them from the Earth. 

Pfaime 36. 6, Thy iudgments Lord are a great deepe, 
thouprefervefi man and beafts, 

Pfaime I04. 17,28, 2p, 30* All living things wait upon 
the Lord , that hee may give them their meat tn due feafen, Hee 
giveth to them, and they gather it ; hee openethhis hand f and 
they are filled with good, when he hideth his face they are trott- 
bled y when hee taketh away their breath they dye and returne to 
their daft; when hee fendeth forth his Spirit they are created, and 
hee renueth the face of the Earth* 

Pfaime 11 5 . 5 . jyho is like unto the Lord our God^ who dvoeL 
letbonhtgh, 6>Who humbleth htmfelfc to behold the things that 
are in Heaven and in Earth. 7. Hera/feth the poore out of the 
dnfti and lifteth the needy out of the dunghill, that he may fct 
himwith Princes* 

Pfaime I ^S$6,Though the Lord be highiyet he hathrefptft to 

fob 1 a.. 7, But aske nowthebeajis, And they Jhall teach^ and 
thefowlesofthe Aire, and they (hall tell thee. %*Or fpeaketo the 
Earthy and it fat tea'~h thee; andthef flies of the Seafballde. 
dare unto thee. 9. Who knowethnot in all thefe, that the hand 
of the Lord hath wrought this* 10 In whofe 'hand is the 
jctile of every living thing and the breath of all mankind. 
. 2 ChronyX^* ^.TheeyesoftheLordrnn to and frotbrcugh* 


278 Of (fods aSual! Providence. 

out the Earth, to [hew himfelfe firongfor thempbofe Heart** 

if*. 4i,22,and4i.8 i p.ThcLord proveth himfelfe tobee 
the onely true God by his provident care over all things, and his 
forefight and prediction of things which afterwards hee brin- 
gethto pafle; and that Idols are** G^,becauie they cannot 
do any iuch things. 

Mattbt 6, 16. Behold the fogies ef the Aire, thej fow not, 
neither doe they reap , nor gather into barnes- s yet your heavenly 
Father feedeth them, 

CMatth, 10. 2p y 30* Are not two fparrowes fold for 4 
farthings and not one of them [hall fall on the ground without 
your Father ^ But the very haires of your head are allnumbred* 

Hebr, 4. 13. All things are nailed , and opened to hu eyes* 
neither is there any creature , which is not manifeft in his \ 

I Vet, j. 7. Cafi your care upon him for bee caret h for 

Thefe texts laid together doe aboundantly Yhew Gods 
afluail providence, and the extent of it to all things created, and 
doeMiniftertousevery Doctrine which conccrnes the object, 
parts, and kinds of it. 

And befides thefc Scriptures, wee have ftrong Arguments 
to prove the a&uall providence of God. 
'Are* I» "Firft, hee who is the Omnipotent Cr cat our > Lord, and P of. 

fefor of Heaven and Earth , and all things therein , infinite in 
wifedome, knowledge, goodneiTe, mercy, /ufticc,muft needs 
have a provident care to order , rule i difpofe , and preferve %\\ 
things which belong to him: Now fuch a one is God, asl 
have aboundantly proved before in unfolding his attributes; 
hee i$ infinite in power , wifedome, knowledge , goodneffe, 
and the like ; the Creatour and fupreme Lord of all things. 
The whole World is his , and all things therein belong to him* 
Pfalme 50. 12. Therefore, undoubtedly , hee hath a provi- 
dent care of all , and an eye and hand in ordering all things. 
T Arg*i* Secondly, the workes which God doth, and the things 
which hee brings to paiTe in the World , doe (hew his wife 
are and providence, Hee gfvethraine in due fea/on for a blef- 

fi n £ 

Of Gods <xBmll f ProYtdence. 279 

fmg to his obedient peoplc;& he withholdeth it from the wicked 
for <* ^ ft />*#j#/»*w/,&makes their heaven as braJJ e y &thcir Earth 
as trot; he blefTethfDenintheir^j^^WyZo^&inrhc increafe 
of their cattelUnd the fruite of their grcundjand he againe for fin 
maketb fruit full lands barren, and deftroyes their cattell with 
rnnrratne andwilh thunderbolts^ Levit. 26, Dent. 2 8. lob i*. 
12. *Pf&lr» % 107. 34. By mm Kings are fet up to rule, and Prin- 
ces and ludges to execute iuftice, and to judge, no: for themfelves 
but for him, c Prov. 8.15. 2 Chron. 19.6. He breaktth downe 
andfhuttcth up, and none can refill him, hecleadethcounfcllors 
away fpoiicd, and makcth Judges fooles ; Hee loofcth the band 
of Kings, and poureth contempt upon Princes ; Hee increafe th 
he nations and de ft royeth them, hee *nl*rgeth the nations and 
ftraiteneth them,/^ 1 2, 14. and all Kingdomes are difpofed 
by him, Ban. 2.37. 

Thirdly , the miracles which God worketh by them who Arg % %1 
call upon his name, and the extraordinary things which come 
to pafle, whereof there is no naturall caufe^nor any caufeac 
all but his owne will, and pleafure, and provident hand do prove 
the fame. The miracles and wonders which hee {hewed in 
Egypt andthe wildernefle, fo often as Mofes called and prayed 
untojhim: His Paying of the Sun for a whole day at IoJbuah % s 
prayer,/^. l°» His thundering on the Philiftines at the prayer 
of Samuel, 1 Sam. 7. iO. His raifingof the dead at the prayec 
of his Prophets and Apoftles, 1 King, 17, a King, 4, and All. 
$ 4 His giving of her oic all gifts y ftrcngth, and courage beyond 
all humane rcafon to fome men for the deliverance of his op* 
prcflcd People, as to Samfen, "David, and his worthies, and di- 
vers others. All thefe ihew Gods watchfull care over the 
World, and his a&uall providence, ordering and difpofing all 

This point thus proved, as it ferves to difcovcr the impiety, yr e 
profanenetfe and del peratc blindnefic o£ Epicures, who utterly of confu± 
retell and deny the whole providence of God; and thole defpe- ration and 
mcAtheifts, (uch as £*//g*/<*, N er * 3 and others , who feoffed ve P roofc " 
and derided all them who taught and bcleeved it; and thofe 
heathen rphi/ofbphers , who held that God had no care or refpect 
of things HKder heaven, but blind fortune ruled here below; 


1 8 o (jods aBuall providence de/cribed. 

[and all things here arc cafuall and come by chance: Soitadmo- 
j nifheth us & all men to beware of giving way to fuch dcubts and 
feares of infirmity which their owne corrupt fie fh, or Satanby 
in ear $ the reof doth fuggeft into their hearts to weaken & deftroy 
their faith in Gods Providence : Let no man admit fuch a thought 
into his heart, That Godhath forgot ten to be gracious, and that 
Jt is in vaine to ferve God: there is no profit in walking humbly 
before kirn ^m keeping his ordinancejn mens purging their hearts, 
and wa&ing their hands in innocency ; becauf e they that worke 
wickedneffe and tempt God doe profper, and they who dealc 
trccheroufly are fet up, and exalted. But above all, let usab- 
horre all presuming conceipts, that all things come to pafle by 
blind chance , and God doth not fee nor regard our wicked 
thoughts , purpofes, and praclifes; neithes will hee call us to 
account for them. For what is this, but to deny the Lord to be 
God? It is even the way to pull fpeedy wrath, andvengeance ort 
our owne heads, 

Gods providence being proved, that it is: I proceed to fr ew 

by way of plaine defcription what it is; and wherein it dothcon- 

fiff. The fumme of which defcription is this. 

Defcripti- The aciuall providence of Cjod is gods exercifeof hiswifedome^ 

on of Gods power 3 goodneffe, inftice, and mercy in ruling, ordering, andgo- 

a&uall verning the whole Worldjn watching over all his creatures With a 

£ rovi " cars full eye, in doing all good, and permitting all evil I which are 

ci£ncc * done in the World- y and indifpofing all things, good and evilLto 

themanifeflation of his glory, and the etcrnall falvation of his 

eleEl in Chrifi , according to his owne eternall purpefe and the 

conn fell of his will. 

This defcription confifts of two maine and principall parts. 
The firft flieweth , what Gods acluall providence is in generally 
in thefe words, Cods exercifeof hie wifedome, power, goodneffe, 
iuftice and mercy. The fecond fheweth the Jpeciall nature of 
it, and the fpeciall things wherein it doth cpnfi ft, and whereby 
it is diftinguiChed from all Gods other outward actions, and exer- 
cifesofhiswifedome, power, and goodneffc. Thisiscomprifed 
in the reft of the words. 
Ptrt S I Firft,it is gods exercife of his wifedome t power, goodneffe, mercy 

*nd inflict and in this it agrceth with the creation, and all other 


(fod/ometimes permits eVtllto be done. 2 81 

outward actions of God, for every fuch action is cither anexer- 
cif: ophis wiiedomc,orof his power, or of his goodnefle, or of 
his mercy, or of his jufticcor ofa!l,orthc moitpartofthemall 
together. And indeed Gods actuall providence beareth fway 
i;i all his outward actions, which hee doth either immediatly 
by himfelfe, or mediatly by the miniftery of his fubordinate 
inftruments; anditalfo ovcr-ruleth and difpoieth things which 
are evill, which arc not done by God himfelfe moving the 
doers of them; but come to paffeby the permiflion and furferancc 
of him, wittingl/, and willingly fuffering his creatures roabufe 
the power which they have from him. This point is manifeit 
by the Lords ovvne words, I fa, 45. 7. where hee faith, / 
forme the light and create darknejfc ; I make peace, and create 
evilly I the Lord do all theje things-. And by that fpcech of the 
Prophet (iAmos. Chap. $.6. Shall there be evil I in a City, 
and the Lord hath not done it* 

Thctrue fenfe and meaning of which w r ords Saint Augufline EncWilad 
doth notably expreflfe; where he faith, nothing is done, unleffe Laur % c^K. 
God omnipotent doth will that it be don? , either by doing it him- 
felfe, or faffering it to be done ; for it could not be done if he did 
notfuffer it-y neither verily doth he unwillingly without or againfl 
hi* -will: but willingly and with his will fuffer every thing to be* 
To which purpofe hee hath divers other fpeeches; as that God 
being good would not fuffer any evillto be done, unleffe as he is 
omnipotent he could b^ing good out of them* neither isthatdone 
without gods will which is done againfl his *W//,that is, his word 
and approbation. 

In the fecond mainc part there are divers fpeciall branches 2 ;. 
/hewing the fpeciall things whereby Gods actuall providence Branches 
is diftinguifhed from his other outward actions. The firfl is, in parti- 
that itconfifts in Gods ruling ordering and governing the whole cu!ar# 
World, and watching over his creatures with a carefull eye. 
The fecond, that it comprehends in it Gods doing of all good., 
and his permiflion and fufering of allevilh The third, that 
by it God difpofeth all things , which are done in the World 
to the manifeftatiou of his glory, and the eternall falvation of 
his elect in Chrifh The fourth and laftis, that it is no other 
exercile of wifedome, power, goodneffc, mercy, and jufiice, 

V but 

2 8 z ijtu M hag ana <%ultr di/pojetk alt things, 

but in executing things which hee hath decreed from all eternity 
even ruling, ordering, and difpofing all things wifely after the 
connfelior' his owns will. 
i. Tor the firft point to wit, that God exercifcth his aduall 

providence in ruling , ordering , and difpofing, the whole World 
and all therein as fupreme Lord, King, Iudge, and Ruler there- 
of j the Scriptures aboundantly teitific, as{/>«- 18. 35. and 
Pfalm, 50. 6. Pfalm, 82. 1. and 2 Chron. 19. 6. where God 
is faid to bee the Judge of all the Earth ; yea the Judge both in 
Heaven and Earth , who fltteth chief e among all Judges and is 
with them in the indgement. Alfo in thofe places wiiere the 
JCingdome, D omimon^and%ule over all is faid to belong to God, 
and lice is faid to bee the King which reigneth and ruleth all 
to the utmoft ends of the Earth, yea to be a great King above 
all gods; and the onely potentate King of JCings and Lord of 
Lords, as 1 Chron. 29. io* 11. Tfalm, 10. \6 and 19. 10, and 
4.27. and 95. 3. and his Kingdome is faid to rule over all, 
Pfalm. log* 19. and that not for a time, hut from generation 
to generation^ Pfalm. 145, 1 3* It is hewhofetteth bounds to the 
tumultuous Seas beyond which they cannot paffe , lob 38. 8. 
Pfalm, 104. 9. and ruleth over the raging waves, Pfalm, %^.g^ 
zvAfiilleth tkm when they arife. And that hee hath a watch full 
eye over all creatures, even to preferve man and beafi ; it appeares 
Pfalm, 36. 6. and that as his ayes are upon them that fear e him, 
and hope in bis mercy to deliver their foule from death, and to 
keepe them alive in famine, Pfalm. 55, i8* 19 So his face is 
aga'nft them that do evil/, te cutoff the remembrance ofthem 9 
Pfalm. 34-16. 
^ The iecond point is, that Gods providence iscxercifedboth 

in the doing ofallgood y and in permitting, an&fufferwg wittingly 
and willingly all tvill, which commeth topafle in the World, 
andfoit confifts of two parts, *z#i0», and ptrmiffion. This alfo 
is fully proved and confirmed, Jfa. 41,23. and 45. 7. where 
the Loid proves himfeifc to bee the onely true God by difpofing 
all things^ both forming the light, and making peaceby his a&ive 
hand and power; and alio creating evil I and darkyieffe , by per- 
mitting and giving up the Divcll and his wicked inftruments 
toabuic bis power, which hee hath given them to doe cvilland 


Qods providence exircifedin domggo:d & permitting evil/, ibj 

to worke wickcdnefTe as wee fee in Pharaoh whofe heart hee is 
izidto harden, yea. zndtoraife him up, by giving him up to his 
ownelufts, and into the hand of Satan who hardened him and 
made his heart obdurate 5 fo that the more God plagued him 
with great plagues, which naturally tend to break c a flout heart 
andtopulldowne pride; the more did his corruption rife up and 
rebel!, and the more did S*tan ftirre hirrvup againft God, and his 
people, and made him run defperady into the devouring gulf c 
of deftruftion. Wee fee this alfo in Gods permitting Satan 
to afflicl /^, and totetnpthim to biafphemy by flapping him 
naked of all that hee had; tormenting his body, and battering 
hisfoule with fore temptations of his wife and friends, and with 
sharing dreames and terrible virions as wee read, lob 1. and 2. 
and 7. 14. Alfo the Apoftle in expreflc words affirmeth,thac 
God being provoked by mens wilfullfins, doth in juft wrath 
give them td uncleane fe through the tufts of their ownehearts 
and to vile affetlions andareprobate minde to worke all iniquity 
withgreedheffe , Rom, 1. 24,26, 28. and dothgive them the 
Spirit of [lumber , eyes that they Jhould not fee and ewes that they 
fhouldnot heare, Rom. \\ . 8, not by putting fuch a Spirit into 
them, foashee fheddethhis Spirit on men through Chrift, but 
by Juffcritg Satan, the Spirit of lying , and of all blindneilc 
and wickednefie to enter into them ( which hee would doe 
into all men, if God didnotrcftrainehim); and by calling them 
out of his protection; as wee fee in the ev ill Spirit which [vexed 
Saul, and in the lying Spirit which deceived Ahab by entering 
into his Prophets and (peaking lyes by their mouths, 1 Sam. 
16. 14. and 2 King. 22. 2 j. And thus wee fee, that in all evils, 
of fin Gods providence is cxercifed by way of voluntary per~ 
miff ion* But as for all good things which come to parte, God 
hath iu clem an approving will, and a working h and, zn& wor- 
keth in men both to will and to doe- y yea every thought andpurpofe 
ofgood, 2 Cor* 3. 5« Philip. 2. island without him we can 
doe nothing , Ish % 15, 5 . So that in all morall duties , and in all 
good and godly workes , God worketh in men by his Spine 
tmmediat I), zn&%ivcth them, hearts will and power to doe them, 
and they are but his inftruments to performe thefe good things, 
as lofeph prjfeffsth afenbing all his piety and chadty which 

V 2 bee 

284 What things good accident ly. 

hee (hewed in nourifhing his bretheren and their families to 
God. Andallriaturall good things, God worketh either imme- 
diatly by his o-wnc handdont % as inthecreation,wherein hee^ave 
being to all things without any meanes at all: or by wftrumems 
arid meanes which hee himfelfe hath firft created , hee giveth 
light by the Sun,Moone,and Starres, and by them> and the whole 
Heavens which are turned about by his counsels, and by their 
influence hee refreftieth and nourifheth all creatures on Earth; 
and alfo doth by them both ufe correction and (hew mercy y u b 
37. ii*i3»and Matth. 5.45. 

There are befides thefe other things, which are good and 
profitable, not fimplj in their owne nature, but by accident and 
in fome reipeff, as for example, for men to abftainc from mar- 
riage and from begetting children for the increafeof mankind 
is not a thing naturally or morally good in it (elfe', being a re- 
fraining from the ufe of Gods ordinance; but yet in cafe of 
argent necejjity y when Gods Minifters and Servants dot live 
in times and places of perfection , and are driven to flee and 
wander from place to place naked, and deftitute of meanes, 
whereby to maintaine Wives, and Children; Saint Paul tells 
US, it is good for a CMan to live (ingle, and not to touch a Woman, 
1 Cor, 7< 1 , 3 5 , for by this meanes he fhall avoid much diJbraElion s 
and more freely attend the fcrvice of God. Alio for men to 
fajl^nd afflicl: their bodies by abftaining from comfortable nou- 
rifhment, and necciTary food for a time is not fmply good [nit 
felfe:but yet it is profitable for taming the proud and rebellious 
flefh, and for furthering of our humiliation in times of private 
and publike calamities , when Gods hand is heavy upon us, cr 
upon our Land, and the feare of his threatning judgments which 
hang over our heads doe terrifie us, thefe and fuch like are called 
good things, thar is, profit ible, expedient, and by accident; and in 
fome refpecl and condition good. 

Other things there bee which in their ownenaturc are evlll 
and hurt full, and evils of affliction and punifhment, ascrofTes 
ofGods people, and plagues which thoughthey hurt and deftroy 
the outward man and the flefih, yet by God grace they worke 
to the faving of their fouks, and the amendment of their liveg 
as wee read Pfalme 1 ip f 67,71. and 1 ^V.^.aad 1 J, 32. 


Qodpunip?tthjin divtrs Tbjya. 285 

and in that refpect arc called goid* And the plagues and dcuYd- 
dions which befall the wicked, which to them are dreadfull and 
wohill evils and curfcs j but as they tend to the deliverance of 
Gods Church from their periecuticns and opprefiions ; to the 
purging of his land; and the magnifying of Gods jultice and 
power ; fo they are good m the i^ne and event, and in refpcA of 
Gods purpofe intending good by them* 

Now in all thefe , God hath an acltve and working hand, as 
well as a remitting will; and his a&uall providence ruleth in 
them. Hec gives men the gift of continencv , and power over 
their owxe wits to live fwgle, and to make themlclves Eunnches 
for his Kingdomes fake as our Saviours words (hew, Matth % 
19* 11, 12. and the words of the Apoftle, 1 C'or. 7- 11* Hcc 
cals upon men in his word , and by his grace llirres them up to 
fatting, weeping, mourning, and afflicting of their bodies for 
the greater humiliation of their foules. Joel. 1. 14. and 2. ia. 
and Zach. 1 2. io. Hee doth fometiraes by his owne hand af- 
flict his people when hee (ends among them fore difeafes which 
are the ftroke of his hand* fob 36. i8« and Pfolme 29. 10. and 
by his owne immediate bandhcz ftrikes and confumes the wicked; 
I§b 34. 25 , 26, as wee fee in the drowning of the old World, 
in the dcftru&ion o£ Pharaoh, Ananias, zn&Saphyra, and divers 
others. Sometimes hec doth by good inftruments afflict and 
punifli his people, and plague and confume the wicked; as by 
his Angell hee puniihed I/rat Is Gnand Davids pride. 2 Sam* 
24. 17. and destroyed the hoft of Senache rib, 2 King. 19, and 
fmotte Herod, ssfft. 12. And by J Jhtta,Mofes : D*v id, defaoytd 
the Canaanttes and the Philiftines, and other enemies of his 
Church. Sometimes by eviil inftruments hee affiicleth and pu- 
nifheth his owne peopie,and plagueth and dedroyeth the wicked; 
by Abfalom and Sbimei hee punilhed David, and by wicked 
Jehtt hee deftroyed the wicked family of Ahab • by Satan and 
the wicked Sabaans and (fhaldians hee afflicted and tryed 
Job; and by the proud King of ^y£*r hec punifhed //>*<?/ and 
Judih, anddeftroyed the Idolatrous nations as appcares//*. io # 
where hee is called the rod of Gods wrath, and proud Nebuchad- 
xe^ar is called his fervant in punifhing his people the IewCfc 
and deftroying the obftinate among them, and in cru(hing the 

V 3 wicked 

286 (/Oct no author of eYilt. 

wicked nations, I*r. 25 .p. For he in whom all dee live y move, and 
have all being, Aft. 17, 28. gave to thofe wicked Kings power 
and might; and though their owne lufts, and anfatiablc defire and 
ambition ftirred them up , snd fo the ac~l was in the wicked 
tbemfelves, yet hee over-ruled and difpofed their malice to 
performc his purpofe , and to execute his moft juft judge- 

And thus wee fee , that Gods anions are moft wife and 
juftin thole evils which heeexecutcth by wicked inftruments, 
and that which they doe with a wicked mind and for an evill 
end;God doth j uftly give them power to doe, and permits thern 
to abufe his power, to their owne ends, when heepurpofeth to 
direct aUto a good end, andfo doth. And therefore thoughno 
evill is done in the World, but by his providence \ yetishee#0 
author or efficient caufe of (in: the finftilnefle of the aftionisof 
the evill. inftruments and the power of it, and the difpoiing of 
Rom^S* it to good, that onely is Gods. And although men who are li- 
mited by Gods law> may doe no lead fin or evill for a good end, 
that greateft good may come thereof, and if they doe, it is fin in 
them; yetGgd,whoisfupreme Lord of all, and whole w/7/is 
the rule of all righteoufnefTe, and who by his omnipotency can 
raife out of the greateft evill afarrc greater good, andean make 
the Divelsmalice-and mans fall , the occafion of bringing Chrift 
into the World , and a way to fliew his infinite goodnefte and 
mercy in faving and redeeming his elect, and to magnirie his 
glorious power and juftice in their eyes , by deftroying ths 
wicked with eternall deftruclion , the fight whereof brings 
them to a more full fruition of his glory,and makes themfarre 
more fenfible of his goodnefie to them, and of their owne eter- 
nall bleflednefife ; hee may doc what ieemes good to his hea- 
venly wifedomc*. and evill (o farrc as he willeth it, and hath an 
hand in the orcering fit, is no fin, but doth more fhew his good- 
nefle,and unipottcd purity ; andholinefle> 
o 1 he third thing is, that God by his aduall providence Jifpofeth 

all things which arc done inthe World, to the rnani reflation of 
his glory , and the eternall falvation of his elect in Chrift. The 
gfory of God is two waves snade manifeft by his aftuall pro- 


(fodtgenerallandfpeciali providence. 2 S7 

Fiifl, in a more generall way, by a more generall providence. Gods 
Secondly^ amove fpecia I i way, which is called his ipeciallpro- 3 #»aU 
vidence. province 

FirftS by the general!, the whole World is ruiedbyan univer- o r |!JdaU 
fajl motion, and all things in the World, every one according to Ie 
the proper nature and naturalldifpofiuon and inclination of it. 
For, as the Apoftle faith, Hee giveth to all life, and breathy and 
all things * and in him tree all live, move and have our beings AH, 
17.35,28, Hee by hn mighty word fuftaireth all things , Hebr 4 
1,3. Hx name u excellent in all the World, in rthich he fhewetk 
his glory, Pfalme 8. 1, The Heavens declare his glory, and the 
firmament Jheweth his handy-workjx day unto day uttereth fpeceh> 
and night unto night Jbeweth knowledge ; and that by the Suns 
going round about the World, and difcovering by ht6 light all 
things from one end of Heaven and Earth to another , Pfalme 

IP. Ii2. 

This generall providence appeares, Firft,by his confecraiion 
of things. Secondly, by his deilru&ion of io many as hee in 
his juft will and judgement thinks fit. Thirdly, by his gover- 
ning of all things according to his eternall counfell , and /u!t 

Fir ft, hee doth univerfally conferee and uphold all things Gods cct^ 
in the World, by the light, motion and influence which hee hath favatioa 
given to the heavens in the creation ; which are continually ofhiscrca- 
turned about by hiscounfels , that they may doe whatfoever turcs - 
hee commandeth thejn upon the face of the World in the Earthy 
Icb 37, I2« Hee maketh his Sun to flnne on the evill and on 
t he good , and fendeth raine en the iu(l and unluft , (JMatth. £♦ 
45. Hee giveth food to all jlcjh, Pfalme I 3 6. 27. Hee giveth 
meat to the benfis y andfeedeth the young ravens -which cnefpfalme 
147 9. Heprovidethforthe fowles of the aire their food^ though 
they neither fow , nor reape- f and cloatheth the graffe of the 'field \ 
Matth.6,26, 50. 

Thisconfervationis, fird, by fucceffion. Per when any crea- i.Bv Su- 
tures paffe away, hee maketh others of their race and kind to celUoau* 
fuccced by a continuall generation and propagation, as it were 
by a continued creation. The forming and fapnoning of men 
in the womb* is afcribed to him, ~ lob 10, 8 p, 10. and 3 1. 1 j> 

V 4 and 

288 Cod turnetb eViUiniogood. 

and Pfalme 139* 1 3. So that as men and other living crcatunes 
dye- their off lpring and progeny fucceed in their place, and by 
this meanes, he doth revue the face ej the Earthy "Pfalme 104. 30* 
and not onely one generation of living creatures pafeth aw a y 9 
and another commeth in the place ,{0 that the earth is alwayes re- 
fhnifbed; but day and night fucceed continually by the going and 
returning of the Sun; andthevvinde whorleth about continually 
going and returning according to his circuits; The waters doe all 
runtmothe Sea, and yet the Rjvers are faff! ted by fprings which 
come from the Sea, by fecretfaffages under the Earthy the wife- 
Man flieweth, Eccjef. 1 . 4, 5 , 6, 7. 
i« By mu. Secondly, hee preferveth all things univer&lly by changing 
-jtion* mutable things fronx an evill to a good, and from a lerfe good to 
a better condition* Hee girdeth the weake with firength, Job 
12. 18, 1 Sam 2,4. Heemaketh the barren wombe fruit ju 11, 
Pfalme 115. 9. Hee turneth the wilder 'fteffe into /landing pooles 
of water, and dry ground into water fprings, andmaketh the barren 
defer t a fruitful I field, pfalme 1 07. 3 5 . I fa. 41 . 1 8 and 5 I. 3. 
Hee raifeth the needy out of the dufi, andlifteth tip the beggar 
from the dunghill, 1 S<vn 2. 8. and Pfalme /i 3. 7. Andbecaufc 
the univerfality of creatures cannot bee prelerved without 
Gods carcfull keeping and preferving every particular; there- 
fore God hath an eye to every fmgular thing , and his pro- 
vident hand is reached forth to every one of them, info much 
that our haires are numbred ; and not one fmall fparrow can 
fall on the ground without him, CMatth, 10. 29, 30, Hee 
c loathed the grajfe of the field, even every Lillie 9 CMatth. 
6. 30. Hee reckons up our teares , Pfalme 56", p. and h 
with every one in his going out and comming in; in his 
downe fitting and Hprifing , Pfalme 139, 1. 2. /fa. 27 28. 
r , Secondly, his gene rail providence appearcth, and is excr- 

dtftroyfn* cl ^ m c ^ e * e fi rH B*° n which hee himfelfc according to 
of crca- ° his juft will bringeth upon the whole Earth, or upon whole 
ttres. Nations and Cities , or upon fome notable perfons. The de- 
firucUon of the whole World in the d3yes of Noah came 
by his hand and providence, for hee (aid , Behold I will br'wg 
a flcoi of waters and will defiroy all flefi , Gen, 6. 13. and 

hee foretold his purpofe fo to doe an hundred yeares bcibre. 


Gods power mamfefted m defraying creatures. 289 

And the dcftru&ion ©f Sodeme and Cjomorrha was by fire 
which hec tamed upon them, Gen. ip. Hcc fmotte Egypt 
w ith plagues and deftroyed the fir ft borne , and alfo "Pharaoh 
and bis boft, Exod. 12. and 14. Pfalme 135. 10. And the 
Canaanttes by Jofbua and Ifrael , fofi, 10. and 1 1. and Se- 
nacheribs hofi. 2 Kivg. 19 • And the murmuring Ifraelhes 
together with Corah, Dathan , and Abtram , iW/ra. 16 • 
V^zah, 2. ^w. 6. tf. Herod. Att. 12. and many others. By 
this deftroyiug, and aboliming of men and other creatures, 
and by his confuming and wafting of them; by fmitting the 
earth with barrenncife, and lending pefhlencc , and warre, 
hee makes men know, that bee is Jehovah the righteous 
Judge, and the Natians to fee and feele that they arc, but 
mor t <*ll men zsxhc Pfaluiift teftificth , Pfalme g 21 .and 46.11* 

Thirdly this general! providence is feene intiis government Gods go. 
of all things, according to his ownc juft will and good plea- £ crnin s °£ 
fure; Hee doth after a generall manner rule infenour things {j) r S < £ rea * 
by the light and influence of the Heavens, and of the Sun, 
Moone , and Starres 5 By the Sun hee rules the day , and 
by the Moone and Starres hee governcs the night , Tfalme 
13*. $. 9- And as his eyes are upon all things, and uponall 
the wayes andytorkes of men ; io bee fajhtoneth their hearts, 
Pfalme 33. I£ # Hee keepeth the waters of the Sea within 
their bounds beyond which they doe not pajfe, Pfalme 104, p. 
Hee hath * f et time and fe&fon for every thing, and for eve- 
ry purpofe under Heaven, Eeclef 5. I. And this govern- 
ment hee cxercileth by motion and ivrcUiondS motions $ and by 


Firft,by motion/or hee movethall things ,not onely the mindes f . By mor 
& wtls of men by turning their hearts at his pleafure,/<?r. 1 2, 24. ci©n, 
Aft % 17. 28. Pfalme 105.25. and Prov. 2 1 . | . but alfo thing* 
without life by a naturall inclination, which hee giveth to every 
thing in his kind as thePfalmift {LewethintheSun, Moone, and 
Starrcs,thc windes and the vmzxs,Pfalme 104.19.25* 

And as hee moveth every creature , fo hec diredcth all their And i y j^ 
motions as appcarCS,PyWwc 37, lj.Prev.lQ.n. Ur, 10. 23. In fo rcaionof" 
much, that what men do with a wicked mind,& for an evill end, all mcu. 
Goi turns it to fbt 'contrary ,& brings good out of it. lofephs bre> tlGns f 

there n 

290 §od turnes ail to the be ft 

theren intended his hurt&dcflruclion in felling him for aflavejGod 
tumedit to his honour, and to the faving of them and much peo- 
plealive,<^». 50. 20. Pharoh rofe to magnific himfelfe againft 
God, and his people : God fo ruled and directed his rage and 
furie, that hee {"hewed his power in him, and magnified his name 
in all the Earthly turning Pharaoh's fierceaefle to his owne 
pratfe and glory , and to Pharaolh dcftruclion, Exed. p. \6 ¥ 
The I ewes out of malice and envie crucified and murdered 
Chrift: God out of his death raifed life, and made his death, 
which they devifed for his fhame and ignominy , a glorious 
triumph ever the Divell and all the powers of dtrltneffe, and a 
way to exaltation , AEh. 2.23* They hardened their hearts to 
per f ecutc the Apoftles, and to d rive the Preachers of the Gofpell 
out of their land, and to quench the light thereof: God turned 
this their hardneffe and fall to the falvati on of the gentiles ; for 
by thisrneanes the Gofpell czxnetobee preached in all nations, 
Rom. 11. 11. Wicked heretiajues raife up herefies to corrupt 
Gods Church, and God fo orders their doings, that they who arc 
approved, are thereby made man if eft , and come to fhine as lights 
in the midft of a perverfe generation 9 1 CV.ii* 19. Pauls trou- 
bles and perfections were intended for the overthrow of 
the Gofpell: God made them fall cut to the furtherance of *>, 
Phil. 14 I2» The Philtfiines invaded the land of Ifrael, with 
purpofe to doe mtfchiefe to Ifrael, and to wail their land : but 
God direcled this motion of their hearts, and by his providence 
appointed it as a meanesto recall Saul from pxrfmng David, 
when hee had inclofed him on every fide; and fofavedhimto 
bee a Saviour of Ifrael, and a deftroyer of the Philiflines, 1 Sam. 
23. 27,28. 
a Bycohi- Secondly, God governs the World and all things therein by 
bicion. cohibition, that is, retraining, and hindering the actions and mo- 
tions of creatures, in his wiledomc and by his power, when hee 
thinks it fit Hee vtith-held Abimelech from touching Sarah 
Abrahams wife, that hee might not fin, and ftainc himfelfeigno- 
rantly, Gen. 20. 6. Hee /offered not the deft r oyer of the firft 
borne \n Egypt to enter into the houfe of any of the Jfraelite/ S 
Exod 12,23. Hee ks ft backjhc waters 0$ J or dan from running 
downward, fo thatitwasdryedforT/r^/r* pajfeover onfeote. 

by bid fpecuil providence. 

Iofh. 3. Uecrefiraineth the influences of Heaven, and the clouds 
from raine, and makes the Heavens as braffe y and the Earth as 
iron, for the pxnifbment of n>/V^tranfgrefTors, and rebellious 
people, Detit<2$ i-$*lob 26. 8- and 38.31. Hee bringeththe 
counfell of the heathen to nought, and mak^th the devices of the 
people of none e fell, Tfalme 33. 10. Hee withheld Laban from 
his evill purpofe of hurting lacob, (jen % 31. 42 ♦ And his t err our 
retrained the Cities round abouc, fo that they purfued not after 
Jacobs Sons to take revenge on them, for the flaying of the She- 
chemites , Gen. 35.5. And by his Spirit he forbad Paul and 
his companions to preach the Gofpell in *Afia , tsicl. \6. 6. 
In a word, as hee doth by a general! governing order all things 
univerfally and all events, even the heavens, the Earth, the Seas, 
Winter, Summer, and all feafons of the yeare, men and beafts, 
and makes an harmony and concord among things which are 
contrarie, tempering, moderatingand keeping them in their pro- 
per places, and doth fee up and pull downe Kingdomes & ftates, 
Ban.z. 3 7. and 4. 25, So hee rules every lingular creature and 
every fmgular event, turning harvefl; dayes into a tempeftuous 
time of thunder and raine ; as when hee terrified Jfrael toftiew 
them their fin in asking a King, I Sam. n, 16. So that wee 
need no further proofe of this point. Let that which isbeforc 
faid and proved, fufficc to fhew how God by a generall way 
of providence actually difpofeth all things to the iranifoftatiori 
of his glory. 

The fpeciall way by which God manifeftetb his glory is by Gois re- 
working things, and by ordering, ruling and difpo/ing them to ciailprovi- 
thc revealing of his glory, more fpecially in the falvation f^ nc ^ 
hu eletl in £hrift , which divines doe call his fpeciall pro* 

This providence God exercifeth by his Son Chrift, as hee 
is the Mcdiatour, Redeemer, Saviour, King, and Head of the 
'Church univerfall ; and by his Spirit fent forth in the name of 
Chrift,and ftied on the elecT aboundantly through him in their 
regeneration. This confiLls and flievveth it felfe in all the gra- 
cious benefits and bleffmgs which God beftoweth upon men 
for (alvation j and m the judgements which bee executeth on 
hi? enemies, the wicked, by which hee delivcreth his Church out 


2 <? 2 The De/cription ofQods aSluaH^roVtJence. 

of their crudl, bloody perfecting and opprefTmg hands; and 
doth magmfie and declare his/uftice and power, and m ore 'fully 
reveale and communicate himfelfc to them for their greater 
Defcribed. Thebriefe Defcription of this fpeciall providence which! 
conceive co bee mod: plaineis* Thatitis Gods exercife ofhiswtfe- 
domerfoyvertitifticeyTnercy, and all his goodnejfe in executing hut 
fpeciall decree of pre deft in at ion, by which hee ordained all the 
eleel both Angels and men to et email blejfedneffe . and all the 
reft to eternatt deftrtittiony and wit had did decree all the meanes 
which ferve and tend to bring every one of them to their fevreall 
jends' 9 and by which in the time appointed they are all brought te 
their decreed er,d according to his et email purpofe, and the conn fell 
of his will. 

In tiie large profecution of this point of Gods fpeciall pro- 
vidence, wee have juft occafion offered to lay open ail the reft 
ofthc great works of God, which fail within the compaiTe of the 
Divine art of facred Divinity. For they all are contained under 
thefetwomaine heads, to wit: 1 The meanes which ferve for 
the effecting, and obtaining of the tJtmoft end of reafonablc 
creatures unto which God hath ordained them. 2 # The end 
it Jelfe the manifeftation of his glory more fpecially in the eter- 
nail blejfedneffe of his elec"t, which bleflednefle doth confiftin the 
eternal! fruition of God in all his glory; and the fenfe thereof 
is exceedingly increafed by their beholding of the etcrnall mifery 
and deftrudion of the ungodly , their efcapc and deliverance, 
from which whole they confider and remember their joy and 
-rcjoycing ftallbee doubled. 

For in all wife providence there is a good endpurpofed, in- 
tended and decreed, and a provident ordaining , ordering and 
aftuall difpofing of the meanes which areneceflary for the ob- 
taining and effecting of that end, and therefore the fpeciall pro- 
vidence of God who is mod wife and provident; infinite k* 
goodneffe and power, muft needs bee exercifed in doing the 
moft excellent workes, and in ordering and difpofing themao 
.cording to his cternall counfell and decree, to the bell, and mo ft 
excellent end oft all, which is the fourth and lad point in the 
Defcription of Gods aclualJ providence- 


Five thmgnonjidtrabie in Mats fell. % n -> 

Now the mcanes which God hath ordained for the m**ifefi&- 
tion of the glory ofkts grace **d goodneffs in the ctemall blcf- 
fedneffe of his elect they goe before in execution; though the end 
is tint in Gods intention. And therefore they come to bee 
handledin the firfl: place. And they all maybe reduced to two 
maine heads. The firftis m**sf*ll\ Thcfccond is minsrefaw 

In the Tall of man, five things come to bee confidered: Firft, 
the Commdndement of God at which man Rambled and which 
the DivcH made the occaiion of mans fall. The fecend b the 
fa/iitfe/fe y what it was, and wherein ir did confift. The third 
isthc /tate of rebellion, irxo which roa;i did fall. The fourrh is 
the multitude of evils y which did accompany and follow mans 
(in and fall. The fifth is xhzfmallreliques of good, which remai- 
ned in mans nature after his fail. 

The Commandement of God is plainely laid downe, Gen. 2. 
16, 17. And therefore I will firft: infill upon that portion of 
Scriptiire^nd after will proceed to the defcription of the fall, as ic 
is laid downe in the third Chapter. 

But before I proceed further, let me conclude this DocTrine 
of Gods acliull providence with fome ufe and application. 

Firft, it is matter ofadmirable comfort to all true Christians yft\ % 
andfaithfull people of God, in that the Lord whom they have Comfort 
choienfor their God, their rocke and confidence, is fo wife and to the 
ptovident above all; ordering and difpofingall things which come fruhfull. 
topalTe in the World inwonderfull wiledomc and by an om- 
nipotent hand to hii owne glory and the falvation of his clc& 
jnChrift. Whatever good commeth at any rime, it is the gift 
ofGod; and all good ble flings and benefits which they receive 
and enjoy from any hand or by any meanes, they are fo many 
tokens and pledges of his love and fatherly care , and of his eye 
of providence watching over them for good/ And whatfoever 
evils of any kind breakc into the World by the malice of the 
Divcll, and the outrag* of wicked men ; they are noothcr 5 r.or 
no n^re,but iuch as G^ci id his wifedome and goodnefle is plea- 
fed w lbngly to permit andfuifer for a far greater good to his own 
pc p e ; ai.d as he over-rules them all -.and hath fee them their 
s beyond which thej CAnKotpxJfc} fo hedifpofeth and tur- 


294 the ufe of the Voftrine of (jods a ft nail providence. 

neth them all to hisownc glory, and the manifeftation of his 
juftice and power infaving of his Church and people, and in 
confounding and deftroying all his and their enemics,wherefore 
in times of peace, plenty and profperity, whcn'all good things 
and bleflings of all forts abound; Letusre Joyce and glory in the 
Lord arid give him the praifeof all , and offer up daily and con- 
Who CinuaH fan fees of thankfulnefje withchccrefull hearts and wil- 
leamcalfo ling minds; itudying and driving with all our might, andtothc 
to tee utmofcofour power; to ufe and employ all his bleflings to the 
thankfull. j^ advantage for his glory s the good of his Church, and the 
profit of our ownefoules; being well atfured, that thefe are his 
talents committed to our truft, which if wee by our faithfulneffe 
doe increafe, wee fhall in the day of account and reckoning, re- 
ceive die reward of good Rewards and faithfu/l 'fervants^ndbce 
received into the joy of our Lord. 

3ut on thecontrary, in evilland perillous time; when iniquity 
abound :th finnes of all forts are increafed; piety and charity are 
waxen coid/eligionis skorned, the godly perfecuted and oppref- 
fed, juftice judgement and truth troden downe and trampled: 
Let us not faint nor feare nor bee de jefted as men without hope; 
For the Lord our God,and our keeper is aprovident God.his eyes 
ne ither (lumber nor fleep* hce feeth and obferveth all thefe things, 
and without his will and knowledge no evil! can come to pafTe, 
AstheScripturefaithof "Pharaoh, to may wee fay in this cafe; 
thac even for this fame purpo/e God hath raifed up thefe wicked 
-perfecutors and outrageous finners^ that is in his juft Wrath 
hath given them up to Satan and their owne luftsto multiply 
(in and opprefilon, that he wayjbew his power in them, and make 
his jullice glorious, and name famous throughout all the earth: 
W hen the nations rage s and the Kingdomes arc moved, God can 
give his voice , and the earth {hall melt and all the works of the 
Wicked iTiall bee dtffolved. 
Vfe 2 Secondly, hero is matter of terrour to the wicked, both them 

Tcrrcurto who commit fins infecret, and prefume to goeonin their lewd 
ikcwicktd. r ?* r /^ with a conceipt , that none feeth nor taketh notice o£ 
their abominations; and alfo them who multiply their fins openly, 
and without feare increafe their perfections and opprellions, 
and vex and afftift ths mecke of the Earth, andbreake Gods 


7 he u/e of the VcSlrineojCcds aBuail providence. 295 

people in pieces; thinking tbac they fhall never bee called to 
account, and putting farre from them the day of reckoning: Be- 
hold here, the Lord who is the judge all the earth, is a mod provi- 
dent God;ali their doings ate na^dand opened to his eyes, and he 
obferves all their waves and wicked workesjthcir power ftrength 
and grcatnefle is from him, and he wittingly and willingly fufters 
them to abufe them to (in 3 and to oppreiTion and wrong, and 
onely fo long as he pleafeth, that when they have filled np tbetr 
metfnre , hce may bring them to judgement, and may 
make them a skorne,dcrifion, and footeltole to 
the righteous whom they have skor- 
ned , hated and opprefled. 

Thus much for the Acimll providence of God. 

F I N I S. 




Wherein is difcovered the true ground,and 
the time of the firft Inftitution $ the nature of the L aw 

binding man to keepe and ftnflifieir, and thcneccflfi y asof 
the obfervation of it on the feventh and laft day of the weeke 
in the time of the Old Teftament ; fo of the remooving 
of it 10 the firft day now unUti the Goipeil. 


Befides tfrJpecLill duties necejfarily re quired for the due Santti- 

ficatiov thereof thefetwof r<f talk pants are f roved bj dt- 
• mor.ft rat ions out of G O D S Word, 

Firft, 1 hat the Lord Chrift Gcd and Man,is the Lord of the Sabbath, on 

whom the Sabbath was firft founded^nd by v hom it was changed from 

the laft to the firft day of the weekend is on that day unchangeably to be 

kept by all true Chriftians, untill they come to tl le eternall reft in Hea- 

vcn,after the generall refurreclion. 

Secondly, That the faithful) under the C ofpell areas neceflarily bound to 

keep the weekly Sabbath of the Lords day, by vcrtue of the fourth Com- 

mandement,as the Fathers under the Law were bound to keepe the fe- 

venth day, 

Delivered in divers Sermons ^George Walker 72. D. and 
T'aftor of S*. John Evangelifts Church in L o n d o n. 

L e v i t. ip. 30. Tee flail keep my Sabbaths .and reverence my Sanctuary ; 
J am the Lord. 

Printed at London by G.MSot /ebn Bartlctjt the figne of the s.ilc Cup, neare S./luflm 
Gate in Pauls Church-yard. M D C X LY 



Lords Francis Earle of Bedford, 
Robert Farle of IVarwickJYittiam Vifcount Say and 

Seale } Edivard\ r \[co\miMnnde^i!c, Robert Lord Brooke^ 
Jchn Lord Roberts, and the reft of the Honourable Lords'.ifL5 i& the uppti tuwfe of the high <. our» i f F< 

mcm^Grace an I Peace vru)> mliiplkili --j all B ef- 
fifths temporal and c:crru/J. 

Mcfl Nohh LORDS, 


JgT53i^2Jk§^£7^ Hat which the learned Dortours of the Jews doe tTf\Fl 
\& fee* I n^^^ ^ °^ tnc i r AJaforahjo wit, That it u an hedge j»q fy 
**' % or defences the Law, We Chridians may more ~->A v 
^} truly fay of our weekly Sabbath, :he £ - r if/ '.y. - 
V* //^r /> a< rA<? hedje of defence to true Chriftian Re- Mafim 

*'f* that it is the hedje of defence to true Chrift; 

iigicn.Y or ?.s their Majorah (which was their ; 
Annotations upon all the Scriptures of the old 
Teftament, (hewing the genuine reading and 
fignifkation of every word in theHebrew text, with what pricks,V 
els and accents it ought to be, and was anciently written and read by 
Mefes and the Prophets,and by tradition from Ezra, and other iuccee- 
ding Fathers in all ages delivered over unto them)did fervc ns an hedge 
and fence to keep the Scriptures of the old Teftnment pure from all 
corruption and alteration, io that if any Scribe did in writing any co- 
py of them,omit or adde one word or letter ; or alter and change any 
vowell, point or accent, his errour might eafily by the notes and rules 
of their Maferah be difcerned and amended : So the Lords holy week- 

A 2 ly 

The Epijlle Dedicatory . 

ly Sabbath being rightly obferved according to the Law of God, and 
thenrltinftitutionandfancliiicationofit, that is, Firft, by ceffation 
and reft from all worldly cares,and all feoilar affnrs (in refpefl wher- 
of it is called in Scripture, H3# Sabbat h,that i^,reft and ceffation.) Se- 
condly, by devoting it only to the worlhip and fervice of God,and by 
fanftifying it with preaching,reading and hearing ofthe word,prayer, 
meditation,and other works of piety and exercifes oFtrueReligion(in 
which refpeel it is called the Lords day, that is, the day of die Lord 
£Vi/?,confscratedto his honor, and to the fervice and wor.Tiip of God 
in his name) It is moft certainly (as we find by experience) aftrong 
hedge and fence to true Chriftian Religion, by which true piety, and 
the true knowledge and worfhtp of Gpd,and true Faith m Chriit, are 
upheld, maintained,increaied and continued among all Chriftian nati- 
ons from generation to generation. Without observation of this week- 
ly Sabb inland keeping this day of che Lord thrift, holy, by holy afen- 
blies,the publik and private wor hip of God,the knowledge of Chrift, 
the memory of our Redemption by him,md of his finiihmg and perfe- 
cting that great work,and retting from it in his refi lrrection, the pub- 
like preaching,reading and hearing ofthe word,and all other exercifes 
of Chriftian religion, which are the moft efFecTmll ordinary meanes of 
grace and furtherances to eternal! life andblefTednefte would undoub- 
tedly grow out of ufe,and at length utterly decay and vanifh. This con- 
fideration did move me to infill more largely upon this flib; :fl, and to 
make many Sermons upon that Text, C/fn.2.2, % . which briefly relates 
the firft inftitution ofthe Sabbath on the feventh day in the rlrft weeke 
ofthe world;and Godsbleding and fmflifying ofe very feventh day in 
every week to be an holy Sabbath to his people.Out of which Sermons 
firft publikly preached to mine ownc peculiar flocke, I did afterwards 
compofe this Treatife at the importunity offome of my bed affe led 
hearers,and imparted fcverali written copies of it unto divers of them, 
having at that time no hope to get it licenfed for the Preffe. For by 
Gods fpeciall providence I hiving handled the doctrine ofthe Creati- 
on,out ofthe 1 .(^hap^genefis 9 wxs by my order of preaching and ex- 
pounding of that Scripturejed along and brought to this Text,co ncer- 
ning Go Is fanftifying of the feventh day, at that very time when a 
book of liberty for iports on the Lords day, was by the Bifhops in every 
Dioceifefent to every Parifh Church,and commanded to beipliblickly 
read bye very Minifter in time of divine Service in the audience of all 


The Epifile Dedicatory 

the people: And becaufe I proceeded to handle this fub je&,as the order 
of my text did lead ine ; and durft not balk that part of Gods word 5 I 
was three Overall times converted before my Ordinary, and ad- 
monished under paine of fafpenfion, to proceed no further m this do- 
&rine,not for any errour which could be objected againft any part or 
paf&gein it;but only becaufe the times would not beare it- And becaufe 
I did not hold it fit nor fife for me to obey mm rather then God by 
concealing from my (lock any part of Go Jstrutb,and fhunning to de- 
clare unto them the whole counidl of God ; I have undergone the high 
difpleafure of that Primate to whofe jurifchclion my Church doth be- 
lon^who upon divers falfe informations of catchers, which hive bin 
imployed to entrap me in my words that they might have fomething 
wherof to accufe me,hath caufcd me to be convented before the Kings 
Majefty, and the Lords of his Honourable Privy CounfelJ, and hath 
charged and accufed me to be a Preacher of factious and feditious Do- 
ctrine,and for many years the great troubler of the City of London : 
Wherupon I was committed clofe prifoner for two and twenty 
weeks 3 and through clofe cuftody was by hcknefle brought neare unto 
death,and could not obtain fo much liberty as to be confined to the li- 
mits of my brothers houfefor thefafety of my iife,upon bayle of a 1000 
pound given,untill by the teftimony of fifty five Neighbour Minifters 
ofbeft report in and about the Gity,I was declared to be innocent and 
free from all the crimes of which J was accufed. Now bleffed be God 
for your happy Aflembly in this mod bopefull Parliament, by which I 
have been eafed of my {trait bond?, and the times are fo changed, that 
this Treatife, and divers others of my labours are licenfed to pafle by 
the Trefle into the publik view cf the world. I fhould not have da- 
red to commend it to the fight, and grave Judgement of your Ho- 
nours; 1 f your godly Zeale for the fan ftifying of the Lords day, and 
for the honouring of the name of the Sabbath (which appeared moft 
evidently to us all, who of late were prefent at the time when that 
fcandalouslibell, intituled, Sunday no Sabbath, was mod accurately 
and judicioufly fifted and examined by your Honours, and juftly cen- 
fured and condemned to the fire) had not encouraged me to this bold 

Although I have in this Treatife propounded and aflayed to proove 
out of the Text and other places of holy Scripture fuch a ground of the 
weekly Sabbath, as the learned in their writings have not heretofore 

A 3 obfer- 

TbeEfiftle Dedicatory 

obferved : Yetbecaufe the end, ufe andfeope of this difcovery is moft 
pious and godly, and it tends altogether to heape more honour on 
Chrift,to advance Redemption above Creation; grace above nature, 
the ftate of Regeneration above the (late of Innccency ; and to (hew 
a neceflity or the change of the Sabbath from the feventh and laft, to 
the firft day of the week, after Chrifts performing and finishing of that 
great work of our Redemption in his refurre&ion ; for which he was 
promifed on the ieventh day next after the ending of the Creation : I 
hope it will give no offence, nor receive cenfure of novelty; but rather 
find grace and acceptation in the eyes of your noble perlbns.That great 
God (whohath(as I beleeve and here profeffe) magnified his holy 
weekly Sabbath by grounding it in the firft inftitution on Chrift pro- 
mifed ; and hath made it more honourable by removing and carrying 
it along together with Chrift the Redeemer from the day , r of die pro- 
mife to the day of the full performance of the great work of Redemp- 
tion) magnitie your Honours, and make your perfons ftill more and 
more honourable,by noble Acts undertaken and performed for the ho- 
nour of his holy name, the advancement of true Religion; and the 
peace and profperity of this Church and Kingdome under our moft 
gracious Severaigne Lord and King. To whom next under God and 
the Lord J efus Chrift, I moft humbly devote my ielf^ and vow to re- 
main ever a moft loyall fubjecT;and next under him to your Honours 

A moft dutifull fervant and daily fuffliant to Cjod 
for your everlaHing b/ejfednetfc. 

Geo. Walker 

A Table (hewing the Contents of every Chapter. 

Chap. I. 

He Text divi. led into parts . The [ever a!! opinions touting tie time and 
tffk ground of 'the fir ft invitation o: the Sabbxb. rbe true opinion, tbaJ it was 
\ inftitutcd oh thefevemb dayjbe next after mans faJUjvbicb is proved to be 
V on thejixtbday 3 tbe crca'.ioa bci*gfiitijbcd.and aUthrngsfet in order* 

Cta > l . The true ground o; t be Sab ..a h proved iro n the word? of the 
Text, and other Scriptures to be Go h blcflngoftbc feventb diywiib the prom: fe of 
thrift ,andfan^ijyingit byjbedding his, Spirit on our fit ft parent s.and giving themjauh 
tobe eeve intbrift tie bleffed feed How God is fail to rep from tie worl^ oj crea:ion,m 

Oiap.g. The fame things further declared by way ofDofirine, and proved by four e 
"Reafons.Thc Vfeo that TjoZnnejhewcd. 

Chip-4 Tbstwo-joldfenfe of the words blcjlngand fmcliying, tie words in this 
text figmfie bo bjcverallpoftt ions propounded j or the more cleare underftanding of the 
| fanftijicatiou oj the feventb day >. 

C ( )ap. 5. Thcfirft Po fit ton negative explaine ' and provcd.The Sabbath w as not fan- 
'• ftifcdhy bolynes created or infufed into it ,»o fanclifcaiion but in and through thrift. 
Chap. 6. Thcfccoud Pofitten negative pi fupernaturallholinejjc infufed into 
tie Sabbath: no creatures capable of holineffe in ufed beji tes A r.gcls and Men. 

Chap.f. Thefirftafrmative Pofiuoi propouniedand proved I he Sabbath fancli- 
fed by Gods revealing <r bis bolincfjc in Chrift. 

Civ.p.8. The fecond affirmative Po fition propounded God fanZifed the Sabbath by 
/bedding the Holy Ghoft on our fir ft "Parents through thrift promtfed,aud hinging in ho • 
h'.cjfe on thefevenrh day 

Cha p.9 . The third affrrna'. he ? option fijewirg t he third point of Gods fanGiyirg 
tie Sabbath day, by fet ting it apart for 1 o!y and l cave»'y ufe, and f v r ho'y worjbip a?d 
exercfes oj Religion. That this far.ftijying 0' a waskygivirg a Law and Ceiumatde. 
ment for the weekly obfervation oj it. The r.ature of thai Lawnecejfaryto be under ft ood: 
twoOb eclions anfweud.Hon- the day of the Sabbath may be changed, and yet the Law 
be perpetuaU. 

Chap. 10. The fevcrall forts ojdivirc Laws, and divers opinions concerning the 
Lawo the Sabbath Jt k not a meerenaur all Law grounded on tic Creation. 

Chap ft. The diftintlionofGods Laws into r.aturali and pojiti\e. NaturaU Lawes 
eitber generall or fpecialt. Spcciall Law of nature, primary or fecondary. Vofmve 
Lowes, political or E'-an^elicattand Rel'gioua. Eva»gelicaMtawes either univeifaS 
andperpttvalli or fpeaali andtemporary. Of mixt lawes. The la~w oj tic Sabbath a 
viixt hw ^containing in it fomeihirg of all forts oflawes» 

Chap.ij. Oj the charge oj the Sabbuth fro n the to the fir ft day. Toure 
Reafons proving thcfirft day oftbewa ! i tie fit t eft lor the drift ian Sabbath. Reajo^s 


The Contents. 

proving the cha'ge to be no humane invention, but a thirgpurpofedoj old. andly thrift 
aclmlly brought to pafte < ' 

Chap »? Uhcarzuments proving the lords day,the firft oftleweekjo be tic cn'y 
particular day which Gods la*> binds w to kcepejwhis kolywccijy Sabbath w<kr the 
GofeUwitiU we come to the eternal/ reft in Heaven. _ 

Ch 10 1 4 Of mans (anfiifi cation oj the Sabbat b.Thts duty u tmpy/c.i on all manhjn d 
by Gods' aft of fancying tie Sabbath Proved by five Arguments 

Ovp I < • Haw far an I upon what termi s and conditions act Adams/rat arc by Gods 
cowmindement, given inthe fancHfying oftkefeventh UyMmito \ee\i avoeekly Sab* 
bath. Foure Arguments provir.gthat ignorance <?; the law doth not exempt menftvmihis 

Chat*. 1 0. The duties of the Sabbath which are common to aUGodi people and r.e- 
ce/Tary to the being of a Sabbath. Fir ft reft from all fecular a fairs p; ovcdncccfary by 
4 Arguments. TwoOb>ec~tions of the Anu-Sibhmnms anjwcred. r.Sanclifuanonby 
reliziom exercifesprovA a neceffary duty by 4 . Arguments. ^.Obfervation of that par- 
ticular daywbicb GedhathbleffUwth tbegreateft bleffi<ig, and fanclifed above the 

other fix *D ay (S. '-.j.-. „ 

Chap 17 . The 'Duties proper to the people oj God in the old Tcf lament, reduced to 
2 heads i Cefa'ion, x.Sanclifcadon^.Obfervation oftkefeventh Day, Twocontraiy 
ooinhns about the reft in the old Teftamcnt. That chriftians are on the I ords 7)ay as 
IfriUlyboundbytheLawto reft from all worldly affaires,: at tr C icwes were on ihar 
Sabba*h Doubts andObjetfion to the contrary afn ered. Tie facial! duties offancfu 7 he jevemh Vayonelywas tobcobfervedfor tie 
weekly Sabbath in the oldTcflamcnt. 

Ovap 1 8 The fpecia It Sabbat o duties unto which all Cbrtft tarn are hturJ on the 
Lords day the Sabbath under tteGofpeM l.Tbey are to faepe their Sabbath weekly on 
the Lords day. Different opinion confutedjOnd the true opinion proved t. About cejfation 
^^''•a^^SjAininoroianSjAn^baptiib^^em^Ck^ia^ are reproved.Doclrin 

Chip i o Reft andcefation a* neceffary a duty of Chriftians on the Lords day, as it 
was of the Fathers on thefeventh dtyjrovedby five Arguments 

Chap, 20. Gods law r'ghtly underfiood doth as flriclly bind f hn[t'ar.s to reft on the 
Lords day, as it did the M»s on the fevenlh day. Contrary objections ar,fwered y and the 
true "Dodrine o' our Church declared. ■ 

Chap n What works and how far allowed to Chrijltans. i .IVtrhs oj the Mint- 
(try 2 labours neceftary to bring ua to the Church and to publike woijhip. j Worlds 
o'merty ani Charity. ArWor\s $ great andextreamc ne eftry fV.vat recreations are 
condemned.Tbe danger of them pro ,ed by divers Rcafons What recreations arc ImJuU. 
Chap zt Of the fpea all dunes of holinefe by which Cbrijiiam do faiHife the 
Lords day. Rules andmexneso\ preparation Publi\e duties of fanclifiation Private du- 
ties.That the who e day is little enough for all the duties reauned. The Coaclufion from 
theconfejtionofthe greateft oppofites. 




G £ N.2. ffr 

yjindon thefeventh Gcd ended his worke which he had made, and 
he rested the fevenih day from all his worke which he had made. 

3 . K^ind God bleffed the [event h day , andfancttjiedit, hecaufe in 
it he hadreftedfrom alibis worke which God 'created and made i 



iN the unfolding of this Text, and handling of this 
maine and ncccflary point, I will obferue the Me- 
thod and order which is moft agreeable to the order 
of the words. 

Firft, from thefe words, ( And on the five nth day) 
I will obferve, and declare the time of thelnftitu- 
tion of the weekly Sabbath, even the very day wherein the flrft occa- 
fion was given for the ian&ification of it,and God did firft fanclifleir, 
and command that it fhould be kept holy. 

Secondly, I will fhew the true ground and occafion of the inftitu- 
tion of it,laid downc in the next words ; god ended hit workjvhich he 
bad made, and beer eft ed the frventh day from all hi* toorkeMicb hee bad 
wade r and Godbleffcdthefevcxth day. . 

B Thirdly, 



2 The Dottrinc of the Sabbath. 

Thirdly, I will declare what is the bleffing, andfan&ifyingofthe 
feventh day, wherelfhall have occafion to fpeake of the Law and 
Commandement by which God feparatcd it from other naturall dayes 
to holy heavenly and fupernaturall ufe. And of the duties which that 
Law requires at the hands of all Gods people in all ages to the end of 
the World on the molt bleffed day or all the feven in every weeke, 
everrthe weekely Sabbath-day. Under thefe heads divers fubordinatc 
points will offer themfelves to be handlcd,and divers neceffiry quefti- 
ons will come to be anfwered and explained. 

Firft, concerning the time of the inftitution, there are feverall opi- 
nions among learned Writers of former and latter times. 

Firft,fome Heathen Writers,as luftine and Tacitus, with others,have 
groffelyand abfurdiy erred, as in the time, fo alfo in the Author and 
in the occafion of the inftitution , though they had perhaps read the 
writings of Mofes ; yet it feemes they beleeved him not concerning 
the firft inftitution of it by God ; but finding the firft exprefle Law, 
concerning the keeping of the Sabbath given by Mofes at Mount Sina, 
written in Tables of ltone, and aft awards recorded in the Bookesof 
Mofes ; they make Mofes the firft author of the Sabbath,and that upon 
this occafion, becaufe wandring with the Ifraelites out ofo^npt in 
the wiiderncfte, and finding no fuftenance, but being forced to raft fix 
dayes, at length comming to mount Sina with the people, there 
found meatc, andreftcd, and upon this occafion did appoint it fo be 
kept weekely for a Sabbath or day, of reft. 

But all true Chriftians, who beleevc the Sci iptures to be the facred 
infallible Word of God, bting thereby better inftruded,doe with one 
confent hold, confefie,and conftantly teach,that God the Lord Jeho- 
vah, the onely true God, is the Author and Ordainer of the Sabbath, 
and that he firft ordained it upon the ground and occafion mentioned 
in this Text, and exprefled in the words of the Law. But yet in the 
time they much differ among themfelves ; Some in the time of the 
firft inftitution concurre with the infidefl Heathens before men- 
tioned ; though they differ much concerning the Author and the oc- 
cafion j Tor they hold that the Sabbath was neither commanded by 
God, nor knowne to the Fathers and Tatriarches, nor obferved by 
any before the comming of Jfrael with Mofes to mount Swa,znd that 
the firft inftitution of it was in the fourth Commandement given 
by God among the Ten from mount Si»A y both by word of mouth, in 


The Dolirine of the Sdbttb. 3 

the audience of all jfrtel, and alio in Tables of ftone w ritten with bis 

owne finger. 

[a Justine Marytr^TeYtullianJr<tneus^x\A. other of the Auncient, fceme luflin. 
to have given the occafion of this opinion, where they make it a Vialogcu 
oucftion, \\hz\\\a Adam, Abel.Noa^Abrah^m^Mekhi^deck^ orany * ri fljj*' 
of the holy Fathers kept thefeventh day for an holy Sabbath, and at- J^ rfU7 
finnc that Abraham beleeved and was juftiried,and called the friend of tu ^ St 
Gcd without circumcif.on or obfervation of Sabbath ; For from their irentm 
words, which are but doubt' ulUome late writers, both * Papifts and tf **.*o. 
Proteitantf,do goe about to prove that the Sabbath was not inftituted **Vf rtw "« 
by God unti'll the giving of the Law by CMoJes on Mount Sina. G 7inrL 

And although the words of this Text, written by CMofef, doe 
here p'ainely aiflr me the contrary, and tell us that on the feventh day 
Cod ended his worke, refted and fan&ified the feventh day; Yet 
thus they wrangle and wrett the Text by a childifh. forged tenfe and 
meaning j 1 irft, they grant the firft words, that on the feventh day 
God ended his worke, and refted; But they deny that he bleffed and 
fanclified the Sabbath on the fame day, they lay that hereby way or" 
anticipation, Mofes mentions the bleiiing and fanclifying of the Sab- 
bath, not as a thing at this time done ; but as a thing which was firft 
done in the giving of the Law on Mount Sina, many ages after, and 
that upon this around which is here mentioned, to wit, his ending 
of his worke, *and retting on the fitft feventh day of the World. 
And here Mofeshis purpote was, to dhew not the time, but the equi- 
ty of the inftitution ; not the beginning but the ground of that Sab- 
bath. Tne paraphrafe of the Text in their fenfe runnes thus: And on 
the feventh day God ended his worke, and refted; and upon this 
ground he many ages after at Mount Sina inftituted the feventh 
day to be kept by Jfraei for an holy Sabbath of reft. But though fome 
men of learning, and divers out of affected error and malice (land 
for this opinion; yet indeed there is no ground for it in the Scrip- 
tures, but many plaineproofesto the contrary. Firft,thisText (if we 
take the words ?s they runnc) fhewes moft manif eftLy, that on the fe- 
venth day , even the next after the fix dayes of the Creation, God en- 
ded or perfected his worke, and on that day he refted, and alfo blcfled 
and fan&ified it to be his Sabbath. Secondly, there is no colour of 
reafon for any man to thinke, that God fhould lay the ground and 
foundation of the Sabbath on the ' firft fcrenth day of the World, and 

B 2 fuffer 

4 Tfo Doff rim of the Sabbath. 

fufler it to fye Yoktaand of noufe,and never go about to build on it till 
fo many ages after,God connot endure to do any thing in vaine,nor to 
fuffer any thing to lye void,and to be of no ufe, which of it felfe is very 
Hcb. 1 1 . ufeful. Surely, as he loved and chofe all the holy Fathers from the be- 
10,16. ginning,andprornifed to them the eternal! reft of heaven, which they 
looked for, and fought in the everlafting Citie, which hath furc 
foundations, and in the Countrie above in the VVorld to come. So 
he kept not backe from them the outward figne, feale and pledge 
thereof his holy Sabbath, which was both a motive to make them 
bend their whole courfe towards that reft, and a meanes to further 
them in their way and journey to it alfo. 

Thirdly, the Lords owns words which he (pake from Mount Sina 
inthecommandementoftheSabbath,are moftcleare, and doe fhew 
that God bleffed and Sanctified the Sabbath in the beginning, on the 
firft feventh day wherein he ended his worke and refted. For he doth 
not fay, I the Lord refted on the feventh day from works of creation, 
and therefore I nowblefle and f.uiclirie every feventh day of every 
weeke hereafter. But the Lord refted the feventh day, wherefore 
the Lord bleffed the Sabbath,and fanclified it,that is then of old in the 
• beginning when he refted,he bleffed and fanctiiied it. 

Fourthly, the Sabbath day was kept and obferved by the If raelkes a 
moneth before they came to Mount Sina. Exe.\6,25, 26. And Mofe$ 
& the people knew that the feventh day after that God began to raine 
Manna from Heaven, for to be their bread, was the Lords Sabbath, as 
bis words do plainely fhew, and that the Lord before that time had 
by his word appointed it to be the reft of the holy Sabbatb,z>. 2 3 . And 
the words of the Lord to Mofes, when feme of the people went out on 
the feventh day to gather Manna,do plainly {"he w,that God had before 
that time given them Com mandements and Lawes concerning the 
reft of the feventh day;For ip the 28. ve, he faith \H01v long will ye re- 
fife to keep my Commandements and Lawesflnti mating that their goin g 
out on the feventh day was a rcfufing to keep his Lawes, which of old 
he load given,& before this h^d revealed to them. For otherwife they 
could not be laid to tranfgrerTe : Lawes cannot be refufed to be kept 
before they be given;Whei?fore it is. a vaine pretence and fhift, which 
feme ufe to decline this Argument,^, that the cealing of the Manna 
on the feventh day, and Moles his admoniihing of the people to reft 
that day, was but a pradudiuoi of th$ fourth Cornmandement, and a 


The Doctrine of the SMatfj. 5 

preparation to Gods promulgation of it; For the words of the Text 
{hew mod plainly,that the intermiillon of Manna was an evidence of 
the Sabbath already fanctified by the Commandement ofGod;the re- 
tting ofthe Hraelites was obferving and obeying of the Law already 
given,and the going out of loine to gather Manna on the feventh day, 
was refuting to keep Cods Law given in the Grit institution. 

Now,for Justine Martyr, TcrtttUUn,Tr&neHs 9 their words doe not 
prove any thing for the maintaining of this opinion;7Vr#//**» denyes 
only the perpetuall moralitie of the Law,concerning the Jewifli Sab- 
bath,and calls into queftion not the inftitution of it in the beginning, 
but the obfervation of it by the fir ft Fathers and Patriarches. Justine 
Martyr & Irtnetu fay^that Abraham was juftiried without circumci-. 
Cop and obfervation of Sabbaths, that is, of the Ceremoniall Sabbaths 
commanded by God in the Ceremoniall Lawes given by Mofes, not 
without obfervation of the weekly Sabbath, as the word, Zabbaton, origen. 
of theplurall number which they ule,doth clearely declare : That the 
weekly Sabbath was inftitutcd from the beginning, the beft learned H'mon. 
of the Fathers afnrme,as Origen ,Hicrome, sAuftine and others. And trai - * 
although the Scriptures which briefly runne over the lives and ads of * ^en. 
the Fathers, make no expreflfe mention of their obfervation of the p/J^o! 
weekely Sabbath ; yet we have divers places which miniftervery 
probable arguments for this purpofe. I n Genefis,cap.^^ , It is faid> 
that at the end of dayes, Caine brought his offering to the Lord, that . 
is on the Sabbath,which was the end of the weeke and the laft of the 
dayes. The Hebrew words are Q*C£ fpJ and fignifie at the end of 
dayes,and howfoever they are taken to (ignirie in procefle of time, by 
fome learned Tranflators, yet in no other place of Scripture doe I 
find, that they fignifie any other end of dayes, but of acertainefet 
number of dayes, either of thirty or forty, or many dayes 5 Or of the 
dayes of a whole yeare, as 2 Sam. 14. 2 6. where it is faid, at the end of 
dayes,according to dayes, that is of every ycare, Abjaiom polled his 
head. And 1 K'ing.iy.j.d.t the end of dayes, that is of a yeare (as Trc- 
mclliw translates the words) the brooke dried up. Now, I fee no rea- 
fon why wefhould undcrltand by the end of dayes, the end of the 
yeare, that Caine and Abel did onely at the end of the yeare offer to 
God,orafter a long time; but that on every feventh day of the weeke, 
which isthe weekely Sabbath, they fact lficcd to God ; undoubtedly 
their Father Adam, who taught them tofxrihee (which Worfhip 

B 3 Cod 

6 The Detfrine of the Sabbath. 

God firft inftituted on the fevcnth day) he alfo taught them the day of 
Gods holy worfhip even the Sabbath which God had fanclificd, and 
this was the end ofthe dayes of the weeke. ^ 

Alfo in the fame fourth of genefis in the lad verfe y it is faid, that 
when Seths Children began to increafe, that then men began to call 
on the Name ofthe Lord; that is as learned Junius well expounds the 
words, they began to sflembie themfelvcs together in publicke affern- 
blies to pray unto God and worfhip h m, even all Seths feed who 
were Gods people, and were called by the name ofthe Lord, that is 
the Children of God, as we fee, Gen. 6. 2. Now, as they had folemne 
and let meetings, fb undoubtedly they had a fet time, even every Sab- 
bath or feventh day, and fet places or Churches J for without fet rime 
and place there can be no folemne invocation or wor(hip in folemne 
affemblies,as common fenie teacheth. 

And that Noah when he came out ofthe Arke began to obferve the 
reft ofthe Sabbath, and didoffjra faciince ofthe reft, that is ofthe 
holy Sabbath 5 and that God was well pleajbd with it. Me thinkes the 
HH Hebrew words in the originall Text teach very plainely ; for it is fud, 
rin^H that God fmelled a favour ofthe reft ; that is, he accepted it as a plea- 
Gen~8."ii. fing Sabbath facrifice, the Hebrew emphaticall and demonftrative 
HP * particle here added to fet forth a fpeciall reft,implies fomuch. And 
the word which is in the Hebrew, reft, is of the fame note and origi- 
nall with the word which. Exod. 20.1 1 . in the fourth commandement 
is ufed tofignifie Gods refting 011 the feventh day. 

Now, ail thefe things well weighed and laid together doe flicw 
that this opinion, though held by fome learned men, is but a meere 
dreame and idle fancie. And indeed the very firft words in which 
God gave the fourth Commandement, to wit, remember the Sabbath 
day to kcepeitholy, are of themfelves alone afurficient argument to 
prove, that the Lord did not in giving the Law T from Mount S'ma firft 
inftitute the Sabbath day ; but only did renew the memory of it, and 
of the firft inftitution thereof by renewing and receiving his old 
Commandement, by which he on the firft feventh day of the World 
did fanclifie it. 

There is another opinion which divers both Antient and moderne 
Chriftians do hold upon a better ground; for they doe gather and con- 
clude with one generall confent from the plaine words of this Text, 
that God in th ^ beginning immediately after the creation ended, did 


The Bottrifit of the SMath. 7 

give the Law of the Sabbath, and did blefte and fan&ine the feventh 
day of thefirft weekc of the world, and every feventh day of every 
wecke following, and commanded it to be kept an holy Sabbath, in 
memory of his reft on the feventh day. 

But howfoever, they all agree in the generall - 3 yet in divers fpeciall 
and particular things they do much differ. 

1. Some hold, that the Law of the Sabbath was given to man in 
the ftate of innocency, before his fall on the fixt day, and that it was 
written in mans heart, that he ought to keepe the feventh day holy ; 
and that if man had continued in his integrity, he would haue kept 
the feventh day of every weeke an holy reft unto the Lord his God. 

2. Others hold, that the Sabbath was inftituted not in the ftate of 
innocency, nor before mans foil, which happened towards the end of 
the forth day ; but that on the feventh day when God refted from the 
worke of Creation, he then didbleffe and fanclifie that and every fe- 
venth day and appointed it to be a weekly Sabbath, and the Law by 
which he inftituted the Sabbath, was no other but fuch as was written 
in mans heart in the creation, and that man by the inftincl of nature 
would have obeyed that Law and kept the Sabbath in the ftate of in- 
nocency,ifhehad ftood and continued therein. 

3 . A third fort are of opinion, that the Sabbath was inftituted and 
the Commandement for the keeping thereof given in the ftate of in- 
nocency, and yet not till the feventh day;for they imagine that man 
ftood more then one d«y, and did in his innocency keepe the Sabbath, 
and if he had continued would have alwayes kept it ; not by any in- 
ftincl of nature or light of naturall reafon created in him and moving 
himfo to do, but by apofitiveLaw and precept given by God, of 
the fame nature and kind with, the Comimndement of abftaining 
from the tree of knowledge of good and evill. 

In all ?nd ever)' of thefe opinions I rind fome failing, and no confent 
and perfect agreement with the word of God. 
. "Firft they all goetoo farre, and have not one word in Scripture 
to warrant their opinion : that Adam in the ftate of innocency lhould 
and would have kept every feventh day for an holy reft, and that 
God would have required it at his hands. For all Scriptures which 
mention the Sabbath doe lpeake of it as of an holy figne looking alto- 
gether towards Chrilt, and towards the ftate of grace and glory in 
him. and not towards the ftate of innocency. It is inoft ccname that 


8 The Detfrinc of the S*bbdtb. 

man in that ftate was perfect with naturall perfe&ion, at all times 
equally difpofed to obey God and to ferve him, and to remember his 
Creation and to honour his creator. Hee needed no obfervation of 
any day to put him in mind of any thing which he had before known 
& which God had revealed to him, his memory was perfect, and he 
knew whatfoever was needfullfor him to know or do in that prefent 
ftate. And his will was every moment ready to do whatfoever he 
knew to be right,he needed no figne to admonifh him of his duty,or 
to move him to do it in duefcafon.He did not labour nor weary bim- 
felfe, every day was to him a day of delight and pleafure, of reft and 
recreation, and in every creature which he did fee or meddle with 3 he 
did behold and take notice of the wifedome and goodneffe of God. 
In a word:his whole life was a conftant and obedient ferviceofGod, 
and there was no inequality nor lerTe worihup of God in one day 
then in another, for he fully fervei God at all times : Whofoever de- 
ny es this muft needs deny therein mans pee fcclion and conftant con- 
formity to God in the ftate of mnocency . For where one day is kept 
better then another, there is inequality, and no conftant uniformity 
in himfelfe, nor conformity to Gods will. 

In the fecond place, they who hold that the Sabbath was firft 
inftituted after mans fall, and yet that it was written in mans" heart 
in the ftate of innocency, and he then was bound to keepe it : they fall 
into many abfurdities. 

. Firft that a man was bound to keepe a Sabbath before ever it was 

Secondly ,that God did by his word and commandement teach man 
in vaine that which hee was folly taught already and had written 
in his heart. 

Thirdly, that God gave to man a Law in Yaine after his fall when 
he knew he was become unable to keepe it. 

3. They who hold that the Law of the Sabbath was not writ- 
ten in mans heart, but was a positive Law given in the ftate of in- 
nocency, of the fame nature with that Commandement of mans 
not eating of the tree of knowledge. They doe make this Com- 
mandement of the Sabbath utterly void by mans fall, even as that 
of not eating is now void, and was not to bee renewed after mans 
fall. But of the unfoundneiTe and vanity of thefe opinions I fhall 
fpeake morefuUy, when I <ome to fhew what kind of Law that 


The Dolirine of the Sdbsth. 

of the Sabbath is, and how that commandement bindes men. 

Now becaufe I cannot find any folidity, or fatisfa&ion in any of 
theie opinions, I have left humane writings even of the belt, lear- 
ned, and have betaken my felfe wholly to the fearching of the Holy 
Scriptures, Gods mod pure infallible word, and what light I findc 
therein for themanifefhtion of the truth, J will not hide nor cover, 
but let it before you openly. And for the time when God firft: infti- 
tuted the Sabbath, 1 conceive it to have bcene not in theftateofin- 
nocency, but after mans fall immediately, and yet upon the feventh 
day wherein God retted from the workcof the creation; as my Text 
here faith, and although this may feeme to croiTe the order of the 
Hiltory as it is here laid downe by Cfrfojes, becaufe mans fall is re- 
lated a while after his fanclihcation of the Sabbath, even in the 
third Chapt. Yet let this moove no man, for Mofes doth not fet 
down all things in order as tliey were done in this and the next 
Chapter, but finft he fpeakes of the finifhiag of Heaven and Earth,and 
all the hoft of them, and then of Gods r:ft, and of the fandtifving of 
the feventh day, and then returnes to lpeake of things which were 
done before : as the planting of the garden in Eden, which was a 
worke of the third day, and the making of the woman and forming 
her of a rib paken out of mans fide, and mans naming of all living crea- 
tures before the woman was made, which things were done on the 
fixt day. Alfo in this Chapter, the forming of the man is related be- 
fore the planting of the garden and the watering of it with a river 
which was derided into foure heads, though it is mod evident 
that before there was a man to till the ground, God made every 
plant and tree that was pleafant to the eye and good for food, to 
grow out of the ground, that is, all the trees of the garden amongft 
the reft, vcr.%. Wherefore we muft not cleave ftri&ly to the or- 
der in which Mofes fets things downe in this Chapter, nor take 
all things to be firft done which are here firft related, for then wc 
fhould bcleeve that plants, herbes trees, man and woman were 
all created after that the workes of creation were finifhed , and 
after Gods refting on the feventh day. But to parte by allneedleffc 
doubts, let us come to the proofes of this Point, which prove 
ftrongly that Gods inftitution of the Sabbath was not in mans inno- 
cency but after his fall. 
Firft, the very words of my Text affirmc that the Sabbath was 

C inftitutcd 

io The Doctrine of the sMath. 

inftituted on the fevcnth day, for ftrfl it is faid in expreffe words, 
that on the feventh day God refted and blefled and fancTified 
that day. 

Secondly, the things which gave God occafion to fanctifie the fe- 
vcnth day, and upon which the hrft. inftitution of the Sabbath was 
grounded came not to paf£, neither were they in being untill the 
feventh day, that is Gods perfecting of the worke and reding from 
al the work which he had made: the words of the Text are very plain, 
On y orinthe feventh day God ended his Vvorke and refted, and becaufe 
of this reding he bleff:d and fanctified the feventh day, And there- 
fore thefancTifying of the feventh day which wis the inftitution of 
the Sabbath, cannot be before the feventh day ; The building could 
not be before there was ground to build on, neither could the worke 
go before thecaufe and occafion of it. 

Thirdly, it is againft all reafon to thinke that God actually blefled 
and fancTihed the feventh day, and made it his holy Sabbath before it 
came into being. Now this ground being very clear c,that the Sabbath 
was inftituted on the feventh day from the beginning of the creation 
and not before, I proceed to a fecond ground, to wif.that man did fall 
towards the end of thefixt day,even on the £ame day in which he was 
created, which being fully prooved, it will neceiTirily follow. 1 hat 
the firft inftitution of the Sabbath was after mans fall and not in the 
ftate of innocency. 

Firft that man did fall upon the very day of his creation thefixt 
day, I proove by plaine Scriptures and by ftrong arguments grounded 
on them. The firft tcfiirnony is that fpeech of David, Pfalme 49.1 2. 
Lftlan being in honour lodged not a night therein, but became liize tiie beafts 
that ferijb. So the words runne in the originall text, and we can- 
not without wrefting of the words from their proper fence in the 
Hebrew, expound them of any other perfon but of the hrft isfdam 
and of his fall,the word which is in our tranflation (man) is Adam 
4n the Hebrew, and the words which wee read in our Englifh 
(abideth not) Bal-jalin, and in the Hebrew fignifie, lodged not 
a night therein ; as appeareth by other Scriptures, in which it is 
continually ufed to fignifie lodging or tarrying for a night, ®«4 
8xod.i^.\%. (^34.25. ' where God forbids the Jfrae/ires 
to let the fat of their Sacrifice, or any part of the fie jh of the PafchaH 
lambe to lodge Vwh them all night till the morning. And 2 Sam.iy.S. 


Tkt Dotfrinc of the Sdhtb. 1 1 

when ffm/hu faid to Abfilcm of his Father ?)&iid, that hec wat 
A man ofWarre, and Would not lodge With the people. And 2 Sam.ip.%. 
where Joab faith to David, there Will not one abide With thee $ne 
night. And Pfilqo.f. where it is fa id, that Weeping may lodge for 
* fright y but joy cemmeth in the morning. And fo m all other Scrip- 
tures this word is ufed. And the learned Hebrcv^|i who befr know 
the propriety of the phrafe: underftand this pltce of ^^wandof 
his falling en the day of his Creation, and not continuing one night 
in the honourable date of innccency. The fecond teftimony is 
that fpeech of our Saviour, Joh.%.^. where he faith that theDivell 
was amnrtherer of man and aljar from the beginning and abode not in 
the truth. By the beginning is meant the firft day of mans Cre- 
ation, x^dit is never abfolutely uf d in any other fence but for the 
time of the firft Creation. Now if the Divell did lye and deceive 
and rnurther man by drawing him to feme from the firft day of mans 
being, it folio wes that man did fall on thefixt day, which was the day 
of his creation. The third proofe is grounded on the words which 
parted betweenc the woman and the Serpent, The Serpents fpeech 
implies that as yet they had not eaten of any tree, and that he let upon 
the woman immediately after that God had given them comman- 
dement nottoeate of the tree of knowledge ; the words which he 
ufeth ( Tea, or is it even (o ) they are a forme of fpeech ufed by one 
that ftanding aloofe and over-hearing what was forbidden, doth 
immediately ftep in and askes the party to whom thecommandc- 
ment was given, if it were even fo as he conceived. And the wo- 7JNJ 
mans anfwer is in fuch a word as is of the future tenfe in Hebrew, Gcn.21.2. 
and Signifies net an acl paft or prefent, but a power and liberty to 
eate hereafter when they Should have occafion, and the true transla- 
tion of her words is : we may or will hereafter eate of the fruitc of 
the trees of the garden. Alfo it is very likely that if they had eaten 
of the fruite of any tree of their owne accord before their tempta- 
tion and fall, their reafon, will and appetite would have led them 
to the tree of life, which was neere at hand even inthemiddeftof 
the garden clofe by the forbidden tree,w.o. The very name where- 
of was amiable, and unto which the naturall defire of man did of 
it felfe chiefly carry him, as Gods words doe intimate, Chap.3.22. 
But that they .had not yet reached forth their hands to take 
and eate ofthat'trec, that fpeech of God fhe wes, C^.3.23. where 

C 2 he 

12 The Doctrine of the Sabbath. 

he faith that he will caft nAdam out of the garden. Lcaft hee put 
firth his hand and take and eate af the tree of 'life , which was the feale 
of naturall life ; Now this had beene too lite if they had already be- 
fore eaten of it. 

Fourthly, fo foone as God had created the woman, and given 
her to the man, ^^ave them the bleiTing of fruitfulneffe, and the 
defire of procreatiot* of children which is mod naturall toman, and 
he did bid them increafe and multiply, fowereade, Chap.j.iS. and 
undoubtedly they would not have neglected the bleiTing of multi- 
plying and increafing man-kind, but if they had continued in their 
integrity one night, the woman by companying with the man 
would have conceived a pure feed without linne, for there was no 
barrenneffe of the wombe in innocency, that came in as a curfe after 
the fall. Chap. 3.1 6. 

Fiftly, the verity of Gods thrcatning, and the ftricfcneflb of his 
juftice required that in the fame day wherein man finned, in the 
fame fhould the fentence of death be executed, the words of the 
Law are very peremtory,t^>\l7. In the day that thou eatcft thoujhalt 
furely dye. Which fentence was fully and truly executed, though 
not on Adam himfelfe, yet on Chrift the fecond Adam mans iurety. 
Thefirft Adam and all his pofterity are the fame day made fubjecl to 
death, wherein they act or partake actually of this tranfgreflion, 
and Chrift the fecond Adam who undertooke to fttisfie the Law 
for this (inne and to fufrer the puntfhrnent due to it and all finnes 
which fpring from this roote, did certainely dye on the fame day, 
and at the fame houre of the day in which the firft Adam tranfgrefled, 
fo Ir&nem and divers of the ancients and other acute writers do hold, 
and they wellobferve, that on the fixt day of the weeke on which 
day Adam was created and after the ninth houre of that day, that is 
in the afternoone, and towards the end of the day Chrift fuff:red 
both a curfed bodily death on the croffe, and alfo the agonies 
and paynesof the fecond de^ath, as he ilieweth by his crying out, 
My Cjod my Cjod \\>hy haft thou firfiken mee. And by his word 
Confummatum esl> that is, the fulnefle and utmoft extremity of tor- 
ments is come, or now is the utmoft extremity of my painefull fuf- 
fenng. And therefore it is very probable and cannot without 
fcornefull wrangling be denied, that Adams fall was about the fame 
time of the fixt day, which doth make good the word of God and 


The Doctrine of the SMutb. 13 

(hew the verity of histhreatningLaw, and his admirable wifedomc 
and providence in thinking of mans redemption before he would 

Sixtly if Adam had ftcoj any while, even one day or night or 
more untill he had eaten of the tree of life, which ieemes to be a 
feale of the firft Covenant of life by workes of naturall righteonfnefle, 
it is likely that he could not have fallen, nor the Divell beene fuftered 
to tempt him, or if after the taft of the fwectnefle of the tree of life, 
and the fealing of the covenant of life by his owns workes of obe- 
dience, he had fallen : furely his fall had beene more defperate, even 
totall and finall apoftacy : for which God alloweth no Sacrifice to be 
offered nor prayer to be made, and from which there is no recovery 
nor renewing by repentance. The Divell being created with the 
Angells amongft the fupernaturall hod on the firft day, and having „^ yQ 
fcene the glory of Cod and tafted of the Heavenly joyes all the (ix l6 / 
dayes of the creation untill man was created and all the frame of 1 ioh.j, 
the world finiihed, and Lordlnip giscn to man over all inferiour \6. 
creatures, he then after this taft falling away and not abiding in the Heb.6.5. 
truth but leaving his firft eft ate, did finne more defperately and rebelli- 
ouily againft the light, and his finne is fo hatefull to God, that he will 
not accept of any fat is faction for it, neither could the Sonne of God 
undertake for him. But mans fall being at the firft before he had tafted 
oft he tree of life and the full fweetneiTe 'and fruition of earthly feli- 
city, and fpringing not originall from himfclfe,. but from the Divell 
who deceived him, therefore there is mercy with God for him, Gods 
giving of Chrift,and Chriils undertaking for man, is an argument that 
Adam did fsll in the d.\y of his creation before he had tafted of the 
tree of life, and that he was made,mard, formed and deformed «i one 
day,astheGreeke writers fpeake Ieemes by divers other reafons very probable, that man did 
fall on the fixt day before he had eaten of the tree of life, which if he 
had beene left to himfelfe, and if hee had not beene prevented and 
feduced by the Divell he would have done. 

Firft becaufe the Covenant of life by mans owne workes of 
obedience, being fealed by his eating of that tree which was 
the feale of that Covenant : as appeares by Godsfpeech, Qencfis.^i 
23. Man had beene confirmed in that natural! life and eftate 
wherein God created him, and the Divell could have had no power 

C 3 either 

14 The Do thine of the sMdth t 

either to feduce him or to prevaile by his temptations. 

Secondly the things which Adam did after his creation and be- 
fore his fall : could not be done orderly and diftinclly in lefle then 
a good part of a day. Firft God brought all living creatures before 
him, and hee tooke notice of them, and gave to every kinde of crea- 
ture fit names, before the woman was made, as appeares, 
Then Gcd caft him into a deepe fleepe and tooke one of his ribs, and 
formed it into a woman and brought her to him. After that God 
gave them the bleiling of fruitfulnefTe , and faid be fruitfull and 
multiply, he alfo gave them rule and dominion over all creatures, 
and appointed them all Trees bearing fruit, and Kerbes bearing 
feed for their meat, and fct man to keepe and dretTe the garden, and 
withall he gave them the commandement to abftaine from the tree 
of knowledge of good and evil!, before they were tempted and 
drawne into (inne and tranfgreflion. Therefore their fall mud needs 
be towards the end of the day, after the ninth houre, at the fame time 
of the day in which Chrift furf:red death and gave up the Ghoft : as 
theGofpellfhewes, <Jtfath.2j.A t 6. and fothe day and houre of mans 
firft (inne, was the day and houre of death for finnc according to 
Gods threatningy£*r.i7. 

Thirdly after their fail and the fight of their nakedneffe, they fe wed 
fig leaves together and made them aprones, and by this time we may 
fuppofe that the Sunne did fetand thecoole of the day approached 
even the breathing winde which commonly blowes after the fetting 
of the Sunne, and did blow in the night of the feventh day, at which 
time they heard Gods voice walking in the garden, which was ter- 
rible unto them, partly by reafonofthe darkenefTeof the night, and 
partly through the confeience of their (inne, and the fhame of naked- 
nefle which (inne brought upon them, and hereupon they hid them- 
felves from Gods prefencc among the trees of the garden, which 
fhelter was too vaine and foolilli, no way able to hide them from 
Gods pure eyes. Therefore certainely they did (inne and fall towards 
the end of thefixt day in which they were created. And juftly might 
AdamhvjQ curfed the day of his creation, if Chrift had not immediatly 
betimes on the feventh day been prom ifed, and had not actually and 
openly undertaken to become the feed of the woman, and began to be 
an acTuall mediator for mans redemption. 

And thus I have by the helpe and light of Scriptures madeitplaine 


The Doctrine of the SMath. 15 

and manifeft, that mans fifft ftnne and fall was on the f xt day. And 
that thenrft inftitution of the Sabbath being in on the fever, th day, 
muft needs be after mans fall and not in the ft ate of innocency. 

C H A T. I I. 

NOw this proofing and demonftrating of the £ rft point in my 
Text, to wit : the time of the hrft inftitution of the Sabbath, 
doth lead us directly as it were by the hand unto the fecond maine 
point, that is, the ground upon which the Sabbath was founded, 
and the true outward mooving caufe and occaiion of the hrft in- 
ftitution of it. 

lirft we may hence collecl: that the ground of the Sabbath is not 
any thing revealed or done on the fix dayes of the creation, and there- 
fore there was no ufe of the Sabbath nor place for it in the ftate of in- 
nocency,neither is it a commemoration of ar.y thing then brought in- 
to beeing, but rather of Cods reft ing from creation and ceafingto 
proceed further in perfecting the world by way of creation. 

Secondly ,th at the true ground muft be fought and found among the 
things which came to palfe on the feventh day, and after the ftate of 
innocency which ended at mans tranfgreflion and fall, now this we 
will feeke in the next words of the Text. 

The ground of the Sabbath. 

And on the feventh day God ended hii^orke Which he had made, And on 
the feventh day Cjod reftedfiom all hu Worke s which he had made, and Cjod 
hlejfedthe feventh day. 

In thefe words we may obferve three diftincl: things concurring on 
the feventh day. 

Hrft Gods ending or perfecting of the whole worke orbufinciTe 
of the creation. 

Secondly Gods refting from that worke and ceafing to pro- 
ceed that way, and giving over to uphold the world, and to 
rcpaire man and other creatures ( which were brought under cor- 
ruption and through his fall made fubject to vanity) bythemeere 
worke of creation. 

Thirdly Gods blelTing the feventh day by revealing therein a 


1 6 The Dotfrinc of the Sabbath. 

great bleiling, farre above all the good which he (hewed in the fix 
dayes of the creation. 

That thefe are the true grounds of the Sabbath, and that God be- 
caufe of thefe concurring and comming together on the feventh day, 
did fanclifie it and made it an holy Sabbath, to be kept by man for an 
holy reft, the words following immediately do fhew where it is 
faid God did fanclifie the feventh day, becaufe in it he rcfted fom all 
his worke of creation, and from dealing and doing that way. 1 hefe 
three points, I will therefore prove and explaine out of the words 
cf the Text in their order. 
hy\ Firft for Gods ending or perfecting of his workes which he had 
OTHX made, that is, exprefled in the firft words. £ (jod ended hi* Workes 
InDN^/b ^hich he had madef\ the words in the Original! Hebrew text are 
- ~ thefe ; XJaiecdElohlm melachto after gnaflab, which are diverily tran- 
■■-■ flated and expounded by the Learned translators and expositors of 
nr ?^ this text. 

The Vulgar Latin? runnes thus : Complevit^ Dem ofwfimm 
quod ficerar. That is» God finifhed his worke which he had made, 
or God made his worke compleat on the feventh day. The Greeke 
Septuagints render the words thus. Xwtjitetrv a &%U h t* n^*, 7*1*1* 
Tit krya, avra • That is, God per fe cled h is w orke on the fixt day. 

The Chaldee paraphrafeth thus.On the feventh day Qod delighted in his 
\\>orIze\\>hich he had male. Trtmetlitts &Jmitts and many other lear- 
ned expofitors do reade the words thus : That before the feventh day 
God had ended his worke, and had finiflied it on the feventh day, that 
is,when the feventh day came he had ended the creation. 

The words thus diverfly tranflated feeme to have feverall mea- 
nings and may be taken in divers and feverall fences. The Vulgar 
Latine which is all one with our Engli h trantlation, fecmes to make 
this the fence of the words. That on the feventh day Cjod made an 
end of hi* Worthy which till then was not fully fin ifhed, and that in 
memory and for joy of the finifhing of his worke and making it 
fully compleate on the feventh day, he fandiried that day to be his 
holy Sabbath. 

The Chaldee paraphrafe fecmes to make the joy and delight 
which God tooke in viewing all the worke of creation on the 
feventh day, to be a ground and caufe of Gods fan&irying that day 
for his Sabbath. 


7k D citrine of the Sabbath. 17 

Trcmellipu and the learned who agree with him, iecme to hold Chap,2, 
that C od had before on the fixt day ended all the workes of the crea- 
tion. And all being finished when the feventh day came, that was 
the onely day of the weeke in which God had no worke left to be fi- 
nifhed, nor any thing to make, and therefore he made this his holy 
day and day of red. This alio feemes to be the meaning of the 
Greeke Septuagints, who for this rurpofe have changed the He- 
brew text, and^inftead of the feventh day, put in the fixt day for the 
ending of the weeke, and the feventh day they make the day onely of 

Now of all thefe tranflations taken in thefe Vulgar fences, there 
is not any one which can give full fatisfaclion and remoove all doubts 
and fcruples : Yea if we receive and grant them all, fome difficulties 
will ftill remaine ; And therefore, for the removing of all doubts and 
full manifeftation of the truth, I will endeavour to fearch and di\c 
further into the words of the Originall Hebrew text, and to findc 
out a further fence and meaning, by comparing them with other 
Scriptures which give more light unto them, ax! in lb doing I will 
make life of thefe feverall tranflations and fences,to gather fome light 
and ftrerigth from them, and from the difference which is among 
them for the more full manifeftation of the truth which I fhall com- 
mend unto you. f 

Firft for the Hebrew word ^ which is here tranllated, Ended, 
Pcrfetted, Fimflxd, it fignifies in the firft and mod: proper and full 
fence, to bring a thing to the full end of it, io that now it hath all 
which belongs to it in any kinde. Sometimes it is ufed in Scripture 
to figniHe the bringing of a thing to the laft end ofic, either by con- 
fuming of it, and bringing it to an end of bceing and well beeing 
which it had before, fob.^.g. By the breath ofCjods noftrills the wicked 
are faid to be confumed, and //S.1.25. or by ceafing to continue it if it 
be a tranfient action or fpeech : as (jen. 1 7.2 2. Cjod ended ' h-< ffteech or 
talke With Abraham, that is:ceafed to continue it, and Exod.i 4.3 3 \& 
1 .SVfw.10.13. & 2 Sam.6. 18. 1 AriW.7.40. where mention is made 
ofMofes his ceafing to fpeake, of Sauls making an end of prophecy- 
ing,and Davidcf offering Sacrifice, and Hiram of his working. T his 
fence is in no cafe to be admitted. 

Firft becaule God confumed not the works which he had made 
before, neither did God bring his working and making of crca- 

D tures 

1 8 The Doftrine of the Sabbath. 

Chap.2. tures to an end by ceafing to continue it,for that was the fixt day when 
he had made the woman the laft creature which he made, then he 
ceafed from his working and brought it to an end. 

Secondly becaufe cohfuniing ani deftroying of creatures, can be 
no good ground of blciii lg and fantifying the day and tune in 
which it is done. 

Sometimes this word is ufed to figniRe the bringing of a thing 
to the full end of perfection, either by adding to the laft and utmoft 
thing which belongs to the nature, kinde and being of if, fo that 
now it wants no perfection which it ouglitto have in that kinde, 
thus the word is ufed, 2 Chro.j. 1 1 .where it is fa id tlmSalomonfimJbtd 
the houfe of the Lord, and Sxod.qo.33. CAtofes finijbed all ths^orke 
of the Tabernacle. Or elfe by adding to it more then naturally be- 
longs to it : even fome flipernaturall and extraordinary perfection, 
thus the word is ufed, 8<ek^i6.i$ m where it is faid that God male 
Jernfalem perfttt by his beauty which he put upon his people whom 
he placed to dwell therein : even 'David and other holy men whom 
he beautified with flipernaturall and faving gifts and graces. In rliis 
laft fence I conceive the word to be eipecially here ufed. For it is 
rnoft ccrtaine that God brought all things to the full end and naturall 
perfection on the (ixt day when he created man and woman, and 
gave them rule and dominion over all living creatures, and appointed 
all things which he had made to ferve for their ufe, and fo much 
the laft words of the firft Chap.(hcw, where it is faid : C] od five every 
thing Which he ha.i made y and behold it Was very good,and this was before 
the end of the (ixt day. And therefore that giving of full naturall bee- 
ing and perfection cannot be this which is here faid to be on the fe- 
venth day. If we fhould here underftand that perfecting and finifhing 
of the work; wemuft either with the 70. GreekTranfiators corrupt 
the text, and for thefeventh put the fixt day; or elfe with Tremel'ms 
and others, ftrainethe plaine words of the text and make this the 
fence of them ; In thefeventh day ( that is before the feventh day) God 
cnded y that is : God had endedhis work and already finifhed it before, 
to wifcon the fixt day; which being granted,It will hereupon folLow, 
either that this perfecting of Gods work is no ground of the Sabbath 
at all, or elfe that the fixt fhould rather be the Sabbath, becaufe it 
was the day and time in which God brought the created worke to 


The Vobirine of the SMath. 10 

But here in the originall text, the Hebrew words are r Beiom Chap.2. 
hAjhebinfi, In the feventh day, that is : within the compafle of that day 
God perfected his workc which he had before made and created on 
the fix dzycs, and therefore I doc verily conceive and belceve, and 
dare be bold to affirmefor acertainetruth, that on the feventh day, 
God gave to the work which he had before made very good and per- 
fect, with naturall and mutable perfection, ( and which the Divell by 
mans fall had marred and defaced ) now another fecond and greater, 
even fupernaturall perfection by promifing Chrift the blelted feed of 
the woman for the reftauration of the work defaced,and by Chrift his 
undertaking not only to redeeme us*from all evills which entered in 
by mans finne, and from that mutability of eftate in which we were 
ail created : but alfo to exalt us to a farrc more excellent ftate and con- 
ditio^ even to the ftate of immutable grace here , and of cternall life 
and glory in the fight and fruition of God in Heaven hereafter in the 
world to come. 

That Adam did finne and fall on the fixth day which ^wecall Fry- 
day, and in all likelihood towards the evening about theTame houre 
in which Chrift dyed on the Crofle to redeeme us from that finne 
and all finncs which thereby entered into the world, I have prooved 
before. That after mans fill and difcovery of his nakednefle, and 
lowing of figge leaves together for aprons, Gods voice was heard 
walking in the garden in the coole of the day, that is, after thefunne 
was gone down and the feventh day begun, and that Adam hid him- 
ielfe the words of the text aftirme plainely in the third Chapter. Alio 
that after the conventing, examining and arraigning of the man and 
the woman, and curfing of the ferpent, and alfo of the earth ; and pai- 
ring fentenceof punifhment on the perfon of the nun and woman, 
to wit : ibrrowesand labours in this life,and in the end thereof bodi- 
ly death and returning to duft, God for a comfortable remedy of 
all thefe evils, promifed Chrift to redeeme man-kind from them all 
and to purchafe for them eternall life and glory, the hiftory as it is in 
die fame third Chapter laid downe iliewes molt clearly, and I do ve- 
rily bcleeve that all reafonable men, efpecially all true Chriftians, 
will moil freely confeffe and willingly grant : That Chrift in the 
day wherein he was firft promifed, and did actually undertake to 
redeeme the world, brought in a greater perfection unto the workc 
of creation,or the things created, then they had before given to them 

D 2 on 

2o The Doctrine of the Sabbath. 

Chap.2. on the C\x dayes in their creation, to wit: fupernaturall grace, and 
heavenly and fpiricuall gifts of holinetTe, which exalt man- to- a ft ate 
immutable and eternall. 

Now feeing it is atruthmoft nnnifeft, that in the feventh day 
(God the Father promifing the bletfed feed Chrift to deftroy the 
workes, and to breake the head and power of the Diveli the Old 
ferpent, and the Sonne of God acTually undertaking mans redemp- 
tion, and beginning to mediate for man : And God the Holy Ghoft 
infpiringby thepromife and through Chrift grace and faith into both 
the man and the woman to beleeve that out of her who was the in- 
ftrtiment of death toman, ftiouid Chrift fpring, who is the life and 
light of men, an dfo (he fhould become, CbAvah, that is, the living 
one, or mother of all living) there was a fupernaturall perfection 
brought into the world. And God brought his worke which he made 
to a better eftate, and iliewed a further end of things created. Surely 
it fhould be too much perverfhefle in us, and too groffe rending of oar 
owne reafon, guided by the text it felfe, if we fhould deny or refufe to 
beleeve,that this perfecting of Gods worke is here meant m this place, 
and is the true ground of bleiling the feventh day to be the Lords 
holy Sabbath. 

And thus I hope I have fully difcovered the true fenfe and meaning 
of thefirft words, and (hewed how we are to undeiftand this which 
is here faid, to wit : And on the feventh day Cjod ended or per ft tied 
his \Vorkg. 

I proceed to the next words, And on the feventh day god rested 
from all his Worfe Which he had made, to which I adde the repetition 
of the fame words with fome addition in the latter end of the third 
verf namely, dut he re ft ed from all the Worke Which he treated, even 
from making any more, fo the words in the Hebrew do runne. Now 
Tor the wordrefted, it is in theoriginall H2& Shabath, of which the 
name of the Sabbath is derived, and it doth not (ignite areftingof 
God for to refrefh himfdfe , as being weary, nor refting from all 
working abfolutely and (imply* but ceafing from making any more 
kindes of creatures : for God doth alwayesas a provident Lord and 
Father, work in the contmuall generation of particular creatures;and 
in multiplying, preferving, ordering and difpofing of them, as our 
Saviour fhewes, fohn^.ij. Here therefore we are to uaderftand, 
that on thefirft (ix dayes the Lord (hewed his good will and plea- 

The Vecttine of the Stbbtftb. i\ 

iurc in making every tMag \ery good ahd n:r r ccT, with natural! C 1 a 
perfection. So in the fc\ cnth day he i e.'icd wholly from^ ari$ 
new hinde cf creature Ly way of i. .• eation : And ::ng 

fallen and having broaght confiifidii into the world, and corrupti- 
on and vanity upon the creatures s Chttfi is prcmifed and actually 
undertakes and begins to interceede for man, and to be his redee- 
mer and Saviou r . and by this mcanes God may bee faid to reft 
divers waves 

Fir ft whereas the rigour of juftice required that man fhoalddye 
and perifh in the lame day wherein hee finned, and the creatures 
made for his ufc fhould together with him be deftrcyed, and fo fhould 
God have bin bulled in execution of juftice and deftroying his former 
work,and in making a new world of creatures : the eternall word the 
Sonne of God undertooke mans Redemption, brings reft to God by 
that mcanes from deftroying the former and making a new or fecond 
worke of creation, which is truly called refting from all theworke 
which he had made. 

Secondly the naturall eftate andbeft being and perfection which 
man and other creatures had by creation, (lie wing it felfe mutable 
by mans fall and fo appearing, If God fhould have proceeded and gone 
on in the fame manner of working as he had done in thefixdayesot 
the creation,there fhould have been no reft nor end of his work of ma- 
king and remaking. But Chrift undertooke the worke of redemption 
and as an alllirricient Saviour to perfect for ever them that are fan fli- 
fiedby the communion of his Spirit and. lpiritiull and fupernaturall 
grace,and to renue them afcer his heavenly Image of true and unchan- 
le holineile,doth this way bring reft to God from the work or bu- 
imefle of creation, and fets on foot a ne ,v and more admirable work in 
which God reiteth, and in which he taketh mach delight, and by 
which his creatures are reconciled, and made plcauhg and accep- 
table to him. 

Thirdly Chrift who was promifed to become the feed of the wo- 
man for mans redemption, being the eternall wifedome and mighty 
word of God, and able to beareup the pillars of the earth, when 
it and all the whole tents thereof were ditYolvcd, and the haft foun- 
dations thereof were out of cotirfe, as the rfalmift lpeakes, c J } p/.^. 
5. 6:82.5,8. God doth juftly fettle his reft on him and commits td 
him the ruling, governing and judging of the world, as he ismc- 

"D 3 diatot 

72 The Doctrine of the Sabbath. 

Chap.a. diatour and the Sonneof man. So our Saviour himfelfe arHrmes, Joh. 
5. 22, 27. 

Now that on the feventh day God did not barely reft from his 
worke of creating and making creatures ; but aifo that in and by 
Chrift promifed on that day, he found reft and refted the feverall 
wayes before named, the holy Scriptures and alfo common reafon 
do plainly {hew. 

Firft a barerefting from creation and not working is not a matter of 
fuch moment and benefit ,that it ihould be the ground of blefling and 
fan&ifying of one day in feven every weeketo the fblemne memory 
of it. Holy dayes and feafts mentioned in the Scriptures have alwayes 
beene appointed by God, and fet apart for the commemoration of 
fome great extraordinary workes, as delivering Ifrael out o£ Sgypt, 
giving of the Law and fuch like. 

Secondly, that Gods refting on the feventh day was more then 
this word rQP Sbabath, which is here ufed, dorh properly (ignific 
in any other places of Scripture where it is ufed to fet forth other 
ceafing and refting from worke. The holy Scriptures themfelves 
doe fully fhew. Alfo that God found reft in Chrift : even of 
refrefhing, and fetled his delight in him the Redeemer, and in his 
worke of redemption, and committed the world to be Ruled, Jud- 
ged, Ordered and difpofed by him as Mediator, upon the feventh 
day and frcm that day forward untill the eternall reft of Heaven 
comes iiiy and the kingdome be delivered up to God his Father, 
that God may be all in all. As for example Sxod.20.11. where God 
in giving of the Law, and mentioning the ground of his fanclify ing 
ofthe feventh day, to wit, his refting, dothufe the Hebrew word 
HVfanach; which fignifies not a bare refting from worke, but 
^??!1 fuch a reft as is full offwee'neffe and delight, and £xod.$i.ij, where 
itisfiid that on the feventh day godrcsled and was refreshed, that is: 
he did not onely ceafe from creating and reft from workes of cre- 
ation, but he found alio great delight, that is, in Chrifts undertaking 
to be the Saviour and redeemer ofthe world, he found great plea- 
lure and delight in his kinde : fuch as men in their kinde doe finde 
in things which delight and refrefiuheirlbule, fo much the words 
imply. And the Scriptures of the Prophets and Apoftles fpcaking 
to the fame purpofe : juftifie this fenfe and meaning, where they 
tell us, that Chrift the Mediator is Gods righteous fervant in 


The Doctrine of the Sabbath. 23 

Whom his (oule delight eth Jfi .42.2 sJMath.i 2.18. And that in him God Chap. 2. 
fctles his reft and is ttv// pfcafed, U\Tath. 2.17. And makes bis elecT ac- 

ceptable ill his beloved, Epb.1.6. 
Thirdly the keeping and o!T:rving 

of every {eve nth day for a holy 
Sabbath,' which God requires of us, confllts not in bare rating from 
ordinary works and labouring in worldly afftires which concernc 
this life : but alio in f mcTifying of the day by holy and religious exer- 
cifes, which conceme the heavenly life, and in making it our delight 
to honour the Lord ; as appeares both in the words of the Law, Exod. 
20. K.Dettt .5.2 2. Andalfoin theProphets 3 //2.56.4.and5 8.i3. Now 
fuchas thcobfervat'.on is, fuch muft the ground thereof be on which 
it is founded. And therefore undoubtedly Gods retting on the fe- 
venth day includes his refting and delighting in Chrift who was the 
promifed redemption . 

Thus much for the opening and expounding of the fecond claufc, 
and the difcovery of the reft of God by which he refted on the feventh 
day, which is the fecond ground of Gods blefling and fanctifying that 
day, and making it a holy Sabbath of reft. 

The third ground remaines, and that is: Gods blefling of the feventh 
day, laid down in the next words. sAnd God blejfed the feventh 
day, vcrfo. 

This blefling of the feventh day confifts in two things r 

1 heflrft is : Gods blefling of it,by giving and revealing to man on 
that day the greateft blefling which was made kno vvne to the fonnes 
of men during the time of the Old Teftament, while the Sabbath of 
that feventh day was to be in ufe and the law thereof in force* that 
was, the giving of Chrift by promife to be the Redeemer of the 
world; this belongs to the ground of the Sabbath. 

The fecond is, Gods blefling of the feventh day by fetting it apart 
to be kept and obferved of men as a day mod bleited in memory of 
that blefling* that is, of the promife of Chrift and his undertaking 
and beginning to mediate for man-kinde, this belongs to the 
fanclifying of the Sabbath, which is the third maine thing obferved 
in this text. 

Firft I will fpeake of blefling as it is a ground ofinftitution, and 
after in the next place, I wilt handle it, as it is a part of the inftitution 
of the Sabbath,and concurres with fandifying ofit. 

Blefling (as it belongs to the ground of the Sabbath and (ignites 


24 The Dotfrine of the Sabbath , 

Chap. 2. Gods giving and revealing on the fe venth day a blefling above the blef- 
fings of all the other fix dayes by which that day became more honou- 
rable)mui1 needs beGods giving, either ofibme naturall blefling ten- 
ding to outward profperity, and to naturall perfe&ion and temporall 
felicity in tin's world ; or of fome gift and blsfllrsg fupernaturall ten- 
ding to heavenly happinello and cternallbleilednenV, 

i.Gods blelling with naturall and temporall bleflings is declared in 
the Scriptures to be two manner of waves. 

Firft by giving all forts of temporall bleilings and naturall gifts 
in generall, thus God is laid to blcffe Iflmatfl, gen.jj.20. and to 
blcjfe tie Ifr oolites in dl their affaires and in all the W'orkejoft/ieir bands, 
Dent .14.20. 

Secondly, by giving fome fpeciall worldly blefling , fuccefTc, and 
profperity either in refpeel of their Corne, Wine, Meate and Drinke, 
^W.23,25. orinrefpeel of their cattell, or the fruite of their body 
or worldly goods,pofTefllons and the like/Z) w.2 8. 1 1 . 

2. God blefling with fpirituall and fupernaturall bleflings and gifts, 
in his making of men to grow and profper in grace and in all heavenly 
bleflings, as gen.i 2.3 .& 28.4. where it is laid that in the bkiTed feed 
of Abraham and J ^^that is inChrilt, All die nations and families of 
the earth fly all be blefed y and thus God is fiid to bleffe us With all sji- 
r it vail bUffings in Heavenly things in Chrisl\ Ephef.1.3, and oft his 
blefling 'Z^Waffpeakes, P/al.6j.i. w r here he faith, god be mercifull 
unto vis andbleffe ru, 

3- God is faid to bkife in a full and per feci fence with all bleflings 
of profocrity and happinefTe both temporall and fpirituall, that is: 
by giving all faving graces needfull to falvation and good increaieand 
growth in them, and all outward profperity and all things thereunto 
requifitc, together with his favour and a finclified ufe of them, thus 
God promifed to blefle Abraham, C f en ,12. 2. andlfaac, gen.%6.%. & 
Jacobs Cjen, 28,3. &Jofeph, gen. 49. 25. ttvW; bleffinas of Heaven 
above and deep beneath And his people and inheri tunc e, Pfal. 28.9. Now 
the thing here to be enquired after and fought out, is what blefling is 
meant in this place, where God is laid to bleffe the Seventh day. For 
it is moft certaine, that this blefling wherewith God bleiTed the fe- 
venth day, did not confift onely in Gods giving of any naturalland 
temporall bleflings to that day, or to man and other creatures on that 
day, or in annexing and tying any fuch unto it, For God had before 


7 he DfiStrme of the Sabbath. 2 5 

ceafed and now refted from all workes of creation, that is, both Cbap.r 
from creating any kinde of creature, and alfo from adding more na- 
turall coodnefll: or perfeclion to any thing created. We never read 
that God made the feventh day blcfled above the other fix, either in 
clearer light of the fun, or in more faire and feafonable weather, at 
any time, or in any age from the beginning, or that he bleflcd it 
with any inch blefiing which belongs to nature, or to the natm all ufe 
of the creature. 

Secondly for fpiritudl and fiipernaturall blefllngs which tend to 
etemalllife and bleiTedneiTe in Heaven, wenever readof any procee- 
ding from God, but only through the eternall Son incarnate and made 
mameven Chrilt. the mediator. The Apoflle affirmes that God bleflcth 
us with all fpirituall bleffings in heavenly things in Chrisl, 
And that tlxre is no other name under Heaven given among men 
Whereby We muft befived, Act. 4. 12. I f any man hath afcended higher 
then S*.Paul was rapt, farre above the third Heaven, and hath there 
heard of fpirituall blellings which God intended tobeftow, or did 
beftowf upon Adam in the creation before Chrift was promifed,or did 
openly undertake to be mans mediator; he goeth farrc beyond my line 
and mjafure of faiths J dare not be wife above that which is written. 
It is enough for me to know and beleeve that Chrift is the only true 
way to heavenly and iiipernaturall happincfle, and that he is the truth 
and the lift, J oh, 1 4.6 And that none can come to the Father but by him % 
and that w his name the Father gives the Spirit >\ ex. 26. And through him 
/beds the Holy Cjhofl abundantly on all that are fantlified and faved, Tit, 
3.6. And that as thrift onely makes Way into the holy ofholieft, Heb.iO. 
10. fi in him is allfullneffe, and from him all grace proceedeth by which 
god makes hs accepted, Eph.i .6. I know that God created all things, 
and man in hisowne Image ; perfect in his kinde, but yet mumble, 
Iconfefle and beleeve that man by his pcrfecl obedience performed 
to God in his owne perfbn, according to the rlrft covenant of works, 
might have continued in that naturall life and earthly happinefle 
wherein he was created : But that he had any fiipernaturall orlpi- 
rituall power given before the promife of Chrilt, whereby he was 
fitted for heavenly happincfle, or that any fuch life and happinefle was 
promifed in the firft covenant, or any grace tending thereunto, I can- 
not be per fwaded. 

Firft becaufc theS'cripturcs arc utterly filcnt in thefe points. 

E Secondly 

7,6 The Docirhic of the Sabbath. 

Chap.2. Secondly becaufeit is againft all reafbn tothinke, or conceive of 
God, who is the fountaineof all wifedom and doth nothing in vaine. 
That if there had been a more neere way th ~n Chrift, more ready for 
him to revealeand communicate all his goodneffc and glory to man- 
kind, even the way of mans own perfonail obedience to the firft co- 
venant of works ; Surely God would never have fiifrered man to fall, 
nor have given his Sonne to dcfcend from Heaven and to humble 
himfelfeto fuch bafe. ignominious painefulland curled il:rf .-rings as he 
did, and all to bring man f© f irre about to the fruition of himfelfe in 
heavenly glory. 

Thirdly, whatfoever hath or fhall certainely come to parte con- 
cerning mans happineffe ormifery, that God decreed, forefawand 
^>urpofed, and that only he intended, and that from the beginning, 
even from all eternity ; though God laid upon man noimpcftibihty 
of ftanding in innccency, nor any necefftty of filing, but man was 
able to doe Gods will according to the firft Govenant , and if he had 
done it, he might andftould have lived and enjoyed an earthly fe- 
licity : Yet certainely God foreknew what man would doe when he 
was tempted, and did willingly permit him to breake the firft Co- 
venant, intending to make a more lure Covenant in Ch rift, and to 
eftablifh it with better promifes, H^.8.8. and that none of ail man- 
kinde (hould be faved but onely they who are in Chrift and under 
this Covenant. Now Ithxfc things being thus : If the bielTing 
wherewith God bleffai the feventh day, beany fpiritaall bleilmg, 
it muft needs be in and under Chrift promifed : Yea it in-'ft needs 
be either the promife made to man on that day, that Chrift fhould be 
his Redeemer, and Chrift his undertaking openly to be mans furety 
and Mediator, orelfc fomefpcciall blejTing which comes by Cr rifts 
mediation,as the gift of the Spirit, and fpiritudi grace given to man 
to beleeve in Chrift,to reft on him,and in him to feek eternall reft ; or 
Gods acceptation of Chrift for mans furety, & Gods reft ing on Chrifts 
fatisfaclion and i ighteoufnefle. In. very deed, let others thinke what 
they pleafe, for my part lean fee no reafon either in this text or any 
other text of Scripture to perfwade me that this bletfing was any, but 
the fupematurall and heavenly blefting, even Gods gracious favour, 
kindncfle and love then firft (hewed to man in Chrift, by promifing 
him to become the feed of the woman, accepting him for mans fore:y , 
and refting in his mediation andalfurficientfatisfa&ion, which bid- 


The Dottrine of the Sabbath. 27 

fing brings with it and includes in it many, yea all naturall bleflings Chap.2, 
which are true bleflings indeed,and end in eternal! happineffe. For by 
Chrift who then was firft. promifed and revealed, man hath naturally 
life continued to him, and right and rule over the creatures reftored 
and given in an higher degree, and in a more excellent kind : He had 
power given to him in the (late of intiocency to rule over cattell and 
all living creatures, and to order and command them for his delight 
and plcaiurc. But in Chrift he hath power given to kill and facrifice, 
and to eat them and life them for his profit. I n the creation God gave 
toman ashisfteward rule over all creatures and right in them; but 
in Chrift he gave man the right ofa fonne and heire,and made all crea- 
tures mans inheritance, which is a firmc and unchangeable right,and 
now all the bleflings temporall which the eleel: and faithful! have and 
poflefleby faith in Chrift and by a true right in him, are bleffedand 
iancliried" to them, and are helps and furtherances to their heavenly 
glory. And thus I dare be bold to conclude: Tint the blefling where* 
.with God blrifed the ieventh day, was a blefling above all bleflings na- 
turall which God gave to man in the (ixt day and to other creatures 
on other dayes of the creation. It was the blefling of his kindnefle and 
love to man revealed m Chrift pro mi fed, which includes in it the refti- 
tction of man to all naturall bleflings ,all which all man-kind have and 
injoy by Chrift andthrougl: his mediation So that here is a blefling 
worthy of an evedafting memoriall among all sldams posterity ,which 
juftly bound* them all toobferve that day of the weeke to the honour 
andpraifrofGcd, untillthe commingin ofthefullneiTeof thatblet 
fing on the day of Chrifts refurreclion, which is the firft. day of the 
weeke and the eight from the beginning of the creation, which all 
Chriftians by vertue of the inftitution of the Sabbath here in my text, 
are bound to keepe holy and to folemnife with thankfullneffe for all 
bleflings in Chrift promifed on the feventh day, and on the firft day 
fully exhibited a perfed: Redeemer in his refurredion. And thus I have 
difcovered out of this text the whole ground upon which the Lords 
holy weekly Sabbath is founded, which is briefly comprehended in 
theic 3 .particulars . I . Gods per ft tting of the ^orkjreated. 2 . Cjods reft on 
ti:e feventli day. 3 . gods blejjing of it. Out of which particulars as I 
have laid them open : this Doctrine doth arife. 


28 The Dettrine of the Sabbath. 

Chap. 3. 


1><?#. TTHat the firft inftitution of the Sabbath on the feventh day of the 
A firft vveeke of the world was grounded upon Chrift, and occa- 
fioned by the promife of him to be mans mediator, and the worlds 
redeemer. And the true and proper grounds of the falsification of 
the weekly Sabbath, upon which it ftands perpetually to the worlds 
end, and to the eternall reft in Heaven, are Gods perfe,fring of the 
created world by bringing in redemption by Chrift, Gods reft, de- 
light and pleafure in Chrifts mediation, and Gods bieffing the fe- 
venth day with a bieiling farre above the bleilings of all other dayes, 
even the Q,i\ing Chrift a perfed: Saviour for man-kinde. This 
point is moft plaine and manifeft by that which I have before deli- 
vered. But yet for the better fetling of our judgments and confir- 
ming of our hearts in the knowledge and beleefe ofthis truth, It will 
not be amifle to adde further proofs and rcafbns grounded on the 
ficred Scriptures. 

iReafin. Firft that which is the ground of Gods fmftifying the feventh 
day above all the other fix dayes of the wceke'muft needesbefome- 
thing which c?me to pafle on that day, which firre excelled the 
workes created on the (ix dayes. For the holy Scriptures and the 
common practice of all nations doe concurre in this, that all holy 
dayes whether weekely, monthly or yearely are obferved and were 
firft inftituted in memory of fome notable and extraordinary thinp- 
which on thofe dayes of the weeke, month and yeare happened 
and came to pafle, witnefle the Paflfeover, Pentecoft, the,feaft of 
Purim, and dedication, the feaft of Chrifts nativity, refurreclion 
afcention, our hfth of November and many others. But there can be 
nothing imagined greater then the workes of creation which were 
all finiftiedon the fix dayes, but only the promife and revelation of 
Chrift the Redeemer and the work of redemption by him the cternnll 
Sonne of wod, on that day openly undertaken and begunne,as I have 
before prooved. 

Firft fur Gods ccafing from his workes of creation, and his bare 
reft from them, it being a dofng of nothing and not making of good 
things, cannot in any c^fe be efteemed better then the workes of 
the fix dayes wherein God created all things good and perfect with 


The Do chine of the Sabbath . 2 9 

naturall perfection. For doing of good is better in the judgment of all Chap.3. 
reafonable men,then doing of nothing. 

Secondly, for Gods perfecting of the creation by bringing man 
and woman the lad and chiefeft of his creatures into beeing that 
was on the fixt day, and his making of every creature compleat 
and perfect ill his kindc, that was done on the Overall day^s in 
which they were feverally created, and cannot be any ground of ■ 
fanctifying the feventh day but rather of the fix dayesor the weeke. 
Wherefore it remaines that Chrift promifed a perfect redeemer on 
the feventh day of the world and beginning actually to mediate for 
man and to communicate his Spirit and fupernaturall grace and faith 
to ourhrft parents, is the ground of the inttitution of the weekly 
Sabbath on that day. 

Secondly, a fupernaturall effect. cannot proceed from a naturall zReafin 
caufe, a fpirituall building cannot be furely fetled on a naturall ground 
and foundation. If the effect be fupernaturall, the caufe mult be 
fuch, and if the building be fpirituall, the foundation alfo muft be 
fpirituall on which it is fetled. Now the falsification of the Sabbath 
as it is Gods w r orke in the firft inllitution, is a feparating of a day 
from naturall, to heavenly, fpirituall and fupernaturall ufe, and to 
workes which tend to fuch an end as cannot be obtained by crea- 
tion, but onely by the mediation of Chrift; and finctirication of 
the Sabbath r s it is a worke and duty which God requires of a 
man, is wholy exercifed about things which concerne Chrift, and 
which have relation to him, and which none can rightly perfbrrne 
without the communion of the Spirit of Chrift, and the faving gifts 
and graces of God in Chrift. The Hebrew word Kadajh (ignihes 
cnely fuch workes in all the Scriptures wherefoever it isufed, and 
never any thing is faid to be holy or fanctiried but in, for, and by 
Chrift, wherefore that ground of the Sabbath muft needs befome- 
thing in Chrift, or indeed Chrift himfclfe on the feventh day firft pro 
mifed and revealed a perfect and al-furficient Redeemer and mediator 
to gather all things to God. 

Thirdly that which hath no proper or principal! end or ufe, ^Reafo? 
but fuch as prefuppofeth Chrift and his mediation, and isfubordi- 
natetohim promifed and to the revelation of redemption by him, 
muft needes be grounded on Chrift, and receive the firft inftitution 
and Originall from the promiie of him, or him promifed. this is 

E 3 a 

3 o The Bo chine of the Sabbath. 

Chap.3. acertaine truth which with no colour of reafon can be denied. For 
God doth nothing in vaine, he makes all things for their proper end 
and vie, and brings nothing into being before he hath a proper end 
and ufe ready before hand,for which it may ferve.Now the proper and 
principall end and ufe of the Sabbath for which the Lord is faidin 
the Scriptures, to inftitute and give it to his people, is fuch as prefun- 
pofeth (thrift and his actuall mediation, and is fubordinate to the 
prom ifeo ^redemption by him. 

Firft God himfelfe teftifieth both in the Law, Exod,^ 1 . r 3 . and alfo 
in the Trophets, 2. that he gave his Sabbath to his people 
for this end and ufe, That it might be aperpetttallfigne betweene him and 
tloem, to confirme them in this knowledge and beleefe, that he u their 
Cjod Who dotfi Jantlifie them. 

Secondly,another maine ufe for which Gcd inftituted the Sabbath is, 
that it might be a figne and pledge to his people of the eternall reft or 
Sahbathifme which remaines for them in Heaven, and untill they 
come to that reft, they are bound to keep a weekly holy Sabbath to 
put them m hope of that eternall reft, fo much may be gathered from 
the Apoftles words,H^.4.3 ,9. 

1 hirdly, the Sabbath is for that end and ufe that by keeping it holy, 
and by fanchfying our felves to the Lord, and delighting our fclves in 
him,and in his holy worflvip, we might grow up in holinefle without 
which none can come to fee and enjoy God, and fo might draw ftill 
more neere to God till we be fully fitted to fee and enjoy him in glory, 
and to come to his eternall reft in Heaven. Now all thefe principal! 
ends and ufes ofthe Sabbath doe prefuppofe the promife of Chrift and 
his mediation. 

For firft in him alone ashe is our mediator, God becomes our God, 
who doth fan&ifie us,and without Gods ("bedding ofthe HolyGhoft on 
us through Chrift,we can never be truly faneliried, as appeares Rom.8. 
9.Tit.z.6.& 1 CV.1.30. And in Chrift we are called to be Saints and 
iandiried,i Cor. 1.2. 

Secondly, there is no thought or hope of eternall reft in Heaven but 
in and by Chrift, he brings us into that, and by going before us makes 
way for us, Heb.6. 20. &r p. 24. It is that which never entered into the 
heart of man, his reafon conceives it not till God doth reveale it by his 
Spirit given through Chrift,i C^.2.9,10. 

Thirdly, no man can have acceffe unto God but in Chrift,there is no 



The Eochinc of tie Sabbath. \ i 

approach to the throne of grace but in him, #^.4.1 6.3 1 is Chrift alone Chap. 3 • 
who for his peoples fake fancTiried himiclrc, that they alio might be 
iancliticd,?<?/ And there is no growing up in grace and holines 
but in him and by union and communion in one body with him as our 
head } £/>£\4. 13,16. upon thefe infallible premifes it rollowcs ncceflari- 
ly ,that the proper end and ufc of the Sabbath |l refuppofmg Chrift, the 
fall inftitution thereof muft needs be grounded on Chrift alio 

fourthly,! f Chrift as he is the Son of man united in one pei ion unto ^ ea i oyl » 
God,and fo our mcdiator,bc the Lord of the Sabbath,ib that the altera- 
tion and change of it from one of the feven dayes to another, is only in 
his power and depends wholy on fome change in him ; then the infti- 
tution of it is grounded on thepromifcefhim and upon his mediati- 
on. Now the Antecedent is mimfeft by our Saviours own words. 
Mat.i 2.5?. where he calls himfelfe Lord of the Sabbath day. And by 
his refurreeffion andbecomming the head [tone of the corner, the Sabbath 
is changed from the day of him promifed unto the day of the full exhi- 
bition of him a perfect actmll Redeemer in his refurreclion, as David 
foretold,P/2/.i 1 8. -And the praclife of the Apoftles in all Churches of 
Chriftian Gentiles doth abundantly declare, & 1 Cor.16.2. 
whei fore undoubtedly Chrift promifed, was the fir ft ground of the in- 
ftitution of the Sabbath,and as dot Saviour in that place of the GoipelJ, 
Jlfat.j 2.o.atfirmes it was made for man, that is,not only for mensufe 
but alio for him, the ion of man : and upon the promife and underta- 
king of him to become man and the iced of the woman, for mans rer 
demption and for deftroying the wot ks of the Divell. 

11 S E. 
This Doctrine thus fully prooved and confirmed, is a Doctrine of 
ipeciall ufe to work in the hearts of all true Chnftians, who have all 
their hope & confidence in Chrift, an high and holy reverence and eft* 
eem of the Lords holy weekly Sabbath 3 and to provokand ftir them up 
to a carefulIjCoriicioiiable and diligent obfervation thereof, in all their 
generations, for the promoting and propagating of piety, and for the 
increafe of devotion and advancement of Religion in all fuccecding 
ages. If the obfer.ationof the weekly Sabbath were but a dictate of 
naturejwritten in mans heart in the creation;then were the chiefe end 
andaymc of it no more but an earthly felicity, and the fruition of 
a naturall life m an earthly paradice. It fhould be no better then one of 
the duties which belong to the old covenant of life, and juftification 

• by 

3 2 

The T> oft rim of the Sabbath, 

Chap * . W mans owne wor ^ s » which is abolifhed and made void by mans fall. 
Anditiswholyfruftratcdof the proper end and ule of it, which was 
juftification and life by works of a mans owne doing. And fo being not 
a part of the wifedomc which is from above, it mould be of leffe eft- 
eem and of common and ordinary account with holyChriftian Saints. 
Or if the Sabbath were a legall rite and ceremoniali ordinance oneiy, 
luch as were facrifices, burnt offerings, circumcif ion and legall purifi- 
cations, which were fhadowes of things to come, then mould it bea- 
bolifhedby the full exhibition of Chrift, and the obfervation thereof 
among Chriftians of the beleeving Gentiles, were no better then let- 
ting up of abominations which make defolate by cutting men of 
from Chrift. 

But here we are taught better things concerning the Lords holy 
weekly Sabbath,to winthat it is an holy, Heavenly, Evangelicall ordi- 
nance, wholy grounded upon Chrift and depending only upon him, 
firft inftituted upon the promife of Chrift, and limited to the feventh 
day of the week,(in which he was promifed to be mans redeemer,and 
did undertake,and in fome meafure begin actually to mediate and to in- 
tercede for man with God ) and was commanded to be kept only on 
that feventh day, during the time of the old Teftament while Chrift 
was only promifcd,and the fathers fought falvation in him to come. 

And now ever fince the full exhibition of Chrift a perfect redeemer 
in his refurrcction, neceftarily impoiedon all Chriftians, and limited 
by vertue of the firft inftitut ion and foundation of it upon Chrift, to 
that day even the firft day of the weeke, which is the greateft day of 
Chrift appearing in the nature of man on earth, that is the day of his 
refurre&ion to glory and immortality, and the day of his compleat 
victory and triumpb,in his owne peribn over fin, death, the Divell and 
all the powers of darknefle. 

So that though the particular dayes of the w r eekely Sabbath, that is, 
the feventh of the weeke in the old Teftament, and the firft in the 
new ; and under the Gofpell may truly be called temporary and cere- 
moniali, becaufe they have their let times and feafons; the one the 
time and feafon only under Chrift promifed ; the other the time and 
feafon under Chrift fully exhibited, that is, the whole time of grace 
under the Gofpell untill we come both in foules and bodyes to the 
eternal! Sabbath and reft in Heaven, when ( Chrift our Mediator 
having deftroyed all enemies and delivered up the Kingdomc to God 

* his 

The Dottrine of the Sabbath. 35 

his Father) God fhall be all in all : yet they are fuch ceremonies as arc Chap. 3 .* 
holy in their feafons, not by fignirkation and confecration to holy and 
fupcrnaturall ufe only, as legall fliadowes were:but alfo materially and 
in refpecl of the very duties, which are performed in obfervation of 
them; yea and effwdivcly^becaufe the due obfervations of them pro- 
perly tends tobegit and increafe true holinefle in Gods people. 

Befidcs, if we confider the obfervation of a weekly Sabbath (Im- 
ply in it felf without limitation to a particular day, fo it is a perpe- 
tuall ordinance of God which bindes all man-kind to the end of 
the world. 

And there is none of all AfUmffcfoaxtyiyxt by Gods firft inftitution 
he is bound to keep the holy weekly Sabbath,upon that very day of the 
weeke, which by the word of God and the ground of the inftitution, 
appeares tobemoft feafonable in the age and theftatc of the Church 
tinder which they live and have their being on earth. 

Now thefe things being fo, how is it poflible that any true fincere 
Chriftian ( who as by one fpirit and by a true lively faith, fo alfo in his 
whole heart and in all holy affeclions is united unto Chrift ; and hath 
all his hope and confidence in him as in his only Redeemer, Lord and 
Saviour) fhould not have the weekly Sabbath in moft high efteeme, 
which was firft grounded upon Chrift promifed, and came in upon 
thefeventh day of the world, together with the word of promife and 
the glad tidings of the worlds redemption by Chrift : and with the 
two perpetuall commandements of repenting and beleeving in Chrift, 
which are the great commandements of the Gofpell, which holy and 
blefled Sabbath hath ftill continued and gone along with Chrift pro- 
mifed on the feventh day, during the time of the Old Teftament, and 
fince the full exhibition of Chrift in his refarrcdion, hath advanced 
forward together with Chrifts unto the firft day of the weeke, in 
which day he perfected mans redemption, triumphed over death, 
rofe up and was advanced to glory and immortality. Surely they who 
profeilelove to Chrift, and profane the weekly Sabbath, they are no 
better then painted hypocrites, yea rather they are to benumbreda- 
mong thofe bold, audacious and fcairdalcus finners, who prefume to 
pull a funder thofe whom God hath infeperably joyned together, that 
is, the Sabbath and Chrift the Lord of the Sabbath, who while they 
profeffe Chrift in word, doe indeed deny the power of true Chri- 
ftian godlinefle^ and doe what in them lyeth to turne the publicke 

F worfhip 

j^ The Dotfrine of the Sabbath, 

Chap,4.worfaipof God into facrilegious profanation, andfo to provoke the 
eyes of his glory. Thus much for the fecond maine thing here offered 
in this text,that is,the ground of the holy weekly Sabbath. 


TH E third maine thing which here offos it felfe and which I have 
propounded to be handled more largely ; as comprehending in 
it divers fpeciall points of great weight and moment, as the fancli- 
fying of the feventhday and alfo Godsbleflmgofit, fofarre asblef- 
fing (ignifies Gods fetting of it apart to be kept and obferved for a 
bleffed memoriall of the promife of Chrift, and as it is a part of the 
firft inftitution of the Sabbath. 

For Gods bleiTing of a day or of any other thing doth fignifie. i .His 
giving of fome notable benefit on that day, or to the thing bleffed. 
2. H-s fetting of it apart to a bleffed end and ufe, in the former lenfe it 
belongs to the ground of the Sabbath and fo I hue fpoken of it before. 
In the latter fenfe it belongs to Gods aft of Inftitution, and is in eff:cl 
the fame with fanclifying of the Seventh day, onely this J conceive to 
be the difference that Gods fanclifying of a thing is, his federating of 
it by his word and commandement, to a fupernaturall and extraordi- 
nary ufe,either prorltable,or unprofitable to it felfe, as his federating of 
things to be his instruments of juft vengeance for the deftruelion of 
his enemies,and fcperating men to fome holy office for a time,as Saul 
to prophefie, ii/i^f fbnnes to be Priefts, and Judas to be an Apoftle, by 
which office they received no true bleiTing, but it turned to their grea- 
ter curfe at laft.But Gods bleiling of a day>or of any other thing, is his 
letting of it apart for a bleffed ufe, and his pronouncing and comman- 
ding it by his holy powerfull word, to be a bleffed day or bleffed 
thing, and toferve for holy and blefled ufe, and fo bleiTing is that fpe- 
ciall fanclifying which is feperating of things to a bleffed ufe,and come 
here to be handled under Gods fanclifying of the feventhday; 'For 
God fanclifying in this place, is a bleffed fanclifying of the day to a 
bleffed ufe, and the word bleffed is put before to make us cleerely fee 
and underftand fo much. I will therefore infill only upon fanclifying 
which comprehends bleiTing in it,and will rirft open and expound the 
word and fo proceed to points ofDoclrine. 
The Hebrew word Kadafi, is never ufed in any other fenfe in all the 


Jbe Dotlrine of the SMtth. 35 

Scriptures, but only to f ignifie fepcrating of things from their ordinary Chap.4. 
and naturall uie,to fome ufc more then naturall or above nature, and the 
fitting and preparing of them for that ufe,as for example combining of 
nations in an holy league againft r BMl i or other wicked ftate to exe- 
cute on them Gods juft revenge, }er.6.^.&c 12.3.& 22.7.8.: 51.27,28. 
and fcperating fome cities for whenfoever this word 
is attributed to God in all the Scripture,it fignifies either Gods fepera- 
ting things or times for holy ufe by his word and commandement, or 
by fome holincffe (hewed or fome extraordinary holy worke done in 
them,as Sx. 1 9 .44. 2 flro.j. 2 o.or elfe Gods inf ufing of his holy Spirit, 
and of fpirituall and fuper naturall graces and gifts of holines into men 
by which they are Operated from carnall men, and prepared for hea- 
venly glory,as £x.$i.i3.Lev.2o.8.£zec.20.i2.fer,ij. where God is 
hid to (anclifie his people,and to make them holy, that lb they may be 
fit to come neerer to him. And frequently in the new Teftament, the 
Greek word *?*&*» is ufed in this fenfc,as £ph.5.26.Heb.2.n . 

Hers the word (ignifies not (andifying by infh(ing holineffe and 
making holy,but Gods confccrating,that is,feperating the feventh day 
to an holy, heavenly, fpirituall and fupernaturall ufe, by his word and 
commandement, or by fome holy worke done firft in it, or fome holi- 
neffe firft revealed upon r. 

For this was the day in which God by his gratious promifeof 
Chrift, and by the new covenant of life made with man-kind in him, 
did communicate his Spirit to our firft parents, and wrought in them , 
faith and all holy graces need full to falvation, and lb ofljbah, a woman ^?^ 
who brought Wo to mm made our firft mother Cbavah, that is the 
mother of life in Chrift to all living. 

This day, God hereupon commanded to be fandtified of men, and 
kept holy by holy exercifes which tend to the honour and praife, and 
to the folemne commemoration and memoriall of Chrift promifed, 
and of his own reft in Chrifts mediation, and this day he appointed 
to man to be a figne and pledge of the eternall Sabbath in Heaven,after 
the end of the world which in fix dayes he created. 

Here therefore we fee wherein efpecially Gods fan&ifying of the 
feventh day to be an holy Sabbath of reft, did confift. Which that it 
may yet appeare more fully and diftinctly in all the particulars, I 
will reduce thefummc of all into a few politions, fome negative, and 
fome affirmative • which being by evident teftimonies of Scripture, 

F 2 andt 

3 6 The Do&rine of the Sabbath \ 

Chap. 5. and by good arguments grounded on the word of God, prooved and 
confirmed ; the truth will be fo cleare and manifeft, that the fimple 
{hall be able to underftand the true fanctincationboth ofthefeventh 
day, which was the old Sabbath of the Old Teftament, and alfo of 
the Lords day the Chriftian Sabbath of the New Teftament under 
the Gofpell. 


l.Po/ttio Er^ we mu ^ not * n an y ca ^ c i ma gi ne > That Gods fanclifying of the 
netative. * feventh day was the creating or infufmg of any naturall holineflfe 
' into it,by which it was diftinguifhed from other dayes of the weeke, 
and made more excellent then any of them. My reaibns are : 

Firft becaufe creating of naturall holineffe in any thing, isaworke 
of creation : But God relied from all works of creation on thefeventh 
day, and from making any thing which belonged to the naturall being 
of any creature, or to the naturall frame and perfection of it, witneffe 
the words of my text,and the words of the Lord himfel££xW. 20.1 3 . 

Secondly the Scriptures which are the onely rule of faith, and of all 
Dodrines of this kind do never mention any naturall holineffe in any 
creature which God made in the whole created frame of Heaven and 
earth ; Although God did create man perfevft in his kinde, even in his 
owne Image : yet I doe not read, that this image comprehended 
any more in it but naturall gifts and endowments onely, as light 
of underftand ing, liberty of will, mod free to good onely, and 
well ordered affe&ions all upright; alfo a comely frame and excel- 
lent temperature of the body, fit to be the feat, fubjecb and inftru- 
ment of a living reafonable naturall foule and fpirit, and ,to rule over 
all other creatures. SoUmon the wife preacher defcribing the image 
and excellent frame wherein God created man, makes no mention 
of any holineffe, but onely of naturall uprightneffe. god ( faith 
Ecclef.7. he) made man n fright. Wee never reade of holineffe naturall to any 
*9- but onely to God. 

Thirdly true holineffe is a gift of flipernaturall grace given onely in 
Chrift, and proceeding from the Holy Ghoft fried on men through 
Chrift,and dwelling in them as the immortall feed of God : 

It belongs not to the naturall image of God wherin the fir ft earthly 
Afom was created j but to the fpirituall and heavenly Image of the 


'The Doctrine of the sMaXh. 

fccond Adam Chrift, who is aquickning Spirit and the Lord from Chap. 5* 
Heaven Heavenly, whofe Image no man can beare but in the date of 
regeneration,when he is borne of the Spirit, and begotten of God to a 
lively hope, to the inheritance incorruptible and undt filed Vehich fadeth 1 Pc*. U« 
not away; as I have largely heretofore prooved by divers Scriptures 
which oppofethe image of true bolineffe , and undehled righteouf- 
neffe which men have in Chrift , to the image of the firft Adam, both 
that upright image wherein he was firft made, and that corrupt image 
whereinto he was transformed by his fall, as appeares mod: plainely, 
1 Cor.i5.45,4p.and^fA.4.23 3 24. 

The thing which deceives many learned men, and carries them to 
thinke that holineiTe was a part of mans naturall image in which he 
was created in this. 

Firft they take it for granted,tbat all uprightnefle and purity of man objett. 
in heart ,fbule,life and converfation, by which he is conformable to the 
law of nature and to Gods will revealed, and his commandements gi- 
ven to him, is true holinefle and is fo called in Scripture. 

Secondly, they reade that Adam was made by God upright and had 
that purity and uprightnefle which made him conformable to Gods 
law and revealed will,and this was Gods Image in him, and hereupon 
they conclude,that Adam was created in true holy neffe. 

To this 1 have heretofore upon another text fully anfwered, by lay- Anfb>. 
ing downe a plains diftincTion gathered from Gods word, and daily 
experience,and by applying it to this purpofe.For I have diftinguiftied 
purity and uprightnefle by which man is conformable to the revealed 
will and law of God into two forts. Firft there is a created naturall 
purity and uprightnefle founded upon naturall principles, which God 
gave to man in his firft creation, by which he was conformable to Gods 
revealed will and to the law of his nature in the ftateof innocency,but 
this uprightnefle having no other roote or foundation, but mans mu- 
table nature and frame, was alfo mutable and was auickly defaced and 
corrupted by the fubtilty of the tempter and mans fall. Secondly , there 
is a renewed or new created uprightnefle and purity of man in his 
heart and; foule, life and conversation, which is found onely in Gods 
ele& and faithfull regenerate children; by which they are here in forne 
meafure made conformable to the law and will of God ; this although 
it is much ecclipfed and obfeured by the remainders of naturall corrup- 
tion which ftill dwell in Gods Saints in this fraile life & mortall body, 

V 3 and 

3 8 The Doctrine of the Sabbath. 

Chap.5. and doth notfhine forth in the truebrightneffeofit, yet it proceeds 
from an eternall fountaine, the pure waters whereof fpring up unto 
life eternall, and cannot be defiled but remaine pure, though they paffe 
through the dead feaof Sodom, the filthy lake of mans naturall corrupt 
tions,which dwell ftill in this body of death, this pure fountaine is the 
fpirit of regeneration which God fried through Chrift on the elecl, as 
our Saviour himfelf teacheth, ^0/7.14.4. & 8.38539. And becaufethis 
Spirit even the Holy Ghoft which daily renues them, being fhed on 
them in their new birtbjTVr^^tf. doth dwell in them as the immor- 
tall feed of God,and abides with tl lem forever Jfc&. 1 4. 1 6 .& is ftronger 
then the fpirit of malice the Divell, which overthrew our firft parents 
and ever fince rules in all worldly men, 1 ^£.4.4. Therfore it is true 
purity and uprightneffe which cannot faiie nor deceive us as Adams 
didjand this is that which the Apoftle cals the new man and the righ- 
teoufneffe and ho/mejfe of truth, £phef.q. 24. in the fame fenfe that fpiri- 
tuall t fupernaturall and heavenly graces aie called tin true riches, that is, 
the riches durable and incorruptible,which will never lye unto us: not 
by failing deceive us, Lnk.\6 % As for the created purity and upright- 
nesby which the firft Adam was conformable to the law, it is never in 
all the Scriptures called by the name of holineffe, neither is it, or any 
morrall virtue in any unregenerate man any true holines,becaufe it pro- 
ceeds not from the Holy Ghoft who dwels in the regenerate and 
works all true holmes in them. I wifli that all the learned would feri- 
oufly weigh this truth and embrace it with their hearts, and beare it 
continually in their minds and memories : For this will at one blow 
raze to the very foundation all Pelagian, Popim, Arminian Hcerefies, 
concerning the power of mans free will, the efficacy and merit of mans 
naturall works done before regeneration, and the falling away of men 
regenerate and juftified, from the grace of God and from j uftifying 
faith and true holineffe, alfo concerning univerfall grace given to all 
men,by which they have it in their own power to be faved. 

And if it would pleafe the Lord to open the hearts of our people 
rightly to conceive this difference, betweene the Image of the firft 
and fecond Adam y and betweene the created naturall uprightneffe 
of *Adam&w& the fpirituall uprightneffe and infufed holineffe wherein 
the fecond Adam was conceived and framed by the Holy Ghoft, this 
Would ravifh their hearts and fill them with admiration of the lingular 
love of God to his elect in Chrift, and of the lingular excellency of 


The Doctrine of the sMath, 29 

the grace and holinefle, and of thofe high prerogatives which the re- Chap. 6. 

generate and faithfull receive and enjoy through him, which indeed 

fofarre cxceedeall that belonged to man in theftatc ofinnocency, 

as Chrift the fecond Adam in his humanity exceeded the tirft Adam> 

and immutable grace exceeds mutable nature, as etemall f uition 

of Cod in heavenly glory, excels the fruition of fading pleafuresin 

an earthly paradife. 


SEcondly, Gods fan&ifying of the feventh day was not the creation ^.I'fetta- 
or infufing of any fpirituall or fupernaturall holinefle into it, by t : lve p Q _ 
which it did cxcell all other dayes of the week. For tirft of all fpirituall fyfo Um 
and fupernaturall holinefle is created and infufed by the Holy Ghoft, 
only into reafon able creatures Angels and men, an 1 cannot be in any 
thing void of reafon, underftanding, free will and affections. Although 
things without life, and creatures void of reafon, are called holy by 
way ofrelation,becaufe they are dedicated to an holy ufe: Yet nothing 
is called holy by holinefle of qualification, that is,by holinefle inherent 
and heavenly grace, quality and perfection, but only man and the holy 
Angels who are partakers of the Holy Ghoft , and have him dwelling 
and working in them, for this holinefle is unitained purity and un- 
fpottcd uprightnefle, which poffefleth and informeth the underftan- 
ding, will, defires, affections and inclinations of realbnable creatures, 
and makes them conformable to Gods revealed will and the rule of his 
law. So that to imagine holinefle infufed into any time, place or any 
other thing, which hath not reafon and underftanding and will, is a 
mcere dreame, dotage and fuperftition. Times and places, as holy 
dayes, and holy temples,are holy in Scripture not for any holinefle in- 
herent in them, which they communicate to Gods people, but be- 
caufe thefe dayes and places are dedicated to holy ufe, and in them 
God ispleaLdby his Spirit working with his word and ordinances, 
tobeget,increafe and ftirre up holy affections in men, and to move and 
enable then) to performe holy actions according to Gods will. 

Secondly, all true infufed inherent holinefle, created and wrought 
by the Holy Ghoft, fprings from an eternall fountaine, and is foun- 
ded upon a fure rock which can never be removed but ftandeth ririnc 
forever. Where Gods Spirit once informeth or taketh poiVeilion, 


4° Th* Dottrine of the Sabbath. 

Chap.7. and worketh true holineifc there hee abides for ever, J oh. 14. i£. 

The Divell and all the powers of darkneffe cannot prevaile, nor dif- 

pofTeffe hun,fir he is greater then they al/ y 1 foh.q.4. So that if God had 

lanilirled the feventh day, by infilling holynefle and informing it 

with the Holy Ghoft, it could never have beene profaned, polluted 

and defiled by men, neither could there have beene any change of it 

from the holy Sabbath to a common and ordinary day ©f the weeke, 

as now we fee by Chrifts refurreftion : It ihould have continued Gods 

holy weekly Sabbath for ever, even as men once truly regenerate and 

fan&ified by the Holy Ghoft, are by that Spirit fealed unto the day of 

full redemption, Sfhef.^. 3 o. 


l.Po/itio T'H E affirmative pofitions wherein I will uSew how God fan&i- 
affirwa- •*• ^ ec * t ^ lc * eve nth day are three. Firft God did on that day reveale 
t l ve ^ himfelfe to man a moft pure and holy Goo, more then in all the fix 
dayes of the creation, For in creating all things of nothing,he (hewed 
his power and omnipotence in making all things good and perfect in 
their kinde. And in fetting the Heavens and the earth and all creatures 
in fuch an excellent and comely order/ hee fhewed his wifedome 
and goodneffe. And in making man upright in his owne Image, and 
giving him dominion over all living creatures to order them accor- 
ding to his will, and to the law written in mans heart, he declared 
his righteoufnefle. But on the feventh day by promifing Chrift a 
perfect redeemer and Saviour, he manifested and revealed his moft 
perfect purity and bolinefle divers wayes. Firft by his fufferingof 
man to live in his fight, and to approach to his prefencewhen he 
was corrupted by his fall, and become filthy and abhominable, ^nd 
in the ftridnefle and rigor of juftice worthy to be deftroyed with 
eternall death, God did plainely fliew that he is a God infinitely holy 
and cannot receive the leaft fpot and ftaine of mans corruption ap- 
proaching to his prefence, but appeares moft pure and glorious, and 
fhines forth beyond all meafure, by making an holy ufc of mans un- 
cleaneffj, and ordering and difpofing it to tne more full manifeftation 
and communication of his glory and goodnefle to his ele<ft in Chrift : 
For as the purity of gold doth more appeare by abiding moft pure 
and perfect in the midft of confuming fire and a furnace offierfullof 


7 he Doctrine of the Sabbath, 41 

uncleane afhcs, and after the touching of things inoft uncleane : So Chap.8- 
Gods perfecl purity and holineffe appeares moft infinite and unfpot- 
ted, in that he fuffcrs uncleane man, made filthy and abhominablc by 
finne to live in his fight and prefencc, and doth order and difpofe his 
uncleaneftc to an holy end, and doth meddle with it, and touch it, and 
yet is no whit diminifhed or obfeured thereby but made more bright 
and rciplendent in the eyes of the world. Secondly God by his promi- 
fing of Chrift to become man, and in mans nature to make a fall and 
perfecl fatisfaclion to juftice for mans finne, did lliew his infinite pu- 
rity and holy hatred of finne, more then by any worke of creation, In 
that rather then mans finne and filthineiTe ftiould not be punifhed to 
the fulland his juftice fully fatisfied, he would give his own Sonne, a 
perfen of infinite value to beare the curfe, and fuffer the whole punish- 
ment of finne in mans nature and fo to make full fatisfaclion for it. 

Thirdly ,the revealing of Chrift and promifing of him to be a fecond 
Adam,whois the Lord from Heaven heavenly,and a quickning Spirit, 
through whom he doth richly fried his Spirit on Adam and all his eleel 
feed in their generation ; which holy Spirit doth dwell in their fraile 
earthly finfull bodies,as in a Tabernacle and Tsmple all the time of this 
fraile life, and is not ftained nor defiled with their corruptions : but 
doth abide moft pure and holy, and doth overcome, mortifie and kill 
by a long and lingering death the eld man of fin in them, and workes 
in them that fpirituall purity and holinef]e,whith though it be but like 
a graine of muftardfeed; yet cannot bedeftroyed or defiled, but incrca- 
feth more and more,and prevaileth agalnft all powers of darknefTe;this 
doth above -all fliew the infinite purity and holinefie ofGod and ofhis 
Spirit. And therfore I conclude that God by promifing and revealing 
Chrift onthefeventh day, did then firft fhew himfelfe infinitely pure, 
and did manifeft unfpetted holinefTe more then in all the fix dayes of 
the creation : and this is the firft point ofhis fanclifying of the day, to 
bean holy Sabbath of reft, untillthe full exhibition of Chrift made a 
perfecl acluall redeemer on the day ofhis refurreclion. 


SEcondly,God on the ieventh day,did through Chrift promifed fried i.Poftio 
the HolyGhoftcn our firft parents, beget them of hisimmortall affirm*- 
feed, fanclifie them and work faith and all faving graces in them ; fo tive % 

G that 

^.2 The Doctrine of the Sabbath, 

Chap.8. that they beleevcd thepromife and found reft in Chrift. And fo this 
was the day wherein God did firft make man adtuall partaker of his 
Spirit, and did vvorke in him true holineffe, and conforms him to the 
Image of Chrift. This appear es by three things. 

Firft by Adams words, ^hap.^.io. where notwithstanding Gods 
pairing of the fentence of bodily death againft him,and of his returning 
to duft in the grave, in the words next before : yet he by faith layes 
hold on eternall life in Chrift the promifed feed, and being ftrengthe- 
ned with might by the Spirit in the inner-man, doth call his wife 
Chavah, which fignifies #y£,becaufe by Chrift promifed to become her 
feed,flie mould be the mother of all living,and not only all his naturall 
feed, mould by Chrift have naturall life for a time, and being on earth 
continued unto them:but alfo after death his wife and dl their elecl: 
feed mould have life eternall in him. This is a ftrong argument of a 
lively faith, and of the quickning fpirit given to Adam upon the very 
day of the promife which was the feventh day. 

Secondly, that our firft parents had the holy Spirit given them on 
that day, and by faith were j uftified and made partakers of the righ- 
teoufnefle of Chrift ; the coats of skins doe mew which God fitted to 
them and put upon them. For undoubtedly thefe skins were of cleane 
beafts, which God taught and commanded them to kill and offcr in fa- 
crifice as types, figures and pledges of their redemption, by the death 
and ficrifice of Chrift : and thefe coats made of the skins of beafts 
facrificed, and put upon our firft parents by God himfelfe, did plamely 
forcfhew the covering and cloathing of all the faithfull with the 
robes of Chrifts fatisfaclion and righteoufnefle, and were a token and 
pledge to them, that they were juftified by faith in Chrift to come, 
and cloathed with the garments of falvation. For all Gods works are 
perfect : he gives to no man by his owne hand immediately the out- 
ward pledge and feale without the inward grace. 

Thirdly, Adams teaching of his fonnes, Came and Abell to facriflce, 
and to bring offerings and firft fruits to God, which were types of 
, Chriftand of Gods reft in his mediation and full fatisfaclion, and that 
4% at the end of dayes, that is,the feventh which is the laft of the weeke, 
and Gods holy weekly Sabbath, thefe I fay do teftifie Adams faith in 
thepromife, his holy obedience to Gods commandement of keeping 
holy the feventh day, and his holy care to teach his children lioly obe- 
dience alfo. Now this being manifefted, that on the feventh day God 


The Doltrine of the Sabbath. 43 

did firft fancTih'e man by his holy Spirit, and did bring in holineffe into Chap.p. 
the world among men, we muft needs acknowledge this a fecond 
point of Gods fancli tying that day, and making it fit to be his holy 
weekly Sabbath and the day of his holy worfhip. 


THirdly the Lord God for amemoriall ofthefe fupernaturall and ^,PoJttio 
heavenly things firft revealed and done on thefeventh day, and affirm* • 
for a pledge to man of the eternall reft in Heaven, did alio by his the, 
word and commandement, appoint every feventh day to be unto man 
a day of reft from his own workes which concerne this worldly life, 
and to be kept an holy Sabbath to the Lord his God, and this is 
the third point of Gods fancTifying the feventh day, and fctting it 
apart for holy and heavenly ufe, and for holy worfhip, fervice and re- 
ligious duties which tend to beget and increafe holineffe in men, and 
fo to bring them to fee and enjoy God in the eternall reft of glory. 
This point becaufe it is of greateft weight and moment, and compre- 
hends in it many of thofe things which are n:ce{Tary to be laid open, 
and made knowne for the diftinct and profitable underftanding of the 
Lords holy weekly Sabbath, and the right obfervation thereof, to- 
gether with the duties which belong thereunto and are therein re- 
quired. Therefore I will doe my beft endeavour to handle this point 
more fully, and to lay open diftinclly the fpeciall things therein con- 
tained,and that in this method and order. 

Firft I will proove this maine point, to wit: that Gods blefling 
and fanctifying of the feventh day, did include the giving of a law 
and commandement for the keeping of an holy weekly Sabbath, and 
Gods giving of this commandement was a maine and fpeciall part of 

Secondly I will enquire and fearoh out the nature of that law and 
commandement, and how farre and in what manner it bindes Adam 

Thirdly, becaufe every law which God gives to man, doth impofc 
a duty upon man, and b'mdes man to the performance of it, therefore 
the very words of the text bind me to handle at large, mans duty 
which this commandement of God, and this word by which he did 
bleffe and fandifie the feventh day, doth impofe upon Adam and all his 

G 2 pofterity 

44 ife Dothine of the Sabbath, 

Chap.o. pofterity, even their fan&ifying and keeping holy the Sabbath day. 

For the proofe of the maine pointywe have three notable arguments! 
Firft we have the plaine teftimony of God himfelfe,£v. 16.28. where 
he cals this his blefling and fancTifying of the feventh day,by the name 
of a commandement and law, and tels the Ifraelltes that they not kee- 
ping of an holy reft;but going out to gather Manna on the feventh day, 
did refufc to keepe his commandements and lawes, that is y his com- 
mandements and laws which he had given from the beginning, in his 
blefting and fan&ifying of the feventh day ; For of other fpeciall 
lawes and commandements given before that time concerning the 
Sabbath there is no mention at all in Scripture, neither did God^give 
any befides that from the beginning, trntill he fpake unto them after- 
ward from Mount Sinah> and in the fourth Commandement called 
upon them to remember the Law of old, given for keeping holy the 
Sabbath,and renewed it againe to them. 

Secondly, In all the Law of God and in all the Scriptures we never 
readeof any thing truly hallowed, fan&ified and fet apart for holy ufe 
but by fpeciall commandement ofGod, and by the direction of his 
word: the firft thing which isfaidto be fanclified after the feventh 
day,is the firft borne of Ifrael, Exod, 13.2. and this was by Gods fpe- 
ciall commandement, and therefore he faith that he hallowed them 
On that day Which he [mote the firft borne ofEjnpt,Numb t ^ . 1 3 . The next 
fancTifying mentioned in Scripture is that of the people of Ifraell 
when they were to come into the fight and prefence of Gods Majcfty 
at mount Sin^Exod.19. 10. and that was by Gods direclion and com- 
mandement as is there teftified in expreffe words. 

The third fancTification mentioned in the Scriptures, is that of the 
Sanctuary, and the the Altar and all the holy Veflels and implements 
thereof, and Aaron and his fonnesthe Pricfts with all their robes and 
veftments, alfo the Sacrifices and all other holy things of the Taber- 
nacle, and they all were fancTified by the fpeciall commandement of 
God,and by direction of his word, as LMofis in the law teftifies,in £x. 
4o.and divers other places. 

So the Temple in Jemfalem and all the h6ly things which were con- 
fecrated and dedicated to the fcrvice of God by Solomon, are faid to be 
hallowed and fan&ified by God,i Klng.g^^nd i\ Cbron.y.jj. that is, 
hy Gods fpeciall commandement and direclion. 

And Mofiss his dedication of all things in the law? is faid tobeby 


The Do chine of the Sabbath. 45 

bloud and that by precepts fpoken to the people according to Gods Chap.9. 
law, #<?£,?. verf.ip,2 2. And every creature of God is &id to be fan- 
cied to the life of the Saints by the word of God and by prayer, 
I 77W.4.J. 

Now if in all Gods word every thing is faid to be fancTiHed by 
the word and fpeciall Command ement of God: and wherefoever in 
all the Scriptures God is laid to fan&ifie any thing, and to feperatc it 
for holy ufe: The word (fancTifie) doth neceflarily imply a com- 
mandement , and fpeciall Law of God given for the feperating 

of it. 

It were againft all reafon and common fenfe to deny here in this 
text that the words (Blejfe and fanttifie) doe neceiTarily alfo 
imply that God gave a fpeciall commandement and law for the kee- 
ping of his holy weekely Sabbath an holy reft unto him the Lord 
our God. 

Thirdly, whatfoever is fan&iried by God and fo dedicated to holy 
ufe, that it is not in the power of any creature to alter and change and 
turne it to another ufe, without fin and tranfgreffton againft God, that 
iscertainely eftablifhed by a fpirituall law of God, for where there is 
no law there is no tranfgrelTion.Now after that God had ianctified t he 
feventh day ,and appointed it to be the reft of the holy Sabbath. It was 
a fin and tranfgreflion not to keep it, or to change and alter it to com- 
mon ufe, yea it was tranfgreffion againft Gods comimndements as 
appearesin the place before mentioned, £xod.i6. 23,28. Therefore 
Gods fancTifying the Sabbath was undoubtedly by giving of a com- 
mandement for the due keeping and obferving of it. 

But from this point thusprooved, there arilethan objection, the Objett. 
anfwering and removing whereof feemes to be a matter of fome 
moment. For this being granted, that God in fanctifying the fe- 
venth day immediately after the ending of the creation, did give a 
fpeciall law for theobfervation of the feventh day of every weeke as an 
holy Sabbath : And if a thing once confecrated by Gods law to holy 
ufe, may in no cafe be turned to common and profane ufe,and whofoe- 
ver doth change it,(lnneth moft grievQiifly,as appearcs Sxod.^o.^ 2.and 
2Vaw.16.38.and alio by the deftru&ion of King B0)Axjtjer for turning 
the hallowed Veifels of the Temple ofjcrtifilem to common and pro- 
fane bfc, Dan.^. It will hereupon follow, that Adams poftcrity in 
all ages are bound to keepcthe weekely Sabbath on the feventh day, 

G 3 and 

<0 The Dotfrinc of the Sabbath. 

Chap.o. and no creature may change it to another day without grievous fin. 
And the Chriftian Churches which have changed the Sabbath to 
the &ft day of the weeke ; and have made the feventh day a common 
day wherein they doe theworkes of their private calling and their 
worldly bufmeffe, have tranfgrefTed Gods law in fo doing. Neither 
have they any warrant or ground from this firft inftitution, or the 
fourth Commandement ( which commands the Sabbath of the fe- 
venth day,) to kecpe their weekly Sabbath on the Lords day which is 
the firft of the weeke. 
Anfa F or tnc fatisfying of this obj e&ion,and clearing of this doubt,divers 

things may be aniwered. Eirit that in the mod (tricl commandement 
ofGod by which he binds men to the keeping of holy aflemblies, and 
publickefolemnities for the performance of religious duties, worihip 
and fervice to his ma jefty in memoriall of his extraordinary blelTings 
andbenefits,though thefolcmne duties be limited to fome certaine and 
fit daies, and thole particular duties be named in the law. Yet if the 
fubftance of the Commandement be kept, that is, the holy folemnity 
obferved, and the duties, worfhip and fervice be performed, in as full 
and ample manner as the law requires, though the particular dayes of 
the month, yeare and weeke be changed , upon good reafon and for 
weighty con(ideration;The Lord doth difpence with alteration of that 
circumftancc to another day and time,which appeares by good reafon, 
andfor juft caufes to be more convenient, and doth allow and accept 
that for the right performance of his law. This is manifell; by a plaine 
inftance and example given by God himfelfe. 

For the law of the PaiTeover which God gave to IJrael did command 
them'to keep that feaft in their generations,upon the fourteenth day of 
the hrft month, and that under paine of being cut of£ £#0^.1 2.14,1 8. 
and Lev, 23. 5. And yet upon ju(toccaiion,fuch asGodslaw approoves, 
either of uncleanneffe or abfence from home upon a far journey, it was 
lawfuli to change the particular time, and to keep the paiTeover on a- 
nother day more convenienr,evcn on the fourteenth day of the fecond 
moneth, JSlHmb.$,\\. Am Jo Hezel^ah and all the people of Ifraell and 
Judah kept it and changed the da) ,2 Chro.30. And hereby the Lordhim- 
ielfeteachethus; that theLawes which coaimand holy folemnities 
and bind all his people in their generations to the due obfervation of 
them on certaine fet dayes,fuch as thelaw of the weekly Sabbath, and 
the yearely PaiTeover, may ftand in force and be duly obferved, though 


The Dtcirine of the Sabbath. 47 

the particular day of the weeke be changed uponfuch grounds, as Chap.o, 
Gods law approoveth and for fuch caufes and reafons, as make that 
other day more fit,and excellent for the i olemnity,then that particular 
day of the weeke,or of the moneth which is named in the Law. 

Secondly, Jf any object that the law of the PafTeover was ceremo- o&jeft.i, 
niall, and therefore might admit of fome changes, but it cannot be fo 
in the law of the Sabbath if it be morrall and perpetual!, binding all 
man-kind to the worlds end. 

To this I anfwer, that for the time and feafon wherein ceremo- ji n fa % 
niall lawes are in force they are equall (in their obligation and binding 
of the perfons commanded ) to lawes morrall and perpetuall, and 
therefore the argument and anfwer is good and flrme, and cannot 
with any good reafon be rejected and denied. 

Thirdly, divers pofitivc lawes which are morrall and perpetuall and 
bind Adam^x\<iA\ his pofterity,in all their generations,though they be 
flrme and immutable in themfelves and in their obligation : yet be- 
caufe the duties of obedience which they impofe upon men, and the 
men upon whom the duties are impofed, are in their ft ate and con- 
dition mutable and changeable, And the changes and alterations 
of the things commanded in times, places and other relations and re- 
fpecls, doe not at all change the law, norproovc it ceremonialland 
changeable. As for example, Gods commandement and law given to 
Ifraell y \vds that they i'hould love him the Lord their Go j,and ferve him 
with fuch worfhip as is agreeable to his word. This law bindes them 
and all Gods people in all generations unchangeably: It bound all fuch 
as lived in the oldTeftament, to ferve God with facrirlces and burnt 
ofTevings,and to worfhip him with their firft fruits, and fweet odours 
and perfumes of incenfc, and that in the place which he did chufe out 
of all the tribes of Ifraell. And it binds us (till who live under the new love God, and to ferve him, but with a fpirituall wor- 
fhip and fervice, fuch as is moffc agreeable to the word of the Gofpell, 
as S'.P^/fhewes Rom.ii.i. and our facrirlces are not of bruite beafts, 
but our ownc bodies devoted to the obedience of Chrirr, and facrirlces 
of thankes and praife which are the calves of our lips, Heb.i 3.15. for 
now men arc not by the law bound to worfhip God injernfalem, not 
in ihemountaine of Samaria, but in every placato lift uvpnrc hands and 
hearts to Cjod, and to Worfhip him inspirit and in truth , foh. 4.21. And 
to this worfhip the fame law doth as ftridly binde us as it did the 


48 The DoEtrine of the Sabbath. 

Chap.p. Others to their bodily facrifices in >^^~th^hTh7?er^ 
in divers particulars is changed, yet the law is perpetuall and 
(lands firme and immutable, and bindes all Gods people in all thrW 
generations. r «w*uuca 

So likewife from the firft promifc of Chrift, a redeemer to man- 
kinde, Adam and all his pcftenty are bound to beleeve in Ghrift and 
tofeeke, expefr and hope for falvation and life only in himthepro- 
rnifed fcedc of the woman, that is, in him mademan, and mans me- 
diator. And the law of beleeving in Chrift is perpetuall, firme'and 

And yet the duty which he requires is changeable, and is changed 
now under the Gofoell from that which is under the law, incircum- 
ftance,for the faithfull m the Old Tef lament were bound to expeft and 
wait for Chrift and to beleeve in him to come, but we under the Gof- 
pell confeffe Chrift and beleeve in that Ckriftfttonhichkcimeinthe 
fieA and whofoever confeffeth not Chrift which is come, but belccvcs 
Chrift to come,he is led by thefoirit of Antichrift,i Joh.A * 

And even thus the cafe ftands with the law of the Sabbath which 
God gave m the beginning when he fan&irled the ftventh day for 
by that law he bound Adam and all his pofteritv to obferve and 
keepe an holy weekly Sabbath, and that on the particular davoftha 
weeke which is the day moil hlcffcd with the greateft bkffina above 
all other day es of the weeke, and wherein the created worke of 
the world comes to greateft perfection, and that is brought into 
atoll being wherein God Specially refteth, and wherewith he is 
chiefly f atished and delighted. 

This is thefumme and fubftance of the law which equally bindes 
all Gods people perpetually to the worlds end. This law bound the 
fathers to keepe holy the feventh day, and laft day of the weeke in 
the old Tcftament, becaufe that was the day molt bleffed with'the 
greateft blefjing as yet revealed m the world, that is the promifc of 
Cnnit, and his actuall undertaking and beginning to be mans media 
tor, by which promiie of the Redeemer and bringing in of W r 
naturaU grace which isioirituall and immutable, the mutable work 
or the creation was perfected, and in which mediation of Chrift 
God rcfted and tookfuch delight, that he would not soc about to 
uphold the world by way of creation, but committed the reparation 
or the world to Chrift the mediator. But now under theGofpell 


ihe DtBrine ef the sMsk 49 

fince the foil exhibition of Chrift, a perfcda&uall Redeemer, and the Chap.i* 
perfecting of the vvorke ofredemptiononthc firft day of the wceke, 
mChrift^his refurredion ; that firft day of the feven, which is the 
feventh in the weekely revolution, if we count the dayes, begin- 
ning with the day next following, is now the day moft blefled, and 
wherein the created world is after abetter manner and in an higher 
degree perfected, and God findes that actually performed wherein 
he refteth and wherewith he is fully fatisfyed. And therefore the 
fime perpetuall law of the Sabbath bindes us to kecpe this day for our 
weekely Sabbath, and that not with fuch fervice as was holy under 
the Law, that is,double bodily facrifiees, nor with alTemblies appoin- 
ted for preaching,reading and hearing of the law,and the promifesof a 
redeemer to come, and for feeking {alvation and bleiTings in Mefllah 
promifed and yet not come. B ut with fpirituall worfhip and faitbfuil 
prayer and invocation in the name of Chrift exhibited and already 
exalted, and with reading, preaching and hearing of the GofpeU, 
which declareth Chrift Jefus already come in the flenS. And thus I 
hope I have fully anfwered the objection, and made it manifeft, that 
the chriftian Churches in changing the day of their weekly Sabbath, 
and their forme and manner of worfhip, have not made void, but efta- 
bhfhed the law of the Sabbath,which God gave in the beginning. And 
thefe changes do in no cafe proove the law to be ceremtoniall only and 
mutable, neither doth the morallity and perpetuity of the law require 
that every circumftance of the Sabbath, and every particular Sabbath 
duty, mould at ail times remaine the fame perpetuall and unchangeable. 


BU T that this truth may yet {nine forth more clearely, and may {9 
manifeftly mew it Iclfe that no fcruples may remaine, nor any 
doubts concerning it or any part of it. I will proceed to the fe'eond fpe- 
ciall thing which is before propounded. That is, to inquire,fearch out 
anddifcover the nature and kind of this law and commandement of 
God, concerning the weekly Sabbath : And how farre and in what 
manner it bindes Adam and all his pofterity . 

And here I have a large field to pane through, wherein divers points 
ofler themfclvcsto our view, which I cannot paflc by, nor lead you 
along without due consideration of them. Firft here I mccte with di- 

H vers 

50 The Doctrine of the Sabbath . vers and feverall opinions, of the learned concerning the law of the 
Sabbath which come firft to be rehearfed and examined. 

Secondly, I rind feverall kinds oflawes which God hath given to 

men, mentioned in the Scripture, and divers forts of commandements, 

which we mult federally delcribc,an~d diluncftly coifider before we can 

determine that which principally is here intended, that is, what kind 

oflaw and commrndement this of the Saobatri i : , and ho m fir and in 

what manner all man-kind are obliged by ir,andbou id to obey it. 

TU feve- ^ ls ^ P* n * o:1 iS > & at tns * aw °^ tne Sabbath is naturali, morrall 

rail opi»i- and perpetual!, written in the heart of the firft inm in his creation. 

$*s£oncer* And that as he was bound to keep the feventh day holy to the Lord in 

mvg the tne ft ate of innocency. So alfo are all his poftericy bound in all ages 

'**% ° h >C cvcn to ^ c mm t0 k ee P r * ls weekly Sabbath. Bat they who con- 
ceive this law to be naturally written m mans heart do much differ 
and are divided into two opinions. The one (brt holds the law to be 
wholy natural!, and perpetually morrall both in rdpdfl of the eeft^ an J 
fandncation, abialib in refpeeb of the particular day oflhewc^ke, 
even the feventh from the beginning of the clarion. 

Thus do Judaizing Chriftians hold, who profefle GhrMian religion, 
but reject the lanctification of the Lords day* and embrace and cleave 
to the ^w Sabbath. 

1 he other fort do hold that there is a threefould life of the Sabbath 
day. i . Religious and holy, which is the exercife of holy and religions 
duties. 2. Poiiticall or civil), which is r^ft from worldly weariiome 
labour of man and bean:. 3 . Cerenaoniall or ficram entail, whichis a 
fignirication and ftiadowing offpirituall reft in Chrift. Tint in the 
two firft reipecrs the Law is naturali, morrall and perpetual], and 
that nature requires, that a feventh day of every vyeeke lliouid be 
for red and refreshing, and for holy exercifes of religion, they all af- 
flrme : And becauie the feventh and laft day of the weeke, was the 
day wherein God refted, having in the fix dayes before pcrfeeled all 
the workes of the creation, therefore they hold that for the figntfji irig 
and iliadowing forth offpirituall reft in Chrift, the feventh day was 
the fitted of all, and Gods people were by Gods law bound to obferve 
it for their Sabbath untill Chrift had fully rinilned the work of re- 
demption, and then refted from it as God did from the work of crea- 
tion. And that ever fince the refurreerion, the figne and ceremony of 
Chrifts reft being fulfilled, the Sabbath is to be kept by the fame law 


The Bottrine of the Sabbath. ?r 

of nature, and commandement ofGod on the Lords day the firft day 

of the weeke, which is one in fcvcn untill the eternall Sabbath and 

reft in Hcavcn,untb which Chrift will bring all his elect at lad. This 

is the Doctrine of many of the bed learned heretofore in our Church, 

and divers godly Divines do reft in this opinion, which for the maine 

matter and fubftance of it,is pious and godly and approoved by Aquinas 

the great Schooleman. 

The fecond opinion is, that the law of the Sabbath was not naturall 
written in mans heart, neither did bindeman toobferve an holy reft 
thefeventh day of every weeke, and only on the feventh day in which 
God refted, but that it was a pofitive law given by God, commanding 
more then the light of nature did clearely and diltinclly fhew to man, 
or bare natural! inftinft did move him unto,nnd that it was like the law 
by which God forbad man to eate of the tree of knowledge, which his 
own naturall appetite did leade him to eate ©f v being good for food 
and to the eye and appetite pleafant and durable. But ( >od reftrained 
him from it, not by inilincT of nature or law written in his heart, but 
by his owne voluntary commandement, to fnew his autho:iry over 
man, to leach man obedience, and to make man know, that he might 
as juftly have reftrained him from all, or the molt, part of other fruites, 
and that the ufe of the creatures, and the rower which he gave to 
man over them was his free gift, and therefore man ought to love and 
ferve him his creator,as for his whole being, fo alfo for the ufe and be- 
nefit of all other creatures. A.nd fo likewife they hold,that by nature all 
dayes are alike m them£:lyes, and man by the light of nature can dif- 
cerne no difference in them,bur. yet God to make man mindfull of his 
ere tion,and of God his Cie itor,did by his word and everlafting com- 
mon dement given to ma .1, federate one day i'v: the nfa before named. 
i .1 or holy ufe,everi performance of religious duties only. 2. 1 or civill 
ufe, to wit : reft from hard labour, 3 . For ceremoniall, to fignirie the 
reft of Chrift after the work of redemption finifhed, to admonifn man 
of reft from (infull works, and to be a token of eternall reft in Heaven. 
And though any one day in the weeke is of it feife naturally as fit as 
another, and that it is no matter what day be kept, fo that one m &\cn 
be for thefeufes fet apart : yet becaufeGod refted on the feventh day 
from his worke of creation, therefore in the Old Teftament hec 
would have that laft day of fevento be the Sabbath untill the com- 
rning of Chrift : intending that when the greater worke of m3ns 

H 2 redemption 

52 The DeElrine of the Sabbath. 

Chap. I o redemption was perfected by Chrift ; then the day of his refurreclion 
in which he rcfted from that work, even the Lords day, fhould be the 
Sabbath of Gods people to the end of the world ; And fo this law and 
commandement though it be not natural!, yet it is morrall, and a per- 
petuall and unchangable rule of Gods conftant will,and of mans duty in 
this particular: which is the mainefiibftance of it /w*.that man do keep 
one day in feven of every week for a Sabbath of reft throughout all ages 
of the world, and that it is changeable only in the circumitanceof the 
4a'y,and that only thus far.i .That while the work of creation was that 
work which had the preheminence in the eyes of the world, the Sab- 
bath was to be kept neccflarily on the laft of the feven, in which God 
did reft from that work, and fo this law did bind men. 2. 7 hat after 
Chrift had fmifried his work of redemption, refted the feventh day in 
the grave, and on the firft day was rifen and entered into his reft, and 
the work which now hath the preheminence under the Gofpell is re- 
demption perfected by Chrifts refurreclion,the day of his refiiiredion 
and reft fhould be the holy Sabbath to all Chriftian people, whereby 
they fhould be admonifhed of the eternall reft in Heaven, and wherin 
they fhould be wholy devoted to fuch duties,as tend to bring them on 
to the fruition of reft with Chrift in glory. The third opinion is, that 
the law of the Sabbath is not naturall nor perpetually morall at all, but 
only civill and ceremonia!l,and fome who are of this opinion do hold, 
that it was given of God in the beginning to be obferved only untill 
the comming of Chrift, partly in memory of the creation, untill the 
greater work of redemption fhould comcin,& partly to figniric things 
to come by Chrift,and of true reft tobe found in him, and that r»vrk 
is utterly abolifhed together with all the feftivallSabbaths ofthefamm 
Others of them hold, that becaufe there was great equity in this law, 
and alio fetting apart of one day in the week for religious exercifes, is 
a thing very profitable and ufefull for the propagation of religion, and 
for the upholding of order in Gods Church: therfore the law m refpeel: 
of the particular day is abolifhed, for that was ceremonial!, but the e- 
quity of the obfervation of one in feven ftill remaines. And therfore all 
Chnftians in imitation of the Apoftlcs, ought to keep one in feven, c- 
ipeciall the Lords day which is the firft in the week, rather then any 
other,if the Church fo determine it, and if it be obferved without any 
fupcrftitious conceipt of more holineffe in that day, or annexed to it, 
rather then any other. 


The Be chine of the Sabbath* 53 

The fourth opinion is,that the firft law for obfervation of the week- Chap ro 
IjSabbi'th was the fourth Commandement given from mount Sena, 
and that it did bind onely the Ifraelites to keepe the feventh day of the 
weeke for an holy Sabbath ontill the comming of Chrift : but now 
under the G of pell it is abolifhed in rcfpccT both of the particular day, 
and alio the ttriftneflfe of the observation, and only the equity of it 
remaincs in the Lords day, the obfervation wherof is commended to 
us by the example of the Apoftlcs, and now the law of keeping it 
holy is only eccktiafticall and an holy ordinance of theChurch. Thus 
you fee while men build upon unfure and unftable grounds, and not 
upon the certaine words of holy Scripture compared together and 
made to run in afweet harmony, how various and different they are, 
and how contrary fomc of them in their opinions. 

For the remooving of all doubts, and fetling of mens judgements 
in a fore way fo farre as God mall enable me. I will endeavour to 
feted and {ingle out whatfoever I find in thefe feverall opinions, to 
be agreeable to the truth, and to the facred word of God, and reject 
the reft : and will ad moreover what is wanting to make up a perfect 
Dodrine, not out of mine owne conjectures, but out of canonic ill 
Scriptures, for that is the lure rule of all ncceffary faving andfandti- 
fied knowledge, and that muft be the fure guide when Fathers, Conn* 
eels and Churches doe lead us into feverall and doubtfull way es. Firft 
for them who hold that the law of the Sabbath was written in mans 
heart m the creation, I hold it true in fomepart, to wit : thus far. 
That God creating man in his owne Image did print this in mans 
heart, That as he hadhis whole being from God, efpecially his rea- 
fonablefoule, by which he was made able to underftand the will of 
God revealed to him by his word, fo he was bound to obey God and 
to ferve him all his dayes with his whole heart,and with all his might. 
AndifGoddid require of him any part of his time, and commanded 
him to abftaine from fomegood and lawfull workes tending to his 
naturall good and well being, and to doe fome fpeciall workes for 
his Lords pleafure, in one day or more felecTed dayes of the weeke, 
or of every moneth or yeare, he ought to doe it out of duty and obe- 
dience to his Lord and Creator. Thus farre I confent that the law is 
naturall written in mans heart, to wit : in generall and in refpccT: of 
the common foundation : 
I grant alio that the law and command etnent of God, in joyning the 

H 3 reft 

54 The Doffrwe of the Sabbath, 

Chap, i o reft of men, their fervants and cattell from hard labour on the feventh 
day, or one day in every wecke, is a thing fo naturally helpfull and 
needfall for the health and well being of men ever fincc mans fall, and 
the curfe of barrennefTe laid upon the earth, and the punifhtnent of 
toylefome labour and faint fiveating impofidon man-kind, that mans 
own naturall reafbn, will and sfreftion rnuft needs approo ve it, and 
move and incline his heart to the obedience 'of it, and his inward 
thoughts cannot but accufe him of wrong done to his owne body, and 
to the life of his labouring cattell and f:rvants,if he dr&bey it, and in 
this refpecl it may be called a law of nature : 

Yealadde moreover that if we take the law of nature in a large 
fence,as fometirnes it is nksn, that is for every law which commands 
fiich duties and fiicli obedience, as in their owne nature are very ufefull 
and. profitable to the parties commanded, and which is grounded on 
fuch juftcaufesand weighty grounis, as by the judgement of naturall 
reafon, are in their owne nature well worthy of fuch obfervance, then 
the law and commandernent of keeping an holy Sabbath (on the fe- 
venth day in the old Teftament in thankfullnefte for Ghrift promif.d 
and for a continuall memoriall of that great bleftlng : and on the firft 
day of Chriftsrelurreclion now under the Gofpell, in thankfulines for 
Chrift fully exhibited,and the workeof redemption by him perfected, 
which fomuch excels the promife made on the feventh day, as per- 
fecting of a work excels the beginning and undertaking of it ) may 
both in reipecl of the particular day and the fancliricaticn of it be 
called a law of nature, that is a law requiring fuch morrall and 
perpetuall obedience, as is in the nature of it moft juft and worthy to 
be performed. 

But that the law and Commandernent which bound the fathers to 
keep an holy reft on the feventh day of every weeke, and us under the 
Golpell to keep it on the firft day especially and no other, was in the 
creation written and imprinted in the heart of man lb diftinclly and 
cxprcfly, that man had an inbred notion of it, and a natural! inftinct of 
himfelfe to obferve this 1 <v* T , and to keep a weekly Sabbath on thofe 
very dayes which God hath prefenbed both to the fathers and us. This 
I lnuft needs deny for thefe reafons following. 

i'irft Gods fin.iifyingof the feventh day by his word and comman- 
dernent, and his inftitution of the Sabbath by a pofitive law given, as 
my text here flvewes j had beene vaineand needlefte,if the law and the 


The Doctrine of the Sabbrtb. 5 5 

Sabbath of holy reft had beene exprefly, and particularly written in 
mans heart already. For what man by the inftinft of naturc,and by his 
own naturall reafon,wili and aff:&ion,is led and moved to do, that he 
is vainly and needlefly urged unto by any law or commandement, 
being oihimfelfe without any monitor ready to performe it. 

Secondly,the very vJOT&(S*nttify) [gniHeth tnefetting apart of this^ 
d.;yto a lupernaturall and heavenly ufe, eYcn for the performance of 
luch duties as are above the naturdl imaginations and thoughts of 
man, and which his naturall re if on would never have revealed to him, 
nor his will lead him to do. if God by his word,and divine and iuper- 
naturall revelation had not directed and moved him. Therefore this 
law by which God fanctiried and inftiuited the Sabbath is not a natu- 
rall law,but a divine and fupernaturall precept. 

'Ihirdly, in the creation and ftate of innocency, man was bound to 
feiveGod as his Creator and the author of all his being, and to be con- 
tent with that eftate wherein God had placed him, and faw to be very 
good, and to looke no higher. Jt was the inordinate delire of more 
knowledge and of an higher eftate then God had revealed and promi- 
fed, which made our firft parents foyeelding to the Diveis tempta- 
tions, and undoubtedly it was an occa(;on of their fin in eating of the 
forbidden fruite.Now the ferving of God as his Lord and Creator was 
the duty of man every d\y alike, for th * Heavens above, and the earth 
beneath, and all creatures in them ferving daily for mans naturall good 
and well bein?, even every day equally did put man continually in 
mind of his duty, to witithat he was to love and ferve the Lord with 
all his heart,foule and ftrengthat all times.fbr this is the right eoufnelTe 
of a mans own works and of his own perfon, which God required of 
man in the firft covenant intheftate of innocency, even his conftant 
obedience to the whole law and revealed will of God all his dayes 
without one dayes intermiiiion. Therefore the Sabbath which re- 
quires fervice of God and worship, and love of him as a mercifull Re- 
deemer, and that upon one day of the week more then all the reft, 
was not known nor commanded nor obferved by nature in the ftate 
of innocency 

Fourthly ,thc law of nature written in mans heart requires no parti- 
cular dury, but fuch as hisown naturall reafon and will did direfland 
lead him unto in the creation, and which belonged to him in the ftate 
of innocency. But the Law of the Sabbath from the firft inftitution 


-£ The Doctrine of the Sabbath. 

Chap. I e commands and requires fuch things, and fuch works and duties as did 
not concerne man in the ftate of innocency. As i . Reft of man and 
heaft from their wearifome labour for their refreshing upon one day in 
£cven. This man had no need of, neither was there any need of fuch 
reft, becaufe the toyle and labour of man and bead: came in after the 
fall, when God curled the earth for mans (in. 

Secondly, it requires in generallfanclification of the feventh day,by 
holy and religious exercifcs,and in particular by facrificing to God,by 
prayer and fupplication,and by meditating on heavenly things,andon 
eternall reft, and by ftudying all holy duties which might fit men for 
thefightand fruition ofGod in heavenly glory. All which and what- 
fbever other holy Sabbath duties and works are mentioned in the word 
ofGod,do belong to man, onlyfmce thepromiieof Chrift thebleiTed 
feed. And in the ftate of innocency, man had no occasion of any fuch du- 
tics,be had no need offacrifking untill Chrift, his ranfome and facri- 
fke for iinjfte was prqmifed, he neither could have any thought or me- 
diations of glory in Heaven, or ftudies to fit and fandine himfelfe for 
the fruition therof untill Chrift the only way to eternall reft, and glo- 
ry was promifed : what ufe had he of prayers and fuppiications to God 
for any good thing needfull, when he lacked nothing,or for deliverance 
fioci evill when as yet no evill was knowne in the-world ? What oc- 
cafion could he have to praife God for Chrift, before he didfo much as 
dreame of Chrift or had any thought of him at all. As for natural! gifts 
and bleflings, he was by them admonifhed and provoked every day 
alike to k>ve,ferve,bonour and praife God, whet fore feeing the works 
and duties of the Sabbath are holy, and tend only or chiefly to the fn- 
pernaturall and heavenly life,and to the eternall reft which Chrift hath 
purchafed in Heaven for man, undoubtedly the law of the Sabbath 
which exprefly commands fuch works and duties every feventh day, 
is a poiitivefupematurall and divine law,not any di&ate of nature im- 
printed in mans heart in the creation. 

Fiftly, every law of nature is common to all man-kind, and is writ- 
ten as well in the hearts of heathen as of Chriftians, fo that the con- 
fcienceof men who never heard of God or of his word, is anionic 
tor, to admonifti them of the duty which that law requires, andan ac- 
cufer if they tranfgreflc that law, and men have no more need to be put 
in mind of thofe duties, then of any other which the law of nature re- 
quires : But the law of the Sabbath hath no footeftep or iinprcilion 


ibc Deprive of tht Sabbath. 5 7 

in the hearts of barbarous Heathen nations. It is quite forgotten 
mongthem, and only Gods, people who have his written Law and 
Word continually read and preached,do keep the Sabbath: And God in 
giving it to ffr.tcl in written tables, and in repeating it often after- 
wards, ft ill cals upon them to remember it, therby inewing that it is 
not as the Law of nature printed in mans heart, but is a Law given by 
word and writing, and from thence learned, andtherfore eafiiyand 
quickly forgotten. 

S'ixthlyjfit were a naturall Law founded upon the Creation, and 
binding man to keep a weekly holy day in thankfulnefle for his Crea- 
tion, and for the creatures made for his ufe, then it mould in all rea- 
ibn bind man to keep Holy the fix dayes in which God Created all 
things, andeipeciaily theiixthday wherinGod made man himfelfe 
and gave Jiim rule and dominion over all creatures. For holy cele- 
brations are kept weekly or yearly on the dayes in which the blef- 
fings arid benehts folcmnized and .celebrated were frft bellowed on 

Thcrfbre it is not a naturall Law grounded on the Creation. 
Laftly,Chnft came not to change the Law ofNature,norto take a- 
way any part of the obedience therof,but to elLblifh and fulfill it in e- 
very jot and title as he himfelfteftifieth^/^f.j.i^iS. 

And yet the Law of the Sabbath fo far as it requires keeping holy 
the feventhday, as the Fathers were bound in the old Teilament> * s 
changed by Chrift and by his refurreclion, in which he finifhed the 
work of redemption,and was exhibited a pei feci redeemer. And the 
obfervation of the ieventh and laft day of the week is aboliflied. 

And the fir ft day of the week even the day of Chrifts refurreclion 
is £ inclined and ibbftituted in the place of it, and fo was obferved by 
theApoftles,and after them by all trueChriftian Churches for theLords 
day, and for the Queen and chicfe Princefle of all dayes, as the blefTed 
Uzrtyr ^ati^cz\sh,Epift.adc^r^^j;os,pag. 3 u Therforeitis nota 
Law of nature printed and engraven in mans heart. 

I could alledge more realons,L 'it I hold this perfect number of fe- 
ven fufftcient for this prefent purp ->fe. I will therfore proceed to the 
next thing which is the difcovery or the feverall kinds of Laws,which 
God hath given to men,and the brief defenption of every kind particu- 
larly , by which I (hall come to demonftrate what kind this of the Sab- 
bath is. 


58 The Dofifrwe of the Sabbath. 

Chap. 1 1 


The dift- TPHE Laws of God which he hath given to men,are of two forts,ei- 
inBionof * tner ^ avvs printed in mans heart, which we call Laws of nature: 
Gods Or els po(itiveLaws,which God hath commanded in his word over 
l ms andabove,or befides the Laws of nature. 

The Law of nature is that will of God which he as Lord and Crea- 
tour hath imprinted in m ms heart in the Creation, even that naturall 
diipofifion which God gave to man, when he made him in his own I- 
mage,by which he doth inform man in the knowledge, and move him 
to the pra&ifeofall duties which belong to him,and which he requires 
of him,for naturall well-being and continuance in that life, and good 
eftate wherin he was created. 

The Law of nature may be diftinguifhed into two forts, the one is 
Generalland indefinite, which binds man definitely in a generallbond. 
The other is fpeciail and particular, which doth define and prefcribe 
fpeciall and particular duties and works to men. 

The generall and indefinite Lavv is this.That man being Gods crea- 
ture and having his whole being, life,motion and all things from God, 
offree gift,is in duty bound to obey God to the utmoft of his power in 
-all things whatfoever God either by naturall light, or by his word ci- 
ther hath revealed,orfhall at any time reveale and make known uiuo 
him,to be his will that he fhould do them.Thebond and obligation of 
this Law is very large,and reacheth through all Laws, and binds nasa 
to do whatfoever God commands by any Law whatfoever. 

The fpeciall definite and particular Law of nature, is that comman- 
ding will of God engraven in mans heart, and in his upright naturall 
difpo(ition,which directs man to know and mooves him to performe 
fuch fpeciall kinds ofduties and fucb particular works, as he ought to 
do and God reveals to him and declares to be his will that he fhould do 
them. c 

Ofthefe fpeciall Laws fome are primary, and fome are fecondary 
Laws of nature. 

A fpeciall primary Law of nature is the will ofGod,concerning fuch 
fpeciall duties and particular works, as mans own pure created nature 
and naturall difpofition did direel, lead and moove him unto, which 
his naturall reafon in the ftate of integrity did fliew unto him, 


The Dotfrine of the Sdkatb. 59 

and his pure naturall will and affections did moove and ftir him to per- Chap.* i 
forme. As for example,to know and acknowledgeGodforhisfolc Lord 
and Creator, and one only God ; tofervc and worfhip him with fuch 
worfhip and reverence as his pure reafbn taught him to be meet for 
God, to think and ipeake of God accordingly : to beare himfelfe to- 
wards the creatures, and to rule them according to thewifedome 
which God had given him, to increafeand multiply and to replenish 
and iubdne the earth and fuch like. 

A fecondary ibeciall law of nature, is a rule or precept concerning 
fuch fpeciall and particular duties and workes, as mans owne right 
reafon, or Gods word difcovers unto him, to be in their owne nature 
good and jufr, and profitable either for his owne naturall being and 
well-being, as the crfe now (lands with him fince his fall, or for 
any other good end and ufe agreeable to Gods revealed will. Asfor 
example, that men (hould not live idle, but labour paincfully to pro- 
vide for themfelves and families, this is a duty which was not known 
to m:m before his fall, but ever fince the enrfe wherewith God curfed 
the earth for mans finne, Gods wor^l requires it, and mans owne 
naturall reafon well informed, and his will and affections well {or- 
dered doe naturally move him to the performance of it for his naturall 

So divers negative precepts which forbid fuch evill and finnefull 
dccSs, as man never knew nor had any thought of them in xhe ftate of 
innocency, but now true naturall reafon, affefHon and conicience, 
teacherh and moveth man to hate and abhorrethem; they are lawes 
of this kind. 

And jf we fhould extend the law of nature to the utmoft,as many do, 
and bring under it every law which commands duties which are in 
their own nature juft and honeft and very ufefull and profitable to the 
doers and to others ; andferve directly and naturally for Gods glory. 
We might reduce to this kind of natundl laws, every poiltive morrall 
and perpetuall precept commanding anyjuft or holy work and duty 
which is juft initfelfe, though there were no expreiTe commande- 
ment given forthe doing c fit in Gods word. A pofitive law of God is 
that which God in his wifedome and by his word gives to man, by 
which he binds man to fome obedience which he of himfelfe by his 
own naturall wit and reafon would not have found out and difecrned 
to be good and juft, neither would have done or performed by thein- 

I 2 ftincl: 

6o The Doctrine of the Sabbath. 

Chap.ii ftin&ofnaturcand the motion of his will and affj&ion, forfuchan 
end as God hath appointed them unto. 

There are divers Laws and precepts of this kind, all which as they 
require that which God juftly and wifely wiileth man to do, and do 
command things which are in refpecT: of the prefent ftate and conditi- 
on good for man,fo they ail are after a generail manner included in the 
gcncrall Law of narure,and it binds men to obey them all. 

Oftfoefepolitivc Laws there are divers forts: Some are Politicall 
commanding things which tend to preferve and maintain good order, 
fociety and peace,not only between God the Crcatour and man his 
creature,but aifo between man and other creatures, and among men 
rhemfelves.Such was the Law which God gave to man,when he com- 
manded him under the pain of deatii to abftain from the fruit of the 
tree of know ledge of good and evill,andthatfora wife and juft end, 
even to put man in mind that he was uot abfolute Lord of ail the vif i- 
blc creatures,to ufe them at his pieafure,but that he was a fubordinate 
Lord and Ruler under God, and that all other trees, herbs and fonts 
which God allowed him to eat # of, were Gods free gift, ar>J aha to 
teach him, that he was chiefly and above all to look to the fervice of 
God and obedience of his will,and to omit the ferving of his own turn ., 
and the doing of that which his own will might moove him to do, 
when God at any time fhould call him another way. And of this kind 
are all the judiciall Laws,whith God gave to Jfrael by Cktofes for tlie 
well ordering of their common- wealth,and all precepts of obedience, 
which inferiours owe to fuperiorsin things lawfull and that for peace 
fake. Some pofitive Laws are Evangelicall and religious which com- 
mand works and duties tending to an holy, heavenly and fupernaturail 
end and ufe,fuch are all Laws and Commandements which God hath 
given upon occafion of Chrift revealed to man, and in and through 
Chnft which require daties, and fervice due to God as he is mans Re- 
deemer,and bind man as he expects benefit by Chnft the Mediator and 
Redeemer,to fuch works and fuch obedience as come to be of ufe m re* 
^>ecl: of Chnft. Thefe Evangelicall Laws are of two forts, i Some are 
univerfall and perpetuall requiring neceflary works and duties of all inch 
ess are to be laved by Chrift,2 Some are fpeciall and temporary, which 
require fome fpeciall fervice and works of obedience,and them of Tome 
$nly,and for fome times,and in fome condition of the Church. Perpe- 
tuaUand univerftlljE vangdioU Laws which bindail Gods redeemed 


The Doctrine of the Sabbath. 61 

ones, and require tilings necctfary to falvation by Chrift, are the com- Chap.i I 
mandementsofGod,by which he binds all men to repentance and re- 
formation of life, to godly forrovv and humiliation forfinne, tobe- 
leeve in Chrift under penalty of loofing falvation, and of perilling for 
ever,and condemned and catt into Hell for their (ins. Speciall or tem- 
porary lawes are they which bind men, or all men offome ages and in 
fome times to fome fpeciall icrvicc and worfhip, fit for the prefent 
ftatc and condition of the Church, or to fome duties and works which 
for the time are profitable to guide and lead men toChrift,and therforc 
are fandified of God and fet apart for that purpofe : fuch are the lawes 
andcommandementsof faenficing and bringing offerings and firft 
fruits to God, of oxen and fheep and other cleane beads and birds, and 
of the increafe of the earth^fome of which laws did bind all Gods peo- 
ple from the firft promife of Chrift even all the fathers from Adam un- 
till Mofes,md all Ifraell untill the comming of Chrift, fuch laws were 
that of Circumcifion given to Abraham, as a feale of the covenant 
which God made with him and his feed, and that of the PaflfeoYer, 
and of the firft borne, and all Leviticall ceremoniall lawes, given 
to Ifraell by the hand of Mofes, and fuch are the commandements 
of Baptifmeand the Lords Supper, which bind all Chriftians under 
the Gojpell. 

There are alfo be/ides tbofc fcverall kindes of lawes, fome mixt 
lawes, and of thefe fome are partly and in fome refpeds naturall, 
becaufc they bind men to fome duties unto which nature binds them ; 
and in fome rcipecls civill, for they require things which tend to 
civill , order and govemement ; and partly in J&me refpeds alio 
evangelicall, commanding things which tend to falvation in Chrift. 
Some arc partly morrall and ptrpetuall in that they require morrall 
duties which are ncceffiry and ufefull at all times to the end of the 
world ; and partly ceremoniall and temporay in that they require 
obedience in things which are ufefull only in fome cafes and at iome 
times. As for example the law which God gave from mount Sim, 
arid wrote it in tables of ftone, it doth bind men not only to all mor- 
rall duties which were engraven in mans heart in the creation, to 
wit,all duties which man did owe to God as to his only Creator, and 
to m«n as fellow creatures ; but alio to fuch further duties and degrees 
of obedience as man doth owe to God his only Saviour and Redeemer 
in Chrift, and to men and Angels as his fellow krvants bretheren 

I 3 and 

6i The Dotfrine of the Sabbatb t 

Chap.i i and members of one and the fame foirituall body under the fame 
head Cbriil. 

And therefore God preiTeth and urgeth obedience to that law, at 
the giving thereofyipon this confideration and for this rcafbn, becaufe 
he is the Lord God the Redeemer and deliverer, who as he delivered 
thenaturall Uracil from ^Egyptian bondage, fo by that typicall deli- 
verance did fbreihew and prefigure the ipirituall redemption of all 
the fpirituall Ifraeli from all fpirituall bondage under finne, the world 
and the Divell. 

To love God above all, and a mans neighbour as himfelfe, to honour 
Parents, and to fpeake truth of every one, to give leave to every one 
freely to enjoy his own,and many f,ich d Jties required in the ten com- 
mandements are naturall,and nature bound man to them m innocency, 
and in refpecl of them that law is naturall. 

But to bcleeve in God as a Redeemer, to vilit and comfort the nek 
and diilrtffed, to honour Parents, Pallors, Superiours, as fathers in 
Chrift, and divers duties of negative precepts, as not to make Images 
of God, not to pollute Gods name by vainefvvearing and fuch like, 
the knowledge and thoughts of which man had not in his heart by 
nature in the creation, which come into the world by naturall cor- 
ruptions, and man was not fubjeel to them untill he was fednced 
and fallen, and brought into bond.ige by Satan, they are positively 
morrall, and as the law commands them, it is apoilti.emoirdilaw, 
yea in refpecl of fome of them Evangel ica 11. And as reverence and 
refpecl: tocivillMagiitratesand men of higher place, as they arefu- 
periousand men of greater power and authority (which difference 
and inequality came in by mans fill, and flowes from Gods distri- 
bution of his common gifts in a different manner and meafure ) as I 
fay this honour given to them as chili rulers, ruling for our good and 
the good of the common wealth, is commanded in this law fo it is 
civ ill. And hilly as all ceremoniall and religious ordinances, and out- 
ward (ignificative fervice and worfhip finclified by God, and appoin- 
ted as mod rit for the time and feafon, receive their originall authority, 
and firft llrength from that law given from mount Sina> efpecially 
from the cammandement w hich binds man to obey God as his Creator 
and Redeemer in all ordinances fo far as he requires, fo and in this re- 
fpecl this law is ceremoniall and binds to obedience temporary, fit for 
the feafon and opportunity. 


The Doctrine of the Sabbath. 63 

In like manner the commandement which the Lord Chrift hath gi- Chap. 1 1 
ven in the Goipell, for baptifing of Chriftians, and for the adminiftra- 
tion and receiving of the Sacrament of his body and blood, as they 
command an outward Sacramentall wafhing with water,and a bodily 
eating of bread and drinking of wine, which have becne ofufe only 
fince the comming of Chrift, and not from the beginning, fo they are 
ceremoniall and temporary. I or what foe ver ordinances are in uic in 
the Church of God for a feafon only,that is>during the time of the Gof- 
pell they are ceremoniall, becnufe to remaine only for a feafon, is the 
true and proper fignification of the word Ceremonla: which is com- 
pounded of the Greek words xcti?of, which (ignifies a fet time or feafon, 
and ucvofy which (ignihes only, or rather ^mv which fignifies to abide or 
remaine.But becaufe the time of the Goipell is perpetuall unto the end 
of the world,and they are commanded to be obferved of all Chriftians 
all the time ofthc Goipell, m this refpecl thefe Commandements may 
be called univerfall and perpetuall. And as in thefe and all other cere- 
monies ordained by God,there are required befides the outward bodily 
rites and actions, many fpirituall duties, as inward reverence and holy 
affaftions of the heart ,faith in Chrift and the bleded Trinity, beleeving 
of the covenant, commemoration of Chrift andhisbenefits,confeiTion 
©f three perfons in one God, and the eye of faith looking chiefly to the 
fpirituall things h'gnificd.j, fo the commandement and law enjoyning 
them-mw juftlyb'S efteemei pofitively and cvangellically morrall. 
Thus much for the divers and feverall kinds of Gods lawes which he 
hath given to men. -^ 

I proceed to that which is themaine thing here intended, that is,to 
fhew what kind of law the commandement of the Sabbath is,and un- 
der which of thefe feverall kinds it is comprehended. And in a word 
I hold it to be ofthc laft kind,to wit : a mixt law that is partly natu- 
rall,and partly po(!tive,both civill and Evangelicall, and not only uni- 
, verfall and perpetuall, but alfo fpeciall and ceremoniall,and fo indeed it 
takes part of all kinds of lawes which God hath given men,and which 
are mentioned in the Scriptures, which thing becaufe the learned have 
not heretofore obferved nor well confidered, but ibme have call: their 
eyes upon the common ground of this law printed in mans heart in 
the creation, and finding it among the ten Commandements which 
are generally held to be the fumme and fubftance of the law of nature, 
doe call it a law of nature. 


5 1 7 he Dotfrine of the Sabbath 

Chap.n Others have considered it as a fpeciall commandcmcnt given by 
God immediately after the Creation by word of mouth and not writ- 
ten in mans heart ,and doe call it a pofitive morall Law. Others have 
conlidered it as it commands reft on the the feventh day, now alte- 
red by Chrift, which reft was a flgne of Chriftsrcft from the work 
of Redemption and is a token and pledge ofeternall reft in Heaven, 
and therupon hold it to be a ceremonial! Law : and hence arifeth the 
diveriity among Chriftians,and almoft civiil warre between the Pa- 
ftours of feverall Churches, yea and among learned Preachers of one 
and the fame Church : Wheras indeed they all hold the truth in part 
but not wholly : They all erre in this, that they limit it every one,ro 
that fpeciall kind of Law, which he hath chiefly in his eye and upon 
which he hath fet his conceit : Now make it a mixt Law and proove 
it manifeftly^nd there needs no more contention, except fbme men 
will contend without caufe and againft reafon out of a fpiric of con- 
tention and contradiction. 

Firft,this Law as all other Laws is indefinitely comprehended in the 
generall Law of nature,for the generall Law written in mans heart in 
the Creation,binds him to attend the will of God,and to be rea#y to 
obey God his Creatour in all things whatfoever he either had already 
declared^r fhould at any time to come reveaie to be his will, and to 
be a duty which he required of man. And thorfore the obfervin^ all( j 
keeping of a weekly holy Sabbath &devcting.ofa feventh part of every 
week to religious exercifes and to reft from bodily labour and common 
worldly bufinefle,being exprefly commanded by God and declared -at 
feverall times and upon feverall occafions to be his will, man is by the 
genera] Law of nature bound to perform it,and in this reipccT: we may 
truly lay that the Law of the Sabbath is a Law of nature, included in- 
definitely in that general! Law and dictate of nature written in mans 
heart in the Creation. 

Secondly ,though I cannot conceive that the keeping of an holy Sab- 
bath weekly, was a thing fo diftintfly written in mans heart "in the 
Creation,thatmanofhimfelfby the inftinct of his nature, or by the 
light ofhisreafon and morion of his will, would have kt either the 
feventh day or any other of the £ven day es of the week apart for reft 
or other duties of the Sabbath, which God in the firft inftitution re- 
quired,and commanded alfo in his Law given from Mount Sim : Yet 
becaufeths keeping holy of a weekly Sabbath upon mch grounds as 


ibe VBctvwe of the Sabbath. 65 

are mentioned in this text, and foe fuch ends and ufes as God hath or- Chap.i £ 
dained, to wit: commemoration of Gods mercy and bounty in promi- 
sing Chrift, preferving the knowledge and memory of the covenant of 
eternall life, and reft in Chrift, training up of people in religion, the 
feare and worfhip of God, and in holinefle, by which they are made 
fit to fee and enjoy God in glory, becaufe I fay, the keeping holy of a 
weekly Sabbath is in thefe refpccls a thing very good and profitable, 
yea and neceflary for the helpe of man and for the repairing of his na- 
ture corrupted. A man as now the cafe ftands with him fince the fail, 
muft needs by the light of nature which remaines in him, know the 
weekly Sabbath to be a thing very juft and a wife and holy ordinance 
of God, and theparticular law of the Sabbath comes under the fpeciall 
and fecondary law of nature. 

Thirdly, ir\ve co e la w of the weekly Sabbath as it was gi- 

ven by • od in the fifft infl itution, and in his bieffing and fanclifying 
of the feventh day, andagaine renewed and inlerted among the ten 
Commandements given from mount Sina : and at other times upon 
divers occMions repeated' Ly (Jl-fo/es a nd by the Prophets from Gods 
mouth, If ' vc aUb confider that neither the Sabbath it felfc, nor the 
ground, region and occaf ion of it, (to w it : ' od.s perfecting the crea- 
tion, by prcmiZing 1 and revealing redemption in Chrift, and the reft 
which i have before prooved and demonftrafed ) were written in 
mans heart in innocency,but were after mans fall revealed by od,and 
thereupon the holy reft commanded to be kept on that day which God 
above other dayes hathblelTed andfandificd. We may truly affirme 
that the commandeirrnt of the Sabbath in thefe refoeds is apolitive 
laWofGoJ, and not a law of nature requiring fuch particular duties 
as man of himfelfe without Gods pofitive commandemenr would 
haveobferved. Yea the word (Memento, remember) fo often added to 
the precept of the Sabbath,as appeaies Sxod.10.%. doth pi duly /hew 
that the keeping holy of a weekly Sabbath, was not a thing printed in 
mans heart, for then it had been vaineand needier!- for God fo often 
to ufe this word Remember, and to put them in mind of this duty by 
Mofes Mid the Prophets, mans own confeience would have been his 
daily and continuall monitor and remembrancer, and his owne 
thoughts would have beene ready toaccufe him for every omiftion 
md negleclof it. As the Apoftlc teftifiesof the workofthc law writ- 
ten in mans heart, Rom.z.if, 

K toiythly 

66 The Votfrine of the Sabbath, 

Fourthly, if wc confider the law of the Sabbath as it commandeth 
man, together with his children, fervants and labouring cattcll to reft 
from their wearifbme labours and bodily paine ; which came in by fin, 
and by mans fall, together with fervile fubje&ion and difference of 
the Matter and fervant, which weekly reft and intermiilion from 
toyle and labour granted to fervants and cattell by their Mailers as well 
astothemfelves, makes very much for good order in every ftateand 
common wealth, and for peace and fociety among men, and in every 
family, and ferves for an excellent civill and politicall ufe, fo it is in 
the judgement of many learned and godly Divines, not without good 
reafon held to be a civill and politicall law. 

Fiftly, if we confider. Firft the time of Gods firft inftitution of the 
Sabbath,as it fals under Chrift,even upon the leventh day of the world, 
in which Chrift was promifed to redeeme man who was fallen in the 
latter end of the fixt day, as is before mewed. Secondly, if we confider 
the sround and reafon of Gods inftitution of the Sabbath and of fm- 
clifying the feventh day, even Chrift promifed to become the feed of 
the woman,and to breake theferpents head, by whofe adtunll underta- 
king and beginning to mediate for man, God did perfeft the mutable 
work of creation,and fetled the world in an higher eftate of perfection 
fupernaturall, and did reft in Chrifts mediation, being that which was 
able to give full fatisfacfion to his juftice. 

Thirdly, if we confider that in the firft inftitution, the Sabbath day 
was fanctified and bleffed above the other fix dayes : that is y was ict 
apart to heavenly and fupernaturall ufe; which cannot be imagined but 
in and under Ghrift in whom all tilings areiancf ified . We muft needs 
know and confeffethat the commandement of the Sabbath even in 
and from the firft originall and institution, is alaw Divine and evan- 
gelicall, commanding fuch an obfervation and fervice, as is of 
ufe onely in and under Chrift, and mainly tends to lead men to fal- 
vation in him. 

Sixtly, if we confider the neceflity of refting one whole day in eve- 
ry weeke from all our worldly affaires. Firft that with one confent 
the Church and congregation of Gods people may all generally meet 
together in their fet places of holy affemblies, to heare and learne the 
Doit rinc of falvation and word of life, and to honour God with pub- 
lick holy worfhip and fervice,and with joynt prayers to call upon him 
in the name and mediation of Chrift for all bleilings. Secondly, that 


The Doctrine of the Sabbath. 6-j 

every man may inftruft his family in private alio at home, and by con- Chap.i x 
flant exerciiing of them a whole day together in religious duties eve- 
ry weeke, may make them to grow and incrcalc in grace and religion 
and in knowledge and skill to order and direel all their weeke dayes 
labours to Gods glory ,their own falvation, and the comfort and pro6t 
of their Chrift ian bretheren. Without which religious obfervation 
once every week at the leaft, efpecially upon the particular day of the 
week, which God hath bleifcd with the mod memorable work be- 
longing to mans redemption, it is not pofliblc for people to be well 
ordered in a Chriftian Church, nor Gods holy worfhip to be either 
generally known or pubiickly pradifed, nor the vulgar fort of Chrifti- 
anstobebroughttothe knowledge and profeilion and pradife of true 
religion neceffary co falvation : Thefc things I fay con(idered,we muft 
neceifarily grant that the law of the Sabbath is an Evangelicall, uni- 
verf all and perpetirll law,fuch as the commandements of beleeving in 
Chrift,repenting from dead works, reforming of our lives, worfhip- 
pihg and invocatingdf God in the name and mediation of Chrift, and 
by the motion and direction of his holy Spirit all which commande- 
ments bind all Gods people cf all Churches and ages from the firft day 
wherein Chrift was promifed in one mcafure or other. So that with- 
out obedience in fome degree unto thefe Evangelicall lawes, it is not 
poflible for any man to be and to continue a true child of God, and to 
attaine falvation in and by Chrift. 

And this law thus far and in thefe refpects considered, can no more 
be abrogated and abolilhed, then Gods covenant of redemption and 
falvation made with man- kind in Chrift, but all man-kind even every 
one whofeekes falvation in Chrift, is at all times and in all ages bound 
to obferve this law of finetifying a feventh day in every week, and of 
refting from all worldly affaires, that they may ferve and worfhip and 
feek God in Chrift. 

Laftly, if we confider the Lords Sabbath as it is fignificative, even a 
fignetous oftheeternall Sabbath in Heaven, and as it is in refpeetof 
the particular day of the week and fome ceremoniall worfhip ufed in 
it, changableand mutable according to the changes and motions of 
Chrift the foundation and Lord of it, and according to the feverall 
eftates of Gods Church, and Gods feverall difpenfations cf themi- 
fteries of falvation, and feverall wayes of revealing Chrift in the old 
andncwTcftament, and before and after thecomming of Chrift in 

K 2 the 

68 "The Dottrine of the Sabbath. 

Chap.i i the flefh. We muft of necefllty confeffe, that the law of the Sabbath is 
in thefe refpe&s a Ceremoniall law, commanding things which are 
temporary and mutable, and fitted for fomc times and feafons only. 

Firft as it commanded the feventh day of the week to be kept holy, 
as the moft holy day, becaufe therein Chrift was promifed to be the 
redeemer of the world,and God refted in his mediation, and perfected 
the creation by bringing in redemption, which was the greateft bkf- 
fing of the old Teftament. And as it required hallowing of the day by 
facrifices and other outward fervice and worfhip, which were types 
and figures of Chrift to come, and by preaching and rehearfing the 
promifes of Chrift out of the law and Prophets, beleeving in the Sa- 
viour to come and meditating on the eternall reft in Heaven; So it was 
a ceremoniall and temporary law, and did ftand in force and bind all 
Gods people to the observation of the lad day of the weeke, all the 
time of the old Teftament untill Chrift was fully exhibited a per feci 
Redeemer in his refurreetion. And it was not in the power of the 
Church to change the Sabbath to any other day of the week, that 
power refted in Chrift the foundation and Lord of the Sabbath. It alio 
bound the faithfull of thefe times, to the ceremoniall fanctification, 
and to that typicall fervice which looked towards Chrift to come, 
as well as to the feventh day only and no other, during that nonage 
of the Chu-ich. 

Secondly, as the law of the Sabbath (which requires that day to be 
kept for an holy reft in which God hath revealed the greaceft Welling 
and lo hath blcffed it above all other dayes of the week) doth now ever 
(ince the perfecting of the work of redemption in Chnfts refurrection, 
bind all Gods people to keep for their Sabbath the firft day of the 
week which by Chrifts victory over death obtained fully in that very 
day, became the moft blefled day above the feventh day and all other 
dayes of the week. And as under the name of hallowing and keeping 
holy the Lords Sabbath, it en joynes fuch worfhip as God requires of 
bis Church in her full age and more perfect eftate, to wit : fprrituall 
facrifices of praife and [hankfgiving, preaching and teaching faith in 
Chrift crucified and fully exhibited a perfect redeemer, praying unto 
God in the name and mediation of Chrift, and feeking accede unto 
the I ather in him by one Spirit. And as this law impofeth this holy 
weekly Sabbath, tobeapledgto the faithfull, of that Sabbath ifme of 
eternall reft in Heaven which remaineth for the people of God., as the 
Apoftle teftiricthjH^.^Q. So 

The Do cir we of the Sabbath. 69 

So this law is like the commandements of Baptifme and the Lords Chap.i 2 
Supper. 1 1 is ceremoniall commanding fiich duties to be performed, 
and fuch a day to be obferved as are fitted to the time and ieafbn of the 
Gofpell, and yet it is fo ceremonial], as that it is alio perpetuall, bin- 
din* 7 all Chriftians during the fcafori and time of the Church in the 
newTeftament and under theCiofpell, that is, perpetually to the end 
of the world, untill we come to the eternall reft in Heaven. And as 
there (hall be no changes in Chrift, nor of the ft ate of the Church an* 
till Chrift (hall come in glory to receive us into that et email reft : So 
there (hall be no change of the Sabbath to any other day of the week, 
neither hath the Church or any other whatfoever, any power to alter 
either the day or the fancti heat ion and obfervation ofit,no more then 
to bring in fuch an other change in Chrift,and fuch an alteration of the 
eftate of the Church, as that was from Chrift promifed and obfeurely 
revealed in the old Teftament,to Chrift fully exhibited, and with open 
face (hewed in the Gofpell, and from the Church in her nonage under 
the rudiments of the world, to the Church brought to full age by the 
Gofpell preached and received in all nations. 


NOw having difcovered the feverall kinds of laws, and commande- 
ments which God hath given to men, and having (hewed what 
kind of law this is which God hath given for the obfervation of the 
weekly Sabbath, and how and in what manner it binds thefonnesof 
Adam in all ages,fome in one kind and fome in another,and Adam and 
all his pofterity in fome refpe&s. There remaines yet for all that hath 
been faid bcfore,*one fpeciall point to be more fully prooved. 1 hat is 
concerning the change of the Sabbath from the feventh to the firft day, 
what ground and warrant we have for it,and how the law of God (by 
which God fet apart the feventh day in the firft inftitution, andftill in 
the fourth Commandement and other repetitions of that law by Mofes 
mentions the feventh day for the weekly Sabbath) can bind us Chrilti- 
ans to keep holy the Lords day,or warrant us to make it our'Sabbath. 

For the more full manifeftation and proofe of this point, and fatisfy- 
ing of all doubts : I will by the light ofGods lacred word, and by the 
helps which I (hall find in the writings and fayings of the beft learned 
feoth ancient and rnoderne Chriftian divines, do my beft endeavour to 

K 3 fticw 

7° The Doflrint of the Sabbath. 

Chap.i 2 flaew and proove that the Lords day,which is the firft of the weekend 
the day of Chrifts refurredrion, the fitteft day ofall the feven to be the 
holy weekly Sabbath of Chriilians ; That God before and in the firft 
giving of the law of the Sabbath, did intend and forefee the change 
and the grounds of the change of it to the firft day ; that God by Chrift 
hath changed it. And that the law of the Sabbath in the maine duties 
which it requires, is more fully and in abetter and more excellent 
manner obeyed by Chrifiians in their obfervation of the Lords day,and 
keeping it for the holy reft : then it was by the fathers ofthe Old Te- 
ftament,in their keeping ofthe feventh and laft day ofthe week, for 
their holy reft and weekly Sabbath. 

Firft to proove the convenience and fitnefie ofthe Lords day to be 
the Sabbath under the Golpell above all other dayes, we have di- 
vers arguments. 

The firft I frame thus. That day which is the firft of day cs, and the 
firft fruits of time efpecially ofthe time of grace,is the fitteft to be the 
Lords holy day above all other dayes ofthe weeke, in and under the 
time of grace. The Lord himfelfe teacheth this for a plaine truth, re- 
quiring the firft fruits ofall things for an holy cff; ring to himfelfe uiv 
der the law, and from the beginning when he taught Adam, and A- 
dam did teach his fonnes Cain and Abell^o bring facrifices of firftlings 
and firft fruits for offerings to hirnit/ekqt Now the Lords day which is 
the firft day ofthe week is the firft of ali dayes in the world. In it God 
began the creation, made the higheft Heavens which is the place of 
bleflednclTe and the heavenly Hoft, alfo the common malTe and matter 
ofthe whole vifible and inferior world, and the chiefeft and moll 
glorious element, the light, that is, the fiery Heavens ; with the firft 
beginning of the creation, this day began, andfo it is the firft fruits 
ofall times created, and although in the creation, and during the 
ftate of innocency the firft fruits were no more holy then the reft of 
the lump, or maile, and fmctifying of things to holy ufe, came in by 
Chrift and with the firft prom ife of him, and the firft time of Chrilt 
revealed being the feventh day, was to be the holy Sabbath all the 
time in which Chrift was onely promifed and not given : Yet now 
feeing by the refurreclion of Chrift, in which Chrift was exhibited 
a perfecl: Redeemer, and became the firft fruits of them that fleepe, 
the firft day of the weeke and of the world which was onely the 
firft fruits of time before, is by Gods providence become the firft day 


The Dofirwe of the Sabbath. 7* 

and firft fruits of the time of grace under Chrift a perfect Redeemer. Chap. I 
Therforcthe firft day which is now the firft fruits of time both in the 
creation and under per feci: redemption, which doth perfect andfan- 
difie the creation,is now the fitted of all the d.wes in the weeke to be 
the Lords holy Sabbath. And it is againft all re; ion for any to think any 
other day fo fit to be offered up for the firft fruits of every week, ani of 
our times to God, as this day which is the day of the Lord Chrift, who 
is the true firft fruits of all creaturrs, and doth landifie the whole 
maffe and lump of man-kind, and all other creatures which are ga- 
thered unto God in him. In which day Chrift arofe from death and 
became the firft fruits of them thatilccp : that by the virtue of his re- 
furredion he might fandifie the very grave to them that Qeep in him, 
and might raife them up as to grace in this life, fo alfo to glory at the 
laft day in the generall refurredion. 

Secondly that day wherin the place of eternall reft and of the evcr- 
lafting Sabbath (which after this world ended,remaines for the people 
of God) was created and brought into being, and wherin eternall reft 
was purchafed, and the way opened into that reft, muft needs in the 
judgement of reafonablc men be the fitted day for the weekly Sabbath, 
which is to all Gods people a furefigne and pledge of eternall reft and 
of their everlafting Sabbath in Heaven, which weekly Sabbath is to be 
kept holy andfandified by meditations on Heaven and heavenly reft, 
and by fuch holy exercifes of religion, as do fit and prepare us for the 
life of glory in Heaven.Now the firft day of the week is the day wher- 
in God created the place of eternall reft, even the higheft Heavens, 
which are from eternity decreed and ordained to be the place in 
which his elect fhall keep their eternall Sabbath after this life. 

In this day alfo Chrift arofe from death, perfected redemption, and 
refted from that worke by which he procured eternall life and Hea- 
venly glory for Gods people, upon this day he opened the way to the 
Holy of Holies, and made his firft enterance both in his own flefh,and 
alfo for all his members into that life eternall and that reft which they 
with him fhall enjoy in the heavenly manfions.Therfore undoubtedly, 
this day of all the dayes of the week moft fit and worthy to be kept an 
holy Sabbath of reft, and to be fandified with meditations on Heaven 
and heavenly glory, and with other exercifes of religion which fit 
men for eternall reft in Heaven. 

I Thirdly, that day wherein God firft created the light of this inferi- 

The Doctrine of the Sabbath 

Ch Di2 or viliblc world, and wherin the light ofthc vifiblc Heavens did (hinc 
' forth, when it is once bleffed with the nfing up of a>greater and more 
glorious iight,even the Son of rightcoufnesjlt is ofall daies become the 
geieft and moll: worthy to be the Lords holy weekly Sabbatb,which is 
to be hallowed by meditating upon the inheritance of the Saints in 
lio-ht,and by fuch holy exercifesas tend to make men meet to be parta- 
kers thereof. Now the firft day of the week, the Lords day is the day 
wherin God firft created the light of the vinble world, even the fiery 
Hea\ens which fhine forth ever fin ce, and give light to theinferiour 
world,fo it is teftified gen. 1.3 .And on this day Chrift theLord,the Son 
of righteoufneffe did rife up, and did bring to light immortallity and 
eternall life,and became the great and glorious light of the world. 

Therefore this day is the fitteft and moil: worthy to be the holy 
weekly Sabbath, and to be fpent in meditation upon, and feekingfor 
the inheritance of the Saints in light. 

Fourthly, that day which hath not only the f me grounds and reafons 
in it, upon which God firft founded the Sabbath, and fanclified the fe- 
venth day , but alio divers additions of the fame kind which make the 
grounds and reafons more forcible and excellent, that is, molt fit and 
worthy to be the holy weekly Sabbath ; and fuch is the firft day of the 
week, and hath been ever fince it became the Lords day, by the Lord 
Chrift his refurreclion. For proofe wherof confider the grounds and 
reafons upon which God finCtiiied the feventh day. 1 .Gods ending or 
perfecting his created work. 2 .Gods refting from that work. 3 .Gods 
blefllng of the feventh day by revealing on it the greateft bleffi n |, far 
above any given in the creation. Thefe are the grounds here laid down 
in my text, which are rehavftd againe by God in the fourth comrnan- 
doment of the law. And another reafon dra wh from the end and ufe of 
the Sabbath is alfo added, £>. 3 l,*3.& 1 2. to wit: that the Sabbath 
misjht be aJigne and token from God tk'kt he is their CjodVeho do&fin- 
eiijU them, that is, by giving his Holy Spirit with aH faving graces in 
this life unto them in Chrift, doth fit them for the fruition and fight of 
his glory in the eternall reft in Heaven, and io makes the weekly Sab- 
bath a pledge of the eternall Sabbath in the world to come Mo. Now 
the godly learned heretofore who had no thought of founding the 
Sabbath on Chrift promifed on the feventh day of the world, they do 
underftand Gods ending of his work, to be either the finifhing of the 
creation on the feventh day by adding fome perfection or caturall blef- 


The Bottrine of the Sabbath. 7$ 

(ingto the creatures more then he had given on the fix dayes. Or Chap.12 
clfe that God had already ended and perfected his work before the 
feventh day, and for this caufc blefied and fan&ified the feventh day for 
a memoriall of the creation of the world, and all things therein made 
perfect and compleat and fo appearing on that day. And by Gods 
reftingon the feventh day from all his workwhich he created and 
made, they und er (land nothing elfe but Gods reft of meere cetfation, 
and becaufe this was the day wherein God having finished his work, 
and made all things good, had no occafion to work any more by way 
of creation, but refted from making more kinds of creatures. There- 
fore God commanded man to reft after his example every feventh day, 
and to keep it for a weekly Sabbath. And by Gods blcfting of the fe- 
venth day, they do underftand Gods fanctifying of it to be a figne and 
pledge of the cternall reft. 

Thcfe being the grounds and rcafons (in the opinion ofthe learned) 
upon which God fandified the feventh day, are in a more excellent 
meafure to be found in the firft day ofthe week, on which day the Lord 
Chrift rofe from death.For firft the Lord Chnft who is the Lord of the 
Sabbath, on that day ended a greater work then the creation, even the 
great wo#of redemption which on that day he did perfect and finifti, 
by the laft and higheft act of it, even his resurrection in which he got 
the victory and triumphed over death the laft enemy, and over him 
who had the power of death, that is theDivell, anddidfhewtothc 
world that he nad fully paid the ranfome & price of mans redemption, 
fatisfied juftice, and wrought and fulfilled all righteoufnes, fufficient to 
juftifie all that beleeve in him, and to fettle them in Gods favour for c- 
ver.So that here is a better ending and hnifhing of a better work then 
that of the creation was, .which did perfect the mutable work of crea- 
tion, and fo here is a better ground of fanctifying the day in which it 
came to pa(le,as divers learned writers have rightly obferved. 

Secondly, on this day the Lord Chrift entered into abetter reft,thcn 
any from the creation can be: he refted from all his laboures,paines and 
fufferings,and all works which Gods infinite juftice required for mans 
redemption by way offatisfaclion^^.^io. 

And he took pofleffion of etemall reft for himfelfe as the head, and 
for his body the whole Church and for every elect member thereof! 

So that this refting is a far more excellent ground arid reafon ofthe 
fanftifying of this day to be the weekely Sabbath. Yea though I do 

L by 

74. The. Vottrine of the Sabbath* 

by Gods perfe&ing of his work,underftand his perfecting of the work 
which was marred and defaced by mails fall, even the work of crea- 
tion, and his making of it more perfect: and compleate,by his promising 
of Chrifit, and by Chrifts undertaking and beginning his acluall medi- 
ation, andfirft bringing in of fupernaturall perfection ; And by Gods 
refting I underftand his refting io fully and wholy in Chrifts media- 
tion, and in his fatisfacTion undertaken for the repairing and per- 
fecting of the world, which man by his fill had brought under vanity 
and corruption, that he put from him all thoughts and purpofes of 
going about any new work of creation for the repairing thereof and 
ibis faid toreir, as I have before fully prooved : Yet I mull confefle 
that on the Lords day, which is the flrft of the week, in which Chrift 
did rife from death, God did more fully and excellently per feci all his 
work and brought in a reft, which doth fo far excel! that perfecting 
of his work and refting from creation on thefirftleventhday, as the 
acluall performance of a prom ife, and giving aid fulfilling of a good 
thing promifed,undertaken and begun^doth excell thepromiieand the 
undertaking and beginning of it. And therfore I will be bold upon 
thefegrounds and premifes to conclude with the bclVfearned both of 
the ancient Fathers and moderne divines, That there is mcttt con veni- 
ency and fTtnefle in the Lords day, the firft day of the weeke to be. the 
Lords holy weekly Sabbath now under the Gofpell. And there are 
more excellent grounds and fare reafons for the fandlifying of it, then 
any which are named or can be found in the feventh day which was 
the Sabbath oftheoldTeftament : yea this day by means of Chrifts re- 
furrecTion to glory in it,is thefureft pledge and token which outward- 
ly can be given to Gods Church and people, that God who raifed him 
up,is by him fully appealed, fatisfied and reconciled to his people, and 
is the Lord who doth fanctifie them and will bring them to glory. 

And thus I paffefrom the conveniency and fitnes of the Lords day, 
which is the firft of the wcek,to (new the change of the Sabbath unto 
that day both in Gods intention and purpofe from the beginning, and 
alfo actually in the fulnefTe of time by the glorious refurrection of the 
Lord Chrift upon that day. 

Where by Gods afliftance I fhall make it appeare. That this change 
©f the Sabbath to the Lords day is no humane invention, or Eccldi- 
afticall tradition, but a thing which God the law-giver did purpofe 
<Mjd intend frana all eternity, attd foretoW by the Trophscs, and by 


7he Dotfrtnc of the Sabbath, 75 

divers (ignesforefhewcd of old, and in fulnelTe of time did by his Son Chap.12 
Chrift the Lord of the Sabbath,command and aclually bring to paiTc. 

For $*. Augufline and divers other learned men have heretofore Sera*. 1 ft, 
obierved.That God by fome notable things which he in his wifedome de um^m. 
made to concurre in the firft day of the creation, did plainly forefhew 
in the beginning before the feventh day was fan&ified, or the law of 
the Sabbath given, that it was his purpofe and will, and he in his eter- 
nal! counfell had determined to advance in fulnelTe of time, that day 
above all other dayes of the week to the honour of the holy weekly 
Sabbath, to be a day of meditation on the eternallreft in Heaven, and 
a pledge to his people of the cverlafting Sabbathifme, which there 
remaines for them, and to be the firft fruits of their time offered unto 
God in C hrift and fan&iheu :r > him. 

Thofe notable things are the three things before named. 1 . That 
God made that day the firft fruites of all time. 2. Created in it the 
place of eternallreft the higheft Heaven, in which the bleiTed Saints 
(hall enjoy their bleffed Sabbath wherofthe weekly Sabbath is ailgne 
and pledge to them in this lire. 3. In it he created the light of this 
Yifible world,which things concurring in one and the fame day :(God 
in his wifedome fo ordering it, who doth nothing in vaine but every 
thing for fome wife purpofe ) and being good reaibns to proove, and 
grounds to make that day the fitteft to be fanclified in Chrift, and 
made the Chriftian Sabbath, as I have before noted, the learned from 
thence do gather,and not without good reafon : That from t're begin- 
ning God intended for this day the honour of his weekly Sabbath, in 
the time of the glorious Gofpell. 

Secondly, divers of the Ancients have obierved. That God rain- 
ing Manna firft from Heaven to Ifraell on the firft day of the week in 
the wilderneiTe : as we read Exod.\6. did thereby forefhew that this 
was the day which he had appointed to be the day of the Lord Chrift, 
even the day wherinhe who is the heavenly Kanna and bread of life 
ftiould be given from Heaven in his incarnation, and the day in which 
hefhould come out of the fornace of fiery afflictions, and be made a 
ftrong bread & nourifhment by his refurrecl:io:i,ableto feed our foules 
fpirirually to life eter nail. And from hence they infer, with the appro- 
bation of di\ers grave Divines and lchoolemen of Jater times, that 
God did of old intend and purpofe to make this da) 1 (m the times of the 
Gofpell after Chrift fully exhibited and given unto us, to be the bread 

L 2 of 

76 The Dottrim of the Sabbath, 

Chap.i 2 oflife and heavenly Manna ) his holy weekly Sabbath and day of fpiri- 
tuall provifion, wherin Chriftians fhould make their weekly proviiion 
of fpirituall fbod,and heavenly Manna to kcd their foules. 

Thirdly, divers of the Ancient fathers have obferved, and divers 
both Schoolemen and godly learned writers of the reformed Church 
therein confent with them, That the Lord did of old by his Spirit 
fpeaking in the Prophets, foretell the change of the holy Sabbath 
from the feventh to the flrft day of the week, the Lords day, and day 
ofChrifts refurrecTion. The bleffed Martyr Ignatius (who lived and 
was growne in the knowledge of ChrilHanity in the time of the 
Apoftles,and before the death of S\John the Evangeliftas he himfelfe 
teftifies) doth in his Epiftle to the CWAgnefians, not only arfirme that 
the Lords day is theQueeneand fupreme Lady of all dayes, butalfo 
endeavours to proove, that God from the dayes of old had ordained 
it to be the true Chriftian Sabbath, and did forefhew fo much by the 
words of the Prophet T>^vld in the title ofthefixth Pfalme, wherein 
it is called a Pfalme unto the eighth day, that is,in honour of the Lords 
day, which as it is the firft of the week, counting from the creation 
every week feverally by it felfe, and the feventh if we begin our ac* 
count with the next day after the Lords day, as the J ewes did with 
the next after their Sabbath. 

So if we reckon forward from the beginning of the creation into an 
other week it is the eight day. And alio learned Auguftine and others 
of the fathers,as alio divers late writers do in this point concurre with 
him, and affirinethatGod moovingZ)<*wV/to make fuch honourable 
mention of the eighth day, did forefhew his purpofe & will,to change 
that day by Cbriits refurreclioninto bis holy Sabbath. Some alfo from 
Gods inftitution ofcircumcifion on the eighth dayafrerthe birth of 
the child which was to be circumcifed, do gather that the eight day, 
after the birth of the world, to wit,the Lords day was before ordained 
of God to be not only the day of Chrifts refurre&ion and victory over 
{in and death by which fin fhould be cut of and deftroyed, but alfo the 
Chriftian Sabbath, and fo both a fpeciall day of circumcifing their 
hearts to the Lord in the ftate of grace, and alfo a pledge of the fulnefTc 
of mortification and fan&ifkation in the day of the laft refurre&ion 
, and of entrance into the et email Sabbath in Heaven. For this purpofe 
tempore. d(o S c . Anflen and many other learned men in all ages fince even to 
i $6. this day, do alledge the plaine words ofDavid^ Pftl.i 1 8.34. where 


The Doctrine of the Sabbath. 77 

having Prophetically foretold the glorious refurrcvftion of Chrift, how Chap, l a 

after tnat the J ewes had crucified and put him to death, he fhould rife 

up to be the head corner ftonc even the rock and foundation of the 

Church,(forfo our Saviour, Mtt.ii.^i. and the Apoftle, Atts^.ii. 

do expound 'Davids words ) he i mined "ately arnrmes, that this is the 

day which the Lord hatij madejtoe Willrejoyce and be glaiin it. That this 

is the day of the Lord Chrift,as W.John cals \t y Rev.\.\o. Which tie Lord 

hath made.Thzt is,in his decree hath already appointed to be his holy day, 

Vre (that is in the time of the Gofpell when this (lone is become the 

head of the corner ) Vcill reioyce and be glad ink : that is, rejoyce before 

the Lord with all joy and ferve him, be glad in him with Sabbaticall 

and holy folemnity, and if we confider well the matter and fubftance 

of the 9 1. Tfalme, which is intitleda Pfalme for the Sabbath, we fhall 

fee that it is moft fit for the day of Chrifts refurrecTion, fetting forth 

the fruits thereof plainely and after a lively manner, to wit : the folid 

joy of Gods people, and the flourifhing ftate of the righteous in Gods 

Church,and exalting of the home of Chrift the true Mefliah and King 

of the Church. . 

fourthly ,if we confider the diverfity and difference ofthings which 
are commanded in the law of the Sabbath,and are to be obferved in the 
weekly Sabbath as it was inftituted by God at the firft, and againe re- 
vived in the fourth Commandement,if we call to mind that is 
a mixt law, commanding fome things which concerne the very fub- 
flance and being of the holy Sabbath, unto which it binds men perpe- 
tually ,fuch as are a fit proportion of time one day in every weeke, reft 
and ceffation from common works of this life, and fancTification of it 
by religious exercifesand devoting it topublick aflfemblies and holy 
worfhip. And other things it commanded which were typicall and 
ceremoniall,and were to have their.full accomplifhment in Chrift,and 
to be in force only untill the full exhibition and revelation of Chrift a 
perfect Redeemer,all which 1 have largely fhewed before, and the beft 
learned have ever held. It will upon thefe grounds neceffarily follow, 
that there muft be a change of the Sabbath from the feventh day, and 
in refpecT of the tipicalland ceremoniall worfhip,at the full exhibition 
of Chrift, into a day and a worfhip more fit for Chrift given and re- 
vealed, and for the times of the Gofpell. 

% Firft it is generally held by the beft learned, That God byfancTi- 
fyingthe feventh day and commanding his holy Sabbath to be kept 

L 3 every 

^,g qhe DoBrinz of the Sabbath 

Chap.i 2 every week on the fjventh day, did therby fhew, that in his wifedomc 
he law it fit and ncceflary for man to obferve this proportion of time, 
kid to devote one day h every week, both to bodily" reft and a totall 
ccflation from his own worldly labours,pieafures and delights,and alfo 
to holy and heavenly meditations, and to religious exercifes and holy 
afcmblies. And in theie refpedb they call the law of the Sabbath natu- 
rall,morrall and perpetualland they proove it thus. 

Hrftbccaufe nature it felfeaud common reafon and experience do 
teach, that ever lince mans fell it is naturally necefftry for mans health 
and wellbeing, and for the preferving and upholding of the life and 
ftrengthofhis labouring and toy ling cattell, that he, his fervantsand 
cattell,mould have one day es reft in feven. And that without this pro- 
portion of time dedicated to holy affemblies, and exercifes of piety, 
the laving knowledge of God, and true religion and piety cannot well 
be upheld, fraile men would by little and little forget God,become ig- 
norant of heavenly things,and fo of the way to ettrnail reft ; if it were 
left in mans power to chufe his own time; ibmc would choofe none at 
all, the reft for the moft part would differ from that time which fome 
thought fit. Others would refuie it as inconvenient ,and fo there would 
be no fet ordinary a{femblies,Gods worfhip would grow out of ule. 

Secondly, true piety teacheth us ; that we ought to think our felves 
bound in confeience to give and devote fo much of our time at the 
leaft to pious exercifes, as God, in whofe hand we and our times are, 
did require of his people in the obfeurer times of the Old Teftament, 
for the keeping of religion and his worfhip on foote, for preferving of 
the knowledge and memory of his goodncfle and benefits, and for the 
fanctifying of their weekly laboures and his creatures to their ufe, and 
of themfelves to him, that they might be fitted to fee him in glory. 
For the abundance of grace (lied on us by theGofpell, is a bond and 
obligation to us of much more fcrviceand obedience which we owe 
to God. Now God required of them every feventh day to be kept 
holy, and that was the leaft which any of them in any age were 
bound to dedicate to his worfhip. And therfore true piety binds us 
much more to keep an holy weekly Sabbath. 

Thefe are arguments and proofes, fufficient to fatisfie any man who 
doth not perverfly refift and rebell againft the law of nature.But let me 
here give a caveat by the way: That when the learned call the Sabbath 
and the law of it naturall, we are not to conceive that by naturall,they 


The Doctrine of the Sabbath. 

mean a thing written in mans heart in the creation, which man was Chap.** 
made to performe and obey (imply as a rcafoaable creature and naturall 
man ( For man was not made for the S sMatl^Marl^i.ij . ) Neither did 
lie toyle and fweat or need a fct weekly reft : I s either did he need a 
weekly folemnity to help his memory, or to ftir up his arf :ftions, as I 
have before prooved. But that they underhand by mturall, that which 
the very light of naturall reafon (lie wes to be moll convenient and ne- 
ceflary for men now corrupt, and which fo iboneas it is commanded 
and revealed by Gods word appeares fo necefftry in the very nature of 
it,both for mens foules and bodies,that without it they cannot have or- 
dinarily any well being on earth, nor efcape Hell and come to Heaven 
after death. This expoijtion learned Zanchyw gives of his o vvne and Zuch lib> 
other learned mens fpecches, when they call the law of the Sabbath jg D CCa * 
naturall. Ifyaith he,it were fo naturall as things written in mans heart log tbef.u 
in the creation, then the Heathen Gentiles would have felt themfelves 
bound by it, and would have (hewed it in their practice in fome rnea- 
furc more or lefle. Neverthelefle the conclufion of ZanchytM, and other 
learned Divines is rirme and fure, upon the former premifes, to wit : 
1 hat Gods firft commandement of the Sabbath, doth perpetually bind 
all Gods people to the worlds end, to keepe a weekly Sabbath, even a 
feventh day in every weeke holy to the Lord. 

Secondly, it is a thing uni\ erfally held by all true Chriftian writers^ 
that the Sabbath as it. was limited to the feventh day of the week, and 
wastobe obferved by bodily Sacrifices morning and evening, and by 
worfhip which confided in outward rites which were types and fi- 
gures of things which have their accomplishment in Chrift, fo it was 
ceremoniall,temporary and changeable. The common ground of tire 
fandifying of the feventh day and tying the Sabbath toit,is held com- 
monly to be Gods reft on the feventh day from the work of creation. 
And this is fuch a ground as in the fulnes of the time was to give place 
and did give place to a better reft anfing,& brought in by the finishing 
of a more excellent and glorious work of Gods goodnes and bounty c- 
ven the work of mans redemption.The worfhip of God on the Sabbath 
ofthefeventh dayintheoldTeftament, by double Sacrifices and fbch 
rites were but vanifhing fhadowes, the fubftance of them was 
Chrift, andtherforc they were to ceafe when the body and fubftance 
came in. And the particular day it felfe and the reft tied to it was a 
tipe sad figure of rhe death of Chrift ; and of his reft in the. grave,and of 


So The Dotfrine of the Sabbath. 

Chap.13 therefc and cafe which Chrift by his death fhould bring to all Gods 
people from the but den of legall rites,and from the guilt of fin and hor- 
rour of confcience, which ss an heavy load did preffe them down, and 
from the maffe of corruption like a weight hanging faft on them, all 
which Chrift abolifhed by his death and redemption,and fo put an end 
to the Sabbath,as it was tied to thelaft day of the weeke. 

This being commonly held for a certaine truth by the learned Fa- 
thers,and writers ofall ages after them untill this day, prooves fo far as 
their authority and reafon will reach: that though the keeping holy of 
a weekly Sabbath is a perpetuall day, to which all Gods people are 
bound in all ages : yet the particular day was mutable,and another {pe- 
ciall day was to be appointed and confecrated by him who is the Lord 
of the Sabbath, wherein an holy reft fitter for the time and ftate of the 
new Church muft be kept, with better fervice and folemmty. Inftead 
of bodily facrifices, there muft be offering up of Spirituall iacrifices of 
praifes,prayers,almes and works of piety and charity: for flaughtering 
of beafts, there muft be mortifying of corruption by holy contrition, 
and killing ofall brutifh lufts and carnall pleasures and delights, by fe- 
perating our felves and fequeftring our minds from them. Inftead of 
darke fhaddowes of the law, and obfeure promifes of Chrift to come, 
there muft be the light oftheGofpell (Lining in the Church and prea- 
ching ofChrift crucified,and raifed up and fet at Go:ls right hand, and 
there muft be feeking of Gods face in his name and mediation, and of 
accede unto God in him by one Spirit. 

Now what day can any man conceive in any reafon fo fit as the 
Lords day,the firft of the week: wherin we Chriftians keep our weekly 
Sabbath ? This undoubtedly is the moft fit and convenient of all dayes, 
as I have largely before proo ved. Yea that this undoubtedly is the only, 
particular day which Gods law binds us to keep holy all the time of 
the Gofpell,even untill we come to the eternall reft in Heaven, I will 
as briefly as I can proove and demonftrate in the laft place, and fo con- 
clude this point of fanclificatibn of the Sabbath, as it is the worke of 
God the law-giver, and is diftinguiihed from mans duty and work of 


1 Ar$tt~ >TpHE firft which is the maine fundamentall argument, isdrawnc 
ment. X from the foundation upon which God hath from the beginning 


7 be Doctrine of the sMdth. 81 

builded and furely fetled the weekly is a thing ir.oft certains Chap.i 3 
and undeniable/ that whatsoever things- are infeperably joynedand 
cleave faft together, they (land and' moove together, the one cannot 
moove to any place,but the other of necellity muft moove with it. 

\\ hatfoever is firmely fetled on a rock and infeperably fattened to it, 
and founded on it,muft needs moove with the rock and cannot moove 
to any place but where the rock is mooved, upon which ground 1 ar- 
gue thus: That which is from the beginning founded upon Chrift,and 
16 furely fetled and firmely builded upon him by Cod the founder of all 
things, that it cannot be feperatcd,it muft needs moove and change the 
place with Chrift, and cannot be mooved nor change and remoov'e to 
any place but only to that unto which Chrift isremooved,The weekly 
Sabbath from the hrft inflitution is founded by God,nrmly builded and 
fore fetled upon Chrill the Redeemer,and is infeperably joyned to him. 
Therfore it cannot moove nor change the place,nor be rernoovqd from 
the feventh day to any other day of the week, unles Chrift-the Redee- 
mer change his day and moove together with it, and if he doth change 
his folemne day, it muft needs be changed and remooved with him to 
the fame day. The proportion is undeniable:the aflnmption alfo I have 
fully prooved before, in the laying open of the grounds of the Sabbath: 
and thei fore the concFufion is a moft manifeft truth, That whenfoever 
Chrift charfgeth his day and choofeth another, the Sabbath muft needs 
be changed to the fame day. Which concluflon fully prooved,I lay it 
downe for a good ground and argue thus upon it. 

That day which Chrift leaveth and paflcth from it unto another, 
which hechocferh for his fpeciall and particular day. From that day 
the Sabbath alio is changed and mooved, and the other flay which 
Chrift hath chofen, becomes alfo immediately the particular day 
of the holy weekly Sabbath. Now the leventh day which was the 
fpeciall day of Chrift in the old leftament, becaufe on- it Chrift was 
promifed a Redeemer of the world, and did ■ flrft undertake openly 
and actually to mediate for tniii, is now ceded to be Chrifts pe- 
culiar day, he hath left it, and liath chofen the hrft day, and made 
that his fpeciall and peculiar day above all other dayes of theweeke, 
when in it he got the victory over death, and by his refurrecTion en- 
tered into his glory and eternalfrtft ; and of a redeemer in promile, 
became a redeemer indeed, ancr fully perfected mans redemption. 
Therefore ever fincc hath the weekely Sabbath beene remooved to 

M the 

82 The Dottrine of the Sabbath. 

Chap.i 3 the firft day, and that is the peculiar day of the weekely Sabbath. 
A ' Secondly, that God did from the beginning purpofe in himfelfe, and 

tnent ' by many evicicnces did declare his intent, to change the Sabbath from 
the feventh to the firft day, and alfo in the firft invitation of the Sab- 
bath, and in the giving of his law for the keeping of it, did intend to 
bind us under the Goipell to the keeping of our weekly Sabbath on 
the firft day of the weeke, as he bound the fathers to the feventh day 
in the old Teftament.I proove from the determinate counfell and fore- 
knowledge of God concerning the changes which he foreknew and 
determined to bring to parte, in the foundation, grounds and preroga- 
tives of the Sabbath from the feventh to the firft day of the week. It is 
a thing which all men who have any true knowledge of God rauft 
needs know and acknowledge for an undoubted truth, that God whole 
wifedome is infinite,and his wife providence orderech and diipofeth all 
things,doth never any thing in vaine, he never lay es the foundation m 
any place but there alio he intends the buiiding, he never brings in the 
proper caufes any where or in any time, but then and there he intends 
to bring in and to produce the proper effects of them, and whatfoever 
commandement God gives to men to pes forme fome fpeciallduty 
upon fome fpeciall grounds,and for fbme lingular caufes,occa(ions and 
reafons, by that commandement he binds them to performe the duty 
whenfoever and wherefbever hefhewes the grounds and reafons to 
them,and gives and offers the caufes and occasions. 

So that if it be made to appeare unto us,that now under the Goipell, 
God had according to his own determinate counfell and foreknow- 
ledge changed the foundation of the weekly Sabbath, and remooved it 
and all the grounds, reafons, occafiens and prerogatives of it, from the 
feventh day to the firft which is the Lords day, we muft needs fee and 
acknowledge, that it was the purpofe, mind and will of God to make 
the Lords day our weekly Sabbath, and in his giving of the firft law of 
the Sabbath, which in the maine fubftance of it is perpetuall,to bind all 
his people after the full exhibition of Chrift to the laft reiurreelion, to 
keep the holy weekly Sabbath on that day. 

N ow thefe things may furficiently appeare by the opening and proo- 
ving of divers things before, which 1 have obferved out of this text,and 
by urging and preifingthem home to this prcfent purpofe a little more 
fully here againe, 1 (hall put them out of all doubt and cjueftion, and 
make them manifeft and cleare to all who do not wilfully Ihut their 

cyc s 

7 be Doflrine cf the Sdbbatk 8 3 

eyes againft the truth. Firft,that the foundation of the Sabbath is Chrift Chap.i 3 
the Redeemer, and that all the true and proper grounds, reafons and 
occafions of keeping one day in every week holy to the Lord, are only 
to be found in Chrift and came in with him I have before fully proov 
ved. And as God firft promifed Chrift to become the feed of the wo- 
man,forthe Redemption of man-kind, and Chrift did undertake for 
man to mediate for him on the firft feventh day of the world, and ther- 
upon that day was fanctified to be the weeky Sabbath : So God had in 
his immutable counf ell determined to exhibit Chrift a perfect redee- 
mer, and by him to perfect mans redemption on the firft day of the 
week, and lb toremoove Chrift the foundation from the feventh day 
of the week to the firft day, together with all other grounds, rea- 
lbns, occasions and prerogatives of the holy Sabbath. What greater 
change could be or ever was heard of in Chrift the maine foundation 
both of the Sabbath and of the univerfatt Church, then when of a Re- 
deemer promifed on the feventh day, and fo continuing all the time of 
the old Tedament while the f ithers beleeved only in him promifed & 
not yet come;hc became a Redeemer fully exhibited in his rcfurrection 
on the fiift iky of the weeke,and changed theftateof the Church, and 
bringing her nom thenon-nage andchildifh eftate of bondage under 
the rudiments of the world,and legall rites,and carnall ceremonies, to 
the fulnes of her time which Gcd had appointed, and to her full age in 
thenew'Itftament. And hereby that firft day of the week became 
the chiefeft day of the Lord Chrift, even his fpeciall and particular 
day, and came to have all the fucordinate grounds and high pre- 
rogatives of the Sabbath. For in it God perfected his work which 
he had made in the creation by the work of redemption, not promifed 
and undertaken only, as in the feventh day, but by a better kind of 
perfecting znd ending even by redemption fully finimed, on that day 
Chrift refted from that greater work ofredemption, and declared by 
his refurredion, that he had made full f atisfact'ion for man-kind to the 
juftice of God, and that God refted in his fatisfaction, now actually 
made and performed, by a more excellent manner of refting then 
that wherewith he refted on the feventh, in that fatisfaction only 
undertaken and promifed, on that day Chrift got the victory over 
death, hell, finne, the world and the Divell, and becommingim- 
mcrtall not fubject to die, or fufter any more, entered into the glorious 
ftate of exaltation and into his eternall reft, and made way for men to 

N 2 that 

84 ThelhitfrtoepffkeSablratb 

Chap.13 that eternall reft wherof the Sabbath is both a lively pledge, andalfoa 
powerfull meanes to fit men for it. And in all thefe refpecls God blef- 
fcd the firft day of the week, with ablelTing fir above his blefTmg of the 
feventh day, for that was thepromife and undertaking only, this wss 
the performance and perfecting of redemption : and therfo re fo far ex- 
cels that, as the giving of a great gift and perfecting of a work ex- 
ceeds the promife of that gift and undertaking of that work.Now-that 
this rcmooving of the maine foundation of the weekly Sabbath, to- 
gether with the fubordinate grounds, occa'Ionsand prerogatives of it, 
from the feverith day to the Lords day, the firft of the week, came to 
pafle by the determinate counfeU, foreknowledge and providence of 
God, and that from the beginning and in the firft giving of the law of 
the weekly Sabbath, God did 'pnrpbfe and intend this change, itap- 
peares moft plainly by divefs reafons. Firft becaufe God is no idle 
fpeclator, but the provident Lord and difpofer of all things, which 
come to paffe in the world, and nothing can come to pafle but fo as he 
hath appointed, and in the time and feafon which he hath determined. 
The flood and generall deluge by which the old' world was deftroy- 
ed, came to pafle in the very yeare and day which God had prefixed, 
and did foretell to Noah one hundred and twenty yeares before. The 
endoflfraels peregrination and fervitudein ifcgypt, came to paffe juft 
at the end 6f fbure hundred and thirty yeares, in the fame day which 
feod had determined and foretold' to Abraham^ xod.i 2.41 . and fo the 
deliverance of the Ifraelites out of captivity, and the decree for their 
returhe dame out at Gods appointed time, which he had foretold by 
feremUh'thc Prophet,!*^.?. 2.2?. And the particular time ofchrifts 
fatisfaclion and attonement for finne, and bringing in of eternall 
righteoufnerTe, was determined by God, and came to pafle at the end 
of the feventy fevens of yeares, as it was revealed to Daddl in the 
fame Chap.24.ver. And in a word the very time of Chrifts refurrecli- 
en,by the virtue whereof we are fully redeemed, and fhall in our \ cry 
bodies be raifed up to life eternall and reft in glory , as the Apoftle tefti- 
Hcs,Rom.6^ t 1 ^r.15. 13,31. *PBl;pib & 1 Pet.i^. It was de- 
termined by God before the foundation of the world, as the words of 
S*. Peter do ihew, I Pet.i.2. Secondly,- God in the very creation and 
from the firft beginning of the world, didforefhew that he had a pur- 
p6fe to honour the firft day of the week above all the other dayes, and 
totftake'it the Lortfsday -and thrift ian Sabbath by the rcfurreclion 


The Doctrine of the Sabbath. 8 5 

ofChrift. In that he made it the fir ft fruites of time, and in it created Chap.13 
the higheft Heaven, the place of the eternall Sabbath, and brought 
forth the light of this inferiour world, by which naturall prerogatives 
he made this day the fitted of all dayesofthe week, to be the day of 
ChriftsrefurrecTion, wherin he theSunofrighteouihefle and light of 
the world role up with healing in his wings, and became the firft 
fruites of them that lleepe, and by virtue whereof he will bring the 
faithfull into the eternall reft, whereof the weekly Sabbath is a pledge 
and will make them partakers of the inheritance of the Saints in light, 
as the Scriptures teftifie,i Corn 5.20. Colof.i.xi. 

Upon theie premifes before prooved at large,and here againe prefled 
home to thepurpofe, he conclusion folio weth neccflarily.that it was 
the purpofe, intent and will of God, to make the firft day of the week, 
the Lords day and theChriftian Sabbath, and in the firft inftitution or 
the Sabbath, and by his firft law of the Sabbath (which inthemaine 
fubftanceofit is perpetuall ) to bind all his people in the time of his 
glorious Gofpell, to obferve that day only for their holy weekly Sab- 
bath ; untill they come to that whereof the Sabbath is a lively pledge, 
even the eternall reft of glory in Heaven. 

Thirdly whatfoevcr tends moft to the perfeel fulfilling ofany fpeciall 3 Argu- 
law and commandement of God given to man, and is manifeftly made menu 
-known to man to be moft agreeable to Gods will revealed in that law, 
and to the ends andufes which God openly pretendeth therein, that 
man is chiefly bound to do by that law and commandement. This is a 
•moft certaine and undoubted truth. For Gods generall commandement 
is, that we love him with all our heart, and woriliipand fervehim 
"withallourfouleandallourftrength J Z)^/'.(5.5.&^^/'.2 2,37. 

Now the will of God revealed in this firft inftitution,and fanffify ing 
of the Sabbath, and in the fourth Commandement of the law, is often 
repeated and urged by Mofesand the Prophets, is more perfectly ful- 
filled in the right fan edification of the Lords day under the Gofpell, 
then it was in the obfervation ofthefeventh, the Sabbath of the old 
Teftament, and whatsoever neceflary duty God in the law of the Sab- 
bath requireth of man from the beginning, or whatfoever end and ufe 
he openly pretendeth, his law of the keeping of the holy Sabbath that 
is more fully obtained, erfofted and brought to paife by an holy fancli- 
r fication of the Lords day, and by keeping it an holy Sabbath to the 
Lord now under the Gbfpcll. Therefore by the law of the Sabbath 

M 3 ' given. 

86 The Doffrine of the Sabbath. 

Chap.13 given at the firft,and by the fourth CommandcmentrepcateJando^ 
planed, Chriftians are bound to keep the Lords day which is the firft 
of the week for their weekly Sabbath. 

If any man doth make doubt of the affumption in this fyllogifme-It 
is eafily proved by a particular enumeration,both of the particular fJb- 
ftantiall and neceflary duties which Gods word requires in the Sab- 
bath ; and alfoofthe ends and ufes for which God requires an holy 
Sabbath to be kept every feventh day. * 

The firft main duty from which the feventh day acquires the name 
of Sabbath,is reft and ceflation from all worldly labours, pleafures and 
delight, wherin man is to withdraw his mind from worldly cares and 
fecular affairs, which concern this fraile earthly life, and is to gi\Q reft 
and refrcfriing to his own body,and to the bodies of his children fer- 
vants,ftrangers,and toyling cattell/js appears,£.*W. 20. i o. ifi.5 8 j 2 

And the proper end and ufe of this reft is. Firft to admoniili man 
that he muft not place nor feek felicity in this world,nor iince his fall 
and breaking of the Covenant of works by his difobedience, hope for 
any happineffc or felicity either here or die where to be purchafed by 
his own works of Righteoufnes, which he either is 3 or was able in the 
firft creation to perform- in his own perfon. Secondly, to ftiew that 
Gods juft wrath appeafed bv Chrifr, and the fting of death and the 
curfe and bitternes of mans iorrows, and toilfome labours which God 
impofed on him for his tranigreflion,is taken away,and God will not 
have his people to torment their bodies with continual! toiie, and 
painfull labourjbut to eafe and refrefh themfdves with a weekly reft. 
Thirdly, to make men take notice that God hath a provident and fa- 
therly care of his creatures both men and beads, hates all merciles cru- 
elty and oppreffion of their very bodies,and will have them fo refrefh - 
cd and eafed that they may laft the longer, and go cheerfully through 
their weekly labours. ° 

Fourthly, to (hew that in Chrift upon whom the Sabbath is founded, 
there is fpirituall reft and eafe and refreshing of the foul, from the hea- 
vy burden of fin, and the miferies of fin, to be found of all them who 
being heavy laden do flee to him,and in him place their hope and con- 

Fiftly , to put us in mind of Gods refting in Chrifts mediation from 
the work of creation, and that he hathwholy given over all purpofes 
and thoughts of repairing the world, and reftoring man fallen and cor- 

The Do chine of the Sabbath. Sj 

rupted by any work ofcreation,and hath let his mind on another kind Chap. 1 3 
of work,even the work of redemption by Chnft,and the new creation 
ofheavenly fpirituall and fupernaturall graces and perfections in men 
by his holy Spirit. 

Sixthly,tobeafigneandmemoriallof Chrift his fall perfecting of 
theworkofmansredemption,andofhis perfect litis h& ion made to 
the jafticeofuod for fraile finfuli men. 

Laftly , to be a token and pledge of the eternall reft in heaven, and of 
the fabbathifme which after the labours and troubles of this life, the c- 
lecT and faithfull people of God mall en joy for ever in the world to 

Now there is no day in all the week, in which this firft main duty of 
the Sabbath can lb well be performed, for the ends and ufes, as on the 
Lords day which is the Chrift ian Sabbath. The feventh day never yeel- 
ded half fo much light and helps to Gods people in the old Teftament 
for thefe purpofes, as the Lords day doth to us under the Gofpell. Lor 
the Lords day in which Chrift arofe from death, and entered into his 
glory,and perfected the work of Redemption, it difcovers Chrift the 
mam Foundation of all reft,and even of the Sabbath it felf more plain- 
ly unto us, and in it being beautified and adorned with fo manyblef- 
- lings and prerogatives which Gods word gives to it, we may as in 
a clcare glaffe lee and behold Chrift with open face, we fee in his re- 
fun- ecLion Gods juftice folly fat isfled, his wrath appealed, redempti- 
on fully perfected, Gods refting in Chrifts mediation,eternall reft pur- 
chafed by Chrift for us, and gained to himfelf, and Heaven opened un- 
to us, and (in, death and hell already overcome and conquered. And 
therfore there is no day by many degrees, fo fit as this day of Chrifts 
re furred ion to make us reft comfortably in our bodies and minds from 
worldly cares, and bodily labours, and in our foulesand confiden- 
ces from the burden of finne and the guilt therof] No day or time 
can fo plainly ihew unto us, thai: our felicity is not in this world, 
nor to be obtained and purchafed by the righteoufnefle of our owne 
works. This lets before us Chrift raifed for our juftiheation. This 
fhews Gods aboundant mercy and companion to us, and that he 
hates all cruelties and oppreflions. And this is a fpeciall meanes to 
bring us to the avturance ofthebiefTed hope and eternall reft referved 
in Heaven for us. And therfore the flrft main duty with all the parts 
therof,andthe fpeciall ends and ufes of it, are more fully performed 


gg qhe Dotlrine of the Sabbath. 

Chap 13 and obtained in the obfervation of the Lords day for the holy weekely 
Sabbath,then they poflibly can be now by us, or could be of old on the 
Sabbath of the feventh day,by the fathers in the old Teftament. 

The fecond rnaine duty of the Sabbath is, fanftifying and keeping 
of it holy to the Lord,which comprehends in it many ipeciall and par- 
ticular duties, i . Setting of their affcdions even their joy and de- 
light wholy upon God and heavenly things. 2. Honouring and wor- 
shipping of God in their hearts with holy thoughts and meditations, 
by their lips with holy pray ers,praifes and thanksgiving, in their out- 
ward actions by preaching, hearing, reading and repeating, of Gods 
Word,and folemne commemoration of his promifes, mercies and blef- 
lings in the word and Sacraments. 3 . Teaching and learning all holy 
duties which tend to bring us neerer to God in Chrift. 4. Offering 
fpirituall facririces to God of fweet favour, fiich. as are alrnefdeeds and 
works of mercy and charity, wherby others may be made to tafte of 
Gods goodncill*,and ftirred up to laud and praife his name. 

All thefe are comprehended under the maine duty ofiandtifymg-die 
holy Sabbath which the Lord commands exprefly in the iaw,an#they 
are commended to us by the Prophet,//S;5:6.4,& 5 8.1*3. And the pro- 
per end and ufe of this duty and ail the parts therof, is. Firft to make 
us fet our affeclionson things which are above>and not on things be- 
low, and to ftir us up to feeke eternall life and.heavenly happineffe in 
Chrift only,and in him crucified and raifed up. - 

Secondly, to continue and increaiein fraile men the knowledge and 
memory of Chrift, and of the way to eternall life and blefTednefTe in 
him, which without keeping holy of a weekly Sabbath, would faiie 
and ceafe among the fons of men. 

Thirdly, to beget and increafetrue grace and holinefle in men by ex- 
erciling holy duties of religion ; and fo to bring them by juftification 
and adoption, to the right of inheritance in Heaven, and by fanclifica*- 
tion to fit them for the porTefiion of it. Now the obiervation of the 
Lords dap; in which Chrift arofe, is fuch as may far more powerfully 
and effectually moove men to the performance of thefe duties, and 
lead men more directly to the proper end and ufe of them, then the 
old Sabbath of the feventh day either now can,or of old could do when 
it was moft in force. For it had no other light or life in it, but onely 
from obfeure promifes, and darkc fhaddowes through which Chrift 
was fcene as things farre offarefeene, and in the (lane light nights. 


The Doltrine of the Sdbbath. Sp 

But the Lords day the firft day of the week, hath light and life from Chap.13 
the Sun of righteoufnefle Chrift who in it rofe up to be the light of life 
to all nations, and hath brought life and immortality to light by the 
Gofpell, and dilcovered to us the kindnefle and love of God and the 
riches cf his goodneffe, in giving grace and fliedding his Spirit on u* 
abundantly here,and fo fitting us Tor glory hereafter. And therfore this 
day mud needes be of great force and power,far above the feventh day, 
to make men fet their afcftions on God and heavenly tbings,eipecially 
upon the inheritance incorruptible and undefiled which fadeth not 
away, referved in Heaven for us, unto which God hath begotten us by 
the refurre&ion of Chrift from the dead,i Pet. 1.3. It is alfb powerftll 
and excellent to incite and ftirusup tehonourGod in our hearts, by 
the due confideration of his goodnes and mercy. AJfo it much furthe- 
reth us to proclaime the high praifesofour God and king, and to make 
prayers and fupplications to him. Befides to make us helpfull unto 
others,in feeking after their falvation. And thus we may fee what are 
Sabbath duties,even the works of piety, mercy, charity, ehr. pleaiing to 
God,and by which others may be brought to joyne with us,in lauding 
and prailing God,and we our ielves ntted for glory. 

Upon tbefe points fo fully proo ved. The conclufion followes necef- 
farily : that the law by which God firft inftituted the Sabbath on the 
firft £2 v'enth day of the world, doth bind us under the Gofpell to keepe 
the Lords day for our weekly Sabbath. 

Fourthly, that day which God hath made moft honourable, and hath Arittm. 
given it a moft honourable name and title above all the dayes cfthe 
Week, to that he hath given the prerogative to be the weekly Sabbath, 
and hath made it Ins day of holy reft. I or it is a property of the Sabbath, 
to be the Lords holy and honourable day, as the Evangelicall Prophet 
Jjahih ihoweSyl/a.f 8. 1 3 . and making of it honourable, is making of it 
the Sabbath. Now the firft day of the week is the day which God hath 
honoured above all dayes, by the glorious victory of Chrift over death 
and over all enemies and powers of darknes,and to it he hath given the 
moft honourable name and title : For the holy Evangelift and divine 
Apoftle St.John, who was the intimate, beloved and bofome Difciple 
of the Lord, and did beft know his mind,cals it the Lords day. Rev.i. 
io.that is, the day which the Lord hath made the day of great joy and 
gladnefleto his people, as David foretold, PfaLnS. which day the 
Lord Chrift hath appropriated to himfelfe and his honour, and honou- 

N red 

9o The Dotfrinc of the Sabbath, 

Chap. 1 5 red with his own name, as he is the Lord God, one J ehovah with the 
Father. For the Greek word (nism)Lord y is in refpeft of the roote from 
whence it is derived,the fame in fignification with Gods proper name 
Jehovah,and mod commonly in the new Teftament, is ufed to expres 
that facred name. Therfore it is now under the Gofpell made by God 
himfelfe the weekly Sabbath. 

The fifth argument is grounded upon the words of our Saviour, Mat. 
I 2.8.& ^f-^2.27,28. Where lie faith,*/;**/- doe Sabbad? Wat made fir 
man y and not man for doe Sabbath. T 'her fire heaven atheii die finite of man 
er Cjedmtiemanjs die Lord of the Sabbado. 

The firft claufe,to wit: (the Sabbath Was made fir man,) notes out unto 
us two things, i .That the Sabbath was firft inftituted for man, even by 
reafon of the Sonne of God promifed to become man, and lb he is the 
foundation of it. 2. That it was made for man, that is, for the man 
Chrift,and for the benefit of all man-kind in him,for his honour and the 
advancement of his kingdome among men, and for the sood of men, 
both naturall and civiil, in refpecl of weekly reft, and refrefhing, and 
alfo fpirituall,as knowledge,inftmcftion,growth in grace and holinefle. 
The fecond claufe ( not man fir the Sabbath ) (lie wes that the 
Sabbath is not one of thole things which man Was made to obferve 
in the creation, neither is the law of it written in mans heart in the 
creation : it was the fall of man and his corruption, which caufed 
him to ftand in need of a weekly reft, and of holy Sabbath exercifes, 
to worke good in him, and to bring him neerer to God. And being 
made for mansufe, he may in cafe of necefllty difpence with outward 
cbfervations of the Sabbath : and the fame muft give place to works of 
neceflity which cannot be omitted either without loffe of life,or fome 
certaine lofieor mifchkfe. 

The third chuk(Tkrfire is the Sonne of man Lord alfo of the Sabbath) 
doth give us to underftand that the ufe of the Sabbath was founded on 
Chrift prom i fed to be Lordof the Sabbath, and was- in and under him 
made man, neceflkry for the profit of man corrupted,not for man in in- 
nocency .Therfore Chrift the Son of man is Lord of the Sabbath,that is, 
he hath the true proper right and propriety in it, for to make it ferve 
for his ufe being the Lord and poffeffor or it,and he hath authority and 
power over it,lo that it is at his command, either to be or not to be in 
ufe,either the feventh day or upon fome other day of the week. Now 
sVe never read, that Chrift excrcifed any Lordftup over the Sabbath as 


The Bottrine of the Sdbatb. Pi 

lie is the Son of man ,either to command it or to change it, but only in Chap.i 3 
thefc two refpecTs. Firft that he brought it firft into the world by un- 
dertaking to be the feed of the woman and the ion of man, and fo it 
was ferled on the feventh day, in which he was promifed during the 
time of the old Teftament,while he was a Redeemer promifed. 

Secondly,that he by his refurre&ion in which he perfected redemp- 
tion, did confecrate the firft day and made it the moil: honourable day, 
fit to be the Sabbath of the new Teftament, and alio gavecommande- 
ment to his Apcftles fo to ordaine in all Churches. Befides this Lord- 
lnip and power of Chrift as fonne of man over the Sabbath, we can- 
not conceive or imagine any other. Therefore undoubtedly he hath 
changed it to the firit day of the weeke, and as Lord of it hath given 
commandement for this change and alteration. 

Thcfixth drawne from Gods fanclifying of the Lords day by 
his Sonne Chrilt more fully and excellently then he did the feventh 
day in the firft inftitution of the Sabbath. For feeing the making of 
the feventh day to be the holy Sabbath, is the fanctifyingofit,asthe 
words of my text fhew,and alfo the words of the law, Exod. 2 0.13. It 
muft needs hereupon be granted, that what day God by his Son Chrift, 
hath in all rclpecls more fully and excellently fancTified, then the fe- 
venth day was fancTificd when God made it the Sabbath, That day 
God by Chrift hath made his holy Sabbath, and foitis worthy to be 
cfteemed, andfo is to beobferved in the new Teftament. But now 
it is mod certaine and manifeft : That the Lord God by his Son Chrift 
hath in all refpects more fully and excellently fructified the firft day 
of the week, in which Chrift arofe from death ( as appeares by divers 
things which I have formerly touched.) Firft he in that day more 
abundantly revealed his holineffe to the world, in that he declared 
Chrift our Redeemer and the head of the whole body the Church, 
To be the Sonne of CJodVi it h power, according to the sfirit of ho line jfe by 
the refurreclionfom the dead, Rom. 1.3. 

Secondly, he then opened as it were the flood-gates of Heaven, that 
holineffe might be more abundantly with his Spirit powred out upon 
all flefh, when Chrift was railed up and exalted by Gods right hand, 
that he might fhed his Spirit on all forts of people of all nations, as we 
read. A&s. 2.3 3. Yea in that in the fcaft of Penticoft which was the 
fiiftday of the week, and the 49. day after Chrifts refurreclion, the 
Holy Ghoft was fent downe upon the Apoftles to fancTifie them, and 

N 2 to 

9i> The Doctrine of the Sabbath. 

Chap.i 3 preach the Gofpell unto all nations which they prefently did, and the 
fame day converted 30oo.foules,herein he (hewed his holinefle more a- 
bundantly then before. 

Thirdly ,It is pioudy heldby many Divines,that among other things 
which after his refurreftion Chrift {pake to his Difciples, concerning 
theKingdome ofGod,tbat is the Church under the Gofpell : this was 
one, namely 3 of the keeping of the holy Sabbath, and holy affcmblies, 
or gathering of the Saints together upon the firft day of the week:For, 
immediately afcer,the Apoftles obferved that day, and all Churches in 
all ages (ince have followed their example. Therfore it is God who by 
his Son Chnft hath made this' rirft day,that is,the Lords day the week- 
ly Sabbath of Chriftians. 

I might here add for further proofe of this truth, an obfervation of 
divers godly and learned writers, to wit; that our Saviour fanctiried 
the firft day of the week more then any other day by his pra-frife and 
exampie,in that he did molt commonly appeare to the Difciples after 
his Refurre<flion,and came amongft them when they were aflembled 
together on that day, and taught and inftrneled them and breathed on 
them,fo we read,Z#/<. 24. 1 146.& Iohn 20.1^22. 

7. Argj* % Seventhly,That which the Apoftle taught by word and writing and 
ordained in all Churches of Chnftian Gentiles,and confirmed by their 
conftantpraclife, is undoubtedly a Conrmar: dement which they recei- 
ved from the Lord Cbrift,fo it appears, Act. 15.28. where rhey profeiTe 
that what they prefcribed to the Chriftian Churches was the diclate 
and fentence tirft of the Holy Ghoft,andthea ofrhem joync'y. And our 
Saviour tels us that the Holy Ghoft leads men into ail truth by fpea- 
king his word only to them and calling it to their remembrance,^^ 
i6.i3,i4.therforeit was Chrift his word and ordinance.St. 7^///aiff 
profefT^th that he delivered unto them fuch traditions as he received 
from the Lord, 1 £V.i 1.2 5. Andagainhe fiith, 1 Or.14.37. Ifany 
man th'inhe himfelfto be a Prophet y or Hirituall, let him know^ that the thinas 
which 1 } ivrite unto y oh are the Qomm^ndements of the Lord. Now it is 
manifeftm the Gofpell, and in the writings of the new Tellament : 
that it was a confhnt pradlife of the Apoltles to keep their afTemblies 
w r ith one accord on the firft day of the week 3 fo we read,7 •'*£>. 20. 1 9, 2 6 
Acl.2.1 ,2. and in thofc their affemblics the Lord Chrift prefented him- 
» felfe to them bodily b and by the vifible appearance and power full ope- 
ration of his Spirit. Alio AB.20.S. St. 7W on that day kept an holy 


The Docirine of the Stbbatb. 91 

Affembly at Troas, and there he preached and adminiftrcd the Sacra- Chap. 1 3 
men-t of the Lords Supper and performed holy exercifes of the Chrifti- 
an Sabbath. And the fame Apoftle gave a precept and commandoraent 
to the Corinthians ,evcn the fame which he there faith he had ordained 
in the Churches of Cjdr.tut, 1 fir. 16. 1,2. to wit, that they mould 
obferve the ficft day of the weekend in their Holy aiTemblies on that 
day offer up pleafing Sabbath Sacrifices, that is do good and diftribute 
to the necefiities of the Saints, with fuch Sacrifices God is well plea- 
fed, /Wr. 13.15. 

7 herfbre undoubtedly it is the ordinance and comrnandement of 
Chrift, which the Apcftle received from him.That the firft day of the 
week ihould be the holy Sabbath 5 and the day of weekly holy Aflfcm- 
blies to all Chriftians.The eighth argument is drawn from the blefling °* Ar £ H * 
of (lability wherwith God hath bleffed the Sabbath of the firft day, the 
joy and comfort and great benefit which moft godly and religious 
Chriftians find-in it, and the tedioufnes ofit to carnall people, and the 
loathfomneffe of it to all fuch as are oppciites to Chrift,and aliens from 
his erace. This is moil: true which grave and learned Gamdiell fpake 
in the counfell of the high Priefts and Elders of the Jews. That which 
is of men and not an Ordinance of Gcd, if it concerne Religion, it 
will come to nought, it cannot continue m force, nor profper any long 
time, .^#.5. 3 8. Andfurely if the Chriftian Sabbath, and keeping holy 
of the firft day of the week were an invention of men, and not the or- 
dinance of the Lord Chrift, it could not prevaile and ftand in force in 
all Chriftian Cluirches,and in all ages by an uniforme confent without 
interruption. The moft godly zealous, and religious Chriftians, would 
find no folid joy and comfort in k 3 ncr any bleiling from God in their 
religious obfervation of it. And the world of carnall men who hate 
Chrift and his ordinances, would not be fo opposite to it,as to hate and 
loath k.Fcr the world loveth htr own.Bu: all carnall worldlings and pro- 
fane perfons, do fo hate it,as they hate Chrift, and it is loathfome and 
tedious to them, and notwithftanding many and great o. :■ petitions of 
profane peribns.Yet we fee it ftands firm in all ages (ince the Apoftles, 
and in all Chriftian Churches.None but Heretiks have rej:eled it, and 
all godly Chriftians find folid joy and abundance of bieiTings in the ftri- 
cteft obfervation of it.T her fore it is moft certainly no humane inventi- 
on, but Chrifts ordinance, It is he who hath made the firft day of the 
week his own holy day , and our weekly Sabbath. The o. drawn o. Argu. 

N 3 from- 

P4 Tb* Dotfrine of the Sabbath* 

Chap.13 from the manifeftation of Gods wrath againft the open profaners of 
• the Lords day, and from the great and fearfull judgements, which 
God hath in former ages, and doth dill execute on the defpifcrs and 
polluters of the Chriftian Sabbath. It is certain that the Lord doth 
not cut off or confume men in wrath, but for feme notable fcandalous 
ims and tranfgreflions againft feme expreiTc Law and Commande- 
ment,he makes no men examples of vengeance by fudden and fearfull 
destruction, and notable plagues, but for feme notable fin, and all no- 
table fins are tranfgreiTions of Gods Law, committed againft his re- 
vealed will and word. Now as the Hiftorics of all ages do affjord 
many examples of fearfull judgements fuddenly executed and inflicT- 
, edon wilfull profiners of the^Lcrds day in former times. So I could 
' rehearfe and relate above thirty examples of Gods vengeance, which 
he hath ("hewed openly in this Land within the fpace of two yeares, 
upon fuch as have iliewed open contempt of this Chriftian Sabbath, 
feme of which he >hath ftricken with fudden death by his mediate 
hand,others he hath devoured with waters,and fome he hath cut ofFby 
iurfets which they got in dancing and drinking on the Lords day, and 
feme he hath fired out of their houfes in the midft of their drinking and 
jollity,and confumed all their fubftance. And thefc judgements have 
iuddenly and